- Geology of Australia
Australiais a continentsituated on the Indo-Australian Plate.
Australia's geology can be divided into several main sections; the
Archaean cratonic shields, Proterozoicfold belts and sedimentary basins, Phanerozoicsedimentary basins, and Phanerozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks.
Australia as a separate continent began to form after the breakup of
Gondwanain the Permian, with the separation of the continental landmass from the African continent and Indian subcontinent. Antarctica rifted from Australia in the Jurassic.
The current Australian continental mass is composed of a thick subcontinental
lithosphere, up to 150 km thick, and up to 70km of continental crustcomposed primarily of Archaean, Proterozoic and some Palaeozoicgranites and gneisses. A thin veneer of mainly Phanerozoicsedimentary basins cover much of the Australian landmass. These in turn are currently undergoing erosion by a combination of aeolianand fluvial processes, forming extensive sand dune systems, deep and prolonged development of lateriteand saproliteprofiles, and development of playa lakes, salt lakes and ephemeral drainage.
The main continental blocks of the Australian continent are;
* The Yilgarn Craton, of Archaean age
* The Pilbara Craton of Archaean to Proterozoic age
Gawler Cratonand Willyama Block, of Archaean to Proterozoic age.
These are in turn flanked by several Proterozoic orogenic belts and sedimentary basins, notably the
Musgrave Blockof granulite gneissand igneous rocks
Arunta Blockof amphibolitegrade metamorphic rocks and granites
Gascoyne Complex, Glengarry Basin, and Bangemall Basin sandwiched between the Yilgarn and Arunta Blocks
The geological history of the Australian continental mass is extremely prolonged and involved, continuing from the
Archaeanto the recent. Recent geological events are confined to intraplate earthquakes, as Australia sits far from the plate boundary and has done so since the formation of the Stirling Rangeduring the Cretaceous.
The Australian landmass has been part of all major
supercontinents, but its association with Gondwanais especially notable as important correlations have been made geologically with the African continental mass and Antarctica.
Australia separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the Permian and continuing through to the Jurassic. This was started by rifting along the southern basin of Australia, and contributed to the rifting off of
Tasmania. Australia is currently involved with a collision with the Sunda Arc and New Guinea, which is believed to be an Arc-Arc collision zone. Stresses from the Papuan collision are currently building up, resulting in intraplate earthquakes and incipient thrusting as far south as the Flinders Ranges. It is expected that the oceanic crust north of Australia will eventually sunder, forming a small oceanic subduction zone before the Papuan Arc is accreted to the Australian continent.
Australia is currently moving toward Eurasia at the rate of 5 centimetres a year.
There are three main
cratonic shields of recognised Archaean age within the Australian landmass.
The Yilgarn Craton, the Pilbara Craton and the Gawler Craton. Several other Archaean-Proterozoic fold belts exist, usually sandwiched around the edges of these major cratonic shields.
The history of the Archaean cratons is extremely complex and protracted and the reader is referred to each craton respectively. The cratons, however, appear to have been assembled to form the greater Australian landmass in the late Archaean to mesoproterozoic, in the period of ~2400 Ma through to 1,600 Ma from a period of
Capricorn Orogenyis partly responsible for the assembly of the West Australian landmass by joining the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons. The Capricorn Orogeny is exposed in the rocks of the Bangemall Basin, Gascoyne Complexgranite-gneisses and the Glengarry, Yerrida and Padbury basins. Unknown Proterozoic orogenic belts, possibly similar to the Albany Complex in southern Western Australia and the Musgrave Block, represent the Proterozoic link between the Yilgarn and Gawler cratons, covered by the Proterozoic-Palaeozoic Officer and Amadeus basins.
Narryer Gneiss Terrane
"'Western Australian Events"The assembly of the Archaean Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of Australia was initiated at ~2200 Ma during the first phases of the Capricorn orogen.
The last stages of the 2770-2300 Ma Hamersley Basin on the southern margin of the Pilbara Craton are Palaeoproterozoic and record the last stable submarine-fluviatile environments between the two cratons prior to the rifting, contraction and assembly of the intracratonic ~1800 Ma Ashburton and Blair basins, the 1600-1070 Ma Edmund and Collier basins , the 1840-1620 Ma northern
Gascoyne Complex, the 2000-1780 Ma Glenburgh Terrane in the southern Gascoyne Complex and the Errabiddy Shear Zone at the northwestern margin of the Yilgarn Craton.
