Terumah (parsha)


Terumah (parsha)

Terumah or Trumah (תרומה — Hebrew for "gift" or “offering,” the twelfth word and first distinctive word in the parshah) is the nineteenth weekly Torah portion ("parshah") in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the seventh in the book of Exodus. It constitutes Exodus [http://www.mechon–mamre.org/p/pt/pt0225.htm 25:1–27:19.] Jews in the Diaspora read it the nineteenth Sabbath after Simchat Torah, generally in February or early March.

Summary

God instructed Moses to tell all Israelites whose heart so moved them to bring gifts of gold, silver, copper, colored yarns, fine linen, goats’ hair, tanned ram skins, acacia wood, oil, spices, lapis lazuli, and other fine stones to make a sanctuary — the Tabernacle ("Mishkan") — and its furnishings, so that God could dwell among them. () God promised to impart commandments to Moses from between the two cherubim above the cover of the Ark. () God instructed them to make the Tabernacle of ten strips of fine twisted linen, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, with a design of cherubim worked into them. () God instructed them to make planks of acacia wood for the Tabernacle. () God instructed them to make a screen for the entrance of the Tent, of colored yarns, and fine twisted linen, done in embroidery and supported by five posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold. ()

In classical rabbinic interpretation

Exodus chapter 25

A Midrash read (and the principle that the law prohibits doing on the Sabbath all that was done to build the Tabernacle) that one who tans hides on the Sabbath violates the commandment to keep the Sabbath. (Tosefta Shabbat 8:23.)

The Tosefta taught that invalidity of either the onyx stones or the stones to be set described in provided the commandment that (Mishnah Menachot 11:5–7; Babylonian Talmud Menachot 96a, 99b.) Rabbi Jose differed with the Mishnah to teach that the handbreadth-high frame described in to teach that the table did not remain overnight without bread. (Tosefta Menachot 11:12.)

Exodus chapter 26

Rav Adda bar Ahavah said that the "tachash" skins mentioned in reported that the Tabernacle’s courtyard was just 100 cubits by 50 cubits (about 150 feet by 75 feet), a little space held a lot, as )
*To make the showbread () Both the parshah and the haftarah describe conditions for a structure where God could dwell ("ve-shakhanti") among ("be-tokh") the Israelites. ( played a key role in Hanukkah and are thus in turn noted in the Hanukkah insertion to the "Modim" section of the "Amidah" prayer in each of the three prayer services. (Reuven Hammer. "Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals", 8. New York: The Rabbinical Assembly, 2003. ISBN 0916219208.)

The Weekly Maqam

In the Weekly Maqam, Sephardi Jews each week base the songs of the services on the content of that week's parshah. For Parshah Terumah, Sephardi Jews apply Maqam Hoseni, the maqam that expresses beauty. This is especially appropriate for this parshah because it is the parshah where the beauty of the Tabernacle and its utensils are elaborated.

Further reading

The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:

Biblical

*2 Samuel [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt08b22.htm#2 22:2–15] (cherubim).
*Ezekiel [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1201.htm#5 1:5–14] (cherubim); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1210.htm 10:1–22] (cherubim).Psalms [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2618.htm#11 18:11] (cherubim).
*Psalms [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2680.htm 80:2] (cherubim); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2684.htm#2 84:2–3,] [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2684.htm#11 11] (Tabernacle, courts); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2690.htm 90:1] (dwelling); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2692.htm#14 92:14] (courts); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26a0.htm#4 100:4] (court); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26d2.htm#8 132:8] (ark).

Early nonrabbinic

*1 Maccabees [http://www.livius.org/maa-mam/maccabees/1macc04.html 4:47–59] (rededication of the Temple).
*Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews" [http://www.interhack.net/projects/library/antiquities-jews/b3c6.html 3:6:1.] Circa 93–94. Reprinted in, e.g., "The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition". Translated by William Whiston, 85–86. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.

