- Royston, Hertfordshire
infobox UK place
country = England
population= 14,570 (2001) [http://www.north-herts.gov.uk/index/discover_nhdc/about_the_district/demographic_information.htm]
region= East of England
constituency_westminster= North East Hertfordshire
postcode_district = SG8
Royston is a town and
civil parishin the District of North Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated slightly west of the Greenwich Meridian, and at the northernmost apex of the county on the same latitude of towns such as Milton Keynesand Felixstowe. It is located some 69 km (43 miles) north of central Londonin a highly rural area of the county. Before the boundary changes of the 1890s, the boundary between Hertfordshireand Cambridgeshireran along the middle of Melbourn Street.
The town grew up at the crossing of two ancient thoroughfares,
Ermine Streetand the Icknield Way(cum Ashwell Street); the former was created after the Roman conquest, while the Icknield Way has long been accepted as a prehistoric routeway. These roads are sometimes called military roads as they were prepared or improved by Roman military forces to facilitate their access to the hinterland of Britain. The modern equivalent to Icknield Way is the A505 (which now bypasses the town to the north). The A10 follows the alignment of the Ermine Street south of the town, but diverts before it reaches the crossroads. The A1198, known as the Old North Road follows the alignment of Ermine Street northwards.
cross, variously known as Royse's, Rohesia's or Roisia's Cross, was erected by the crossroads at an unknown date. The cross gave the settlement its earliest name of "Crux Roesia" or Roisia's Cross. By the fourteenth centurythis had become "Roisia's Town", "Roiston" or Royston..cite web |url=http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43614 |title=Parishes: Royston |accessdate=2008-06-10 |publisher=British History Online |work=A History of the County of Hertford: volume 3 |date=1912 ] cite web |url=http://www.visionwebsites.co.uk/Contents/Text/Index.asp?SiteId=421&SiteExtra=6138782&TopNavId=385&NavSideId=8303 |title=History of Royston |accessdate=2008-06-10 |publisher=Royston Town council |date= ] A large boulder of red millstone grit, bearing a square socket, is supposed to be the base of the cross, and has been placed by the cross roads at the northern end of the High Street.
Until 1540 the "vill" of Royston was divided between five parishes:
Barkway, Reed and Therfieldin Hertfordshire and Melbournand Kneesworthin Cambridgeshire. In that year it became a separate ecclesiatical parish, partly in each county.
Ralph de Rochester founded the
Augustinianpriory which came out of a chapel for three canons, later expanded to seven or more regular canons. Royston also had two hospitals, or free chapels, as well as the monastery.
The Hospital of
St Nicholaswas situated in the Cambridgeshire side of Royston. It was founded in about 1200probably by Amphelise, a daughter of Richard the Chamberlain. In 1213King John granted them a fair to celebrate the feast of St Nicholas ( May 8- 9). The patronage of the hospital subsequently descended to Sir Giles Argentine, lord of the manorof Melbourn, who also held the patronage of the other Hospital. In the fourteenth century, St Nicholas Hospital was put under the jurisdiction of that of St John and St Thomas. The whole was suppressed in 1547.cite web |url=http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40025 |title=Hospitals: St Nicholas Royston |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 2 |publisher=British History Online |date=1948]
The town having lost is monastic charter, the site of the priory was obtained by
Robert Chester, a gentleman of the bedchamber to Henry VIII, who set up a market. Much of the town was given over to inns catering for travellers mainly going between Londonand York.
April 29, 1603 James VI of Scotlandwas travelling down to become King James I of England, pausing overnight at the Chester residence. Attracted by the suitability of the area for hunting, James later hired the house for a year. In 1604 the king decided to create a hunting lodge in the town by demolishing the "Cock" and "Greyhound" Inns. The King's Lodgings were completed in 1607, and were described in 1652 as "all of brick well-tiled double-built, in length 78 ft., breadth 43 ft., height from eaves to ground 24 ft., thickness of walls 24 inches." The buildings were never extensive enough to cater for a full court, but which provided a suitable spot for hunting, near enough to London for convenience and sufficiently far away to deter intrusion. Indeed he created a strict prohibition on anyone else from taking game within 16 miles of Royston, and an elaborate infrastructure was established to support the King in the pursuit of his sport.
Queen Anne and Prince Henry only visited the town once, in
1611– 1612. Next year the Queen opposed the marriage of her daughter, Princess Elizabeth to Frederick V, Elector Palatine, but the King came to Royston with the Earl of Rochester to negotiate the dowry which was signed there. Following the marriage, celebrated on St Valentine's day 1613, the King, Prince Charles and Frederick came to stay at Royston.
James' successor, Charles I visited Royston less frequently than his father. In June 1647 he was brought through the town as a prisoner of the parliamentary army. After Charles's death the royal buildings fell into disrepair. The Crown sold its last interests in the town in 1866.
Royston has three tiers of local government at parish (town), district and county level.