Between approximately 2000-1800 Ma, on the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton, the c. 1890 Ma Narracoota Volcanics of the
Bryah Basinformed in a transverse back-arc rift sag basin during collision. Culmination of the cratonic collision resulted in the foreland sedimentary Padbury Basin. To the east the Yerrida and Eerarheedy Basins were passive margins along the Yilgarn's northern margin.
The c. 1830 Ma phase of the Capricorn Orogeny in this section of the Pilbara-Yilgarn boundary resulted in deformation of the Bryah-Padbury Basin and the western fringe of the Yerrida Basin, along with flood basalts. The Yapungku Orogeny (~1790 Ma) formed the Stanley Fold Belt on the northern margin of the Eerarheedy Basin, via assembly of the Archaean-Proterozoic fold belts of Northern Australia.
"East Australian Events"The Palaeoproterozoic in southeastern Australia is represented by the polydeformed high-grade gneiss terranes of the Willyama Supergroup, Olary Block and Broken Hill Block, in South Australia and New South Wales. The Palaeoproterozoic in the north of Australia is represented mostly by the Mount Isa Block and complex fold-thrust belts.
These rocks, aside from suffering intense deformation, record a period of widespread platform cover sedimentation, ensialic rift-sag sedimentation including widespread dolomite platform cover, and extensive phosphorite deposition in the deeper sea beds.
The oldest rocks in Tasmania formed in the
Mesoproterozoicon King Island and in the Tyennan Block.
Neoproterozoic events include,
* the Giles Complex mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Musgrave Block at ~1080 Ma
* widespread sills in the
Bangemall Basinand the Glenayle area at ~1080 Ma
* The Warukurna Large Igneous Province of ~1080Ma
The Stavely Zone in Victoria is a boninite to MORB basalt terrane considered to have been connected with the boninites the Mount Read Volcanics of Northern Tasmania. In New South Wales, extensive deepwater sedimentation formed the Adaminaby Beds in Victoria and New South Wales. The
Lachlan Fold Beltophiolite sequences are considered to be of Cambrian age, and are obducted during the Lachlan Orogen.
Petermann Orogenyin Central Australia occurred in the Cambrian, shedding a thick intracontinental sequence of fluvial sediments into the central Australian landmass. Marginal platforms and passive margin basins existed in South Australia - - formed in the foreland of the Delamerian Orogeny. Western Australian passive margin basins and platform cover begin at this stage.The extensive Antrim Plateau flood basalts, covering in excess of 12,000 square kilometres, erupt in the Cambrian of Western Australia, providing a useful chronostratigraphic marker.
* [https://www.ga.gov.au/bin/htsqr?file=oracle/provinces/web_provs_report.htsqr&prov_list=22352&report=html Stansbury basin]
* [https://www.ga.gov.au/bin/htsqr?file=oracle/provinces/web_provs_report.htsqr&prov_list=28319&report=html Gascoyne Sub-basin] - begins Cambrian, through to Tertiary
* Bonaparte Gulf Basin
Ordoviciangeological events in Australia involved Alpinotype orogenyin the Lachlan Fold Belt, resulting in the great serpentinitebelts of western New South Wales, and accretion of deepwater molasseand flyschexemplified by the slatebelts of Victoria and eastern New South Wales.
Victoria - 490-440 Ma
The late Cambrian to early Ordovician saw deepwater sedimentation of the St Arnaud and Castlemaine Group turbidites, which are now emplaced in the Stawell and Bendigo Zones. The middle Ordovician saw the deposition of the Sunbury Group in the Melbourne Zone, Bendoc Group and formation of the Molong Arc, a calc-alkaline volcanic arc which is related to the Kiandra Group turbidites.