Classical rabbinic

*Mishnah: Yoma 5:1; Menachot 11:4–7. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., "The Mishnah: A New Translation". Translated by Jacob Neusner, 272, 757–58. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
*Tosefta: Shabbat 8:23; Eruvin 4:9; Shekalim 3:13–14; Kippurim (Yoma) 2:12; Sanhedrin 4:8; Menachot 6:11, 7:7, 11:6, 12. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., "The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction". Translated by Jacob Neusner, vol. 1: 384, 444, 535–36, 553; vol. 2: 1159, 1431, 1434–35, 1457, 1458–59. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
*Genesis Rabbah 3:9; 5:7; 8:1; 17:6; 66:2; 80:6; 91:9; 94:4. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., "Midrash Rabbah: Genesis". Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, vol. 1: 26, 38, 54, 137; vol. 2: 601, 739, 845, 871. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.

Medieval

*Exodus Rabbah 33:1–35:6. 10th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., "Midrash Rabbah: Exodus". Translated by S. M. Lehrman, vol. 3: 414–35. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
*Rashi. "Commentary". [http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=9886&showrashi=true Exodus 25–27.] Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. "The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated". Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, vol. 2, 319–73. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-89906-027-7.
*Judah Halevi. "Kuzari". Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. "Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel." Intro. by Henry Slonimsky, 162. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
*Zohar [http://www.kabbalah.com/k/index.php/p=zohar/zohar&vol=21 2:126a–143a.] Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g, "The Zohar". Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1934.

Modern

*Thomas Hobbes. "Leviathan", England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 503–04, 675–76. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0140431950.
*Edward Taylor. “18. Meditation. Heb. 13.10. Wee Have an Altar.” In "Preliminary Meditations: First Series". Cambridge, Mass.: Early 18th Century. In Harold Bloom. "American Religious Poems", 21–22. New York: Library of America, 2006. ISBN 978-1-931082-74-7.
*Marc A. Gellman. “A Tent of Dolphin Skins.” In "Gates to the New City: A Treasury of Modern Jewish Tales". Edited by Howard Schwartz, 173–74. New York: Avon, 1983. ISBN 0-380-81091-3. Reissue ed. Jason Aronson, 1991. ISBN 0876688490.

External links

Texts

* [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0225.htm Masoretic text and 1917 JPS translation]
* [http://Bible.ort.org/books/torahd5.asp?action=displaypage&book=2&chapter=25&verse=1&portion=19 Hear the parshah chanted]

Commentaries

* [http://www.jtsa.edu/x1941.xml Commentaries] from the Jewish Theological Seminary
* [http://judaism.uj.edu/Content/InfoUnits.asp?CID=914 Commentaries] from the University of Judaism
* [http://www.uscj.org/Terumah_57677223.html Torah Sparks] from the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism
* [http://www.ou.org/torah/archive2.htm Commentaries] from the Orthodox Union
* [http://ajrsem.org/index.php?id=201 Commentaries] from the Academy for Jewish Religion
* [http://www.urj.org/torah/exodus/ Commentaries] and Family Shabbat Table Talk from the Union for Reform Judaism
* [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=15565 Commentaries] from Chabad.org
* [http://www.torah.org/learning/parsha/parsha.html?id1=27 Commentaries] from Torah.org
* [http://www4.jrf.org/recon-dt#Terumah Commentaries] from Reconstructionist Judaism
* [http://www.aish.com/torahPortion/pArchive.asp?eventType=19&eventName=Trumah Commentaries] from Aish.com
* [http://www.shiur.com/index.php?id=C0_161_6&spar=161&s_id=161 Commentaries] from Shiur.com
* [http://www.tfdixie.com/parshat/terumah/ Commentaries] from Torah from Dixie
* [http://ohr.edu/yhiy/article.php/3021 Commentary] from Ohr Sameach
* [http://www.judaic.org/addtl_files/terumah.htm Commentaries] and Shabbat Table Talk from The Sephardic Institute
* [http://www.teach613.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=35&Itemid=48 Commentary] from Torah Education at Cherry Hill
* [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/texts/Weekly_Torah_Commentary/terumah_index.htm Commentaries] from MyJewishLearning.com
* [http://www.anshe.org/parsha/terumah.htm Commentary] from Anshe Emes Synagogue, Los Angeles
* [http://www.chiefrabbi.org/tt-index.html Commentaries] from the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth
* [http://www.oztorah.com/current/trumah/trumah.php Commentaries] from Torah from Australia


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