Royston Town Council was formed in 1974 as the successor to Royston Urban District Council. The council consists of 15 councillors headed by a town mayor. [cite web |url=http://www.visionwebsites.co.uk/Contents/Text/Index.asp?SiteId=421&SiteExtra=6138782&TopNavId=385&NavSideId=4999 |title=Royston Town Council |accessdate=2008-06-10 |publisher=Royston Town Council |date= ] The councillors are elected for three wards named Heath, Meridian and Palace. Among the town council's responsibilities are
allotments, Royston Cave, Royston Museum, local festivals, public halls and the town's war memorial.cite web |url=http://www.hertsdirect.org/atozofservices/twcoun3y/twytow4y/779618 |title=Royston Town Council |accessdate=2008-06-10 |publisher=Hertfordshire County Council |date= ]
Coat of arms
The town council uses the
coat of armsgranted to the urban district council in 1952. The blazonof the arms is:
"Argent a fesse gules thereon another chequy of the first and sable in chief two
Tudor roses barbed and seeded and in the base a stag trippant the whole surmounting an archiepiscopal staff, all proper. And for a crest on a wreath of the colours, perched upon a representation of the Royse Stone, a hooded crow proper." [Geoffrey Briggs, "Civic and Corporate Heraldry", London, 1971]
The symbols on the shield briefly ilustrate the history of the town. The staff is for Royston Priory, the roses for Tudor connections, while James I is represented by the checky fesse of the Stewarts. The hart represents Hertfordshire. The crest depicts a
hooded crow, known locally as a "Royston crow". He stands on the "Royce Stone" in the town centre. [C Wilfrid Scott-Giles, "Civic Heraldry of England and Wales", 2nd edition, London, 1953]
Since 1974 Royston has formed part of the non-metropolitan district of North Hertfordshire. The council is based at
Letchworth, and also includes the towns of Baldockand Hitchin. There are 49 district councillors elected for 24 wards. The three wards of Royston Heath, Royston Meridian and Royston Palace return 2 councillors each. As of 2008 four councillors are members of the Conservative Party and two are Liberal Democrats. [cite web |url=http://www.north-herts.gov.uk/index/about_council/democracy/councillors__mps___meps/district_councillors.htm |title=District Councillors |accessdate=2008-06-10 |publisher=North Hertfordshire District Council |date=2008 ]
Hertfordshire County Council has 77 councillors, of which one is elected for the Royston electoral division. The current councillor (as of 2008) is a member of the majority Conservative group. [cite web |url=http://www.hertsdirect.org/yrccouncil/councillors/PublishedMembersListsDirectory/PublishedMembersList_byDistrict |title=County Councillors |accessdate=2008-06-10 |publisher=Hertfordshire County Council |date= ]
The town lies on the northern slopes of the Hertfordshire Chalk Downs.The Greenwich Meridian passes through the point where the bypass meets the original A505 alignment. The town centre is just 1 minute 27 seconds west of the meridian.
Today Royston enjoys a diverse economy, a large number of businesses are located both in the town and surrounding villages, and there is an active [http://www.roystonchamber.org Chamber of Commerce] .
Royston sits at the junction of the A10 and A505 roads, both of which are important road links through Hertfordshire and beyond. The town is also convenient for fast links to London and the north, as it is only a short distance from both the A1(M) and M11 motorways.
Air transport links located nearby include both
London Lutonand London Stanstedairports, both of which are major air hubs in the south of England.
Royston railway stationprovides direct commuter links to both London and Cambridge. It is on the Hitchin-Cambridge Lineand is a stopping point for regular services operated by First Capital Connect.
Royston's school are arranged as
First Schools (Years 1-4) : Icknield Walk First School; Roman Way First School; Studlands Rise First School; Tannery Drift First School.
Middle Schools (Years 5-8) : Greneway Middle School; Roysia Middle School
Upper Schools (Years 9-13) : The Meridian School
Additionally there is St Mary Roman Catholic Primary School (Years 1-6)
The Nature Reserve of
Therfield Heathoverlooks the town from a hill to the south.
1742a strange cave carved out of the chalk was discovered in the centre of Royston. Royston Caveis located underneath the central crossroads of the town. The carvings in the cave have led to much speculation about the origin and function of the cave.
Henry Andrews1744 - 1820, astronomer and astrologer, moved to Royston in 1766 and is buried in the graveyard of St John's Church. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/523 |title= Patrick Curry, "Andrews, Henry (1744–1820)"|accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
*Thomas Cartwright, 1534/5 - 1603, theologian and founder of presbyterianism in England, probably born in Royston. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/4820 |title= Patrick Collinson, "Cartwright, Thomas (1534/5–1603)" |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
Habbakuk Crabb, 1750 - 1794, dissenting minister. Became minister of John Street Chapel, Royston in 1790. Buried in the town. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/6550 |title= Anon., "Peyton, Thomas (1595–1626)", rev. Joanna Moody |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
Thomas Peyton, 1595 - 1626, poet. Born in Royston. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22083 |title= Alexander Gordon, "Crabb, Habakkuk (1750–1794)", rev. M. J. Mercer |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
Edward Stallybrass, 1794 - 1884, missionary and translator of the Old Testament into Mongolian. Born in Royston June 8, 1794. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/48969 |title=C. R. Bawden, "Stallybrass, Edward (1794–1884)" |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
Joseph Towne, 1806 - 1879, anatomical modeller. Born in Royston November 25, 1806. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/27600 |title= John Maynard, "Towne, Joseph (1806–1879)" |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
William Willymott, 1672 - 1737, grammarian and vice-provost of King's College, Cambridge, born in Royston. [cite web |url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/29618|title= E. I. Carlyle, "Willymott, William (bap. 1672, d. 1737)", rev. S. J. Skedd |accessdate=2008-06-10 |work=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2004 ]
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