Ordovician orogenies include the
SilurianPeriod most of the Australian continent in the west and centre was dry land. However from Geraldtonnorth to Exmouth Gulfalong the far Western Australian coast a fluvial sediment basin existed. Near Kalbarrion the Murchison Riverthe footprints of a giant water scorpionwere found on land, the first animal to walk on the Australian continent. A gulf linked to the sea existed under what is now the Great Sandy Desert. Meanwhile in the east there were volcanic arcs in New England, also west of Townsville and Cairns, and in NSW and Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory. Deep water sediments formed in the Cowra, Tumut and Hillend Troughs. The Yass Molong rise was a row of volcanoes. Graniteintrusions formed in New South Wales and Victoria from 435 to 425 Mya, with the Bega batholith as young as 400 Mya. In NSW granites the distinction between I-type and S-type granites was discovered.David Johnson: "Geology of Australia" Cambridge University Press, 2004]
DevonianPeriod conditions were warm in Australia. There was a large bay in the great Sandy Desert with reefs. The Calliope Arc went from the north of Rockhampton south to Grafton. Most of the centre and west of Australia was land mass. There were volcanic mountains off the current east coast supplying sediment into a basin on parts of the east. THe basin contained limestone and river deposited sand. Andesite and Rhyolite volcanoes were found in central NSW, the Snowy Mountains, Eden, New England and near Clermont, Queensland. Baragwanathialongifolia was the first Australian land plant appearing at this time.
The Tabberabberan Orogeny compressed the eastern seaboard in a east west direction, with Tasmania, Victoria and southern New South Wales folded 385 - 380 Mya. Northern NSW and Queensland was compressed 377 to 352 Mya. A major river drained the continental interior and passed eastwards at Parkes. The
Bungle Bungle Rangessandstone was formed in Western Australia from river sands. More Granite was intruded in the Devonian.
The Connors Arc and Baldwin arc formed behind Mackay and Western New England.
The Carboniferous Period saw the Eastern Highlands of Australia form as a result of its collsion with what are now parts of
South America(eg. the Sierra de Cordobaand New Zealand).
At the time they were formed they are believed to have been as high as any mountains on the planet today, but they have been almost completely eroded in the 280 million years since.
Another notable feature of Carboniferous Australia was a major
ice agewhich left over half of the continent glaciated. Evidence for the cold conditions can be seen not only in glacial features dating from this period but also in fossil Gelisolsfrom as far north as the Hunter Riverbasin.
Permianto Triassicin Australia is dominated by subduction zones on the eastern margin of the landmass, part of the Hunter-Bowen Orogeny. This was a major arc-accretion, subduction and back-arc sedimentary basin forming event which persisted episodically from approximately late Carboniferous in its initial stages, through the Permian and terminated in the Middle Triassic at around 229Ma to 225Ma.
In Western and Central Australia the then-extensive central Australian mountain ranges such as the Petermann Ranges were eroded by the Permian glacial event, resulting in thick marine to fluvial glacial tillite and fossiliferous limestone deposits and extensive platform cover. Rifting of Australia from India and Africa began in the Permian, resulting in the production of a rift basin and half-grabens of the basal portions of the long-lived Perth Basin.
Petroleumwas formed in the Swan Coastal Plainand Pilbara during this rifting, presumably in a rift valley lake where the bottom was deoxygenated (akin to Africa's Lake Tanganyikatoday)
* Perth Basin
Ipswich basin/ [http://www.minerals.nsw.gov.au/geology/nswOverview/clarenceMoretonBasin Clarence-Moreton Basin]
In the west of Australia the
Jurassicwas a tropical savannah to jungle environment, shown by advanced tropical weathering preserved in the regolithof the Yilgarn cratonwhich is still preserved today.
Australia began rifting away from
Antarcticain the Jurassic, which formed the Gippsland, Bass and Otway Basins in Victoria and the offshore shelf basins of South Australia and Western Australia, all of which host significant oil and gas deposits.
Jurassic coal-bearing basins were formed in north central Queensland, with significant marine platform cover extending across most of central Australia.Continued passive-margin subsidence and marine transgressions in the Perth Basin of Western Australia continued, with the Jurassic Cattamarra
CoalMeasures a notable fluvial terrigenous formation of the Jurassic.
* Perth Basin
The initial rifting of Australia and Antarctica in the Jurassic continued through the Cretaceous, with offshore development of a mid ocean ridge seafloor spreading centre. Tasmania was rifted off during this stage.
Cretaceousvolcanism in the offshore of Queenslandwas related to a minor episode of arc formation, typified by the Whitsunday Islands, followed by development of offshore coral platforms, passive margin basins and far-field volcanism throughout the quiet Hunter-Bowen orogenic belt.
Cretaceous sedimentation continued in the Surat Basin. Some small Cretaceous volcanism was present at the edges of basement highs in the Great Artesian Basin, resulting in some sparse volcanic plugs today.
Cretaceous sedimentation continued in the Perth Basin.
Palaeocene to Recent
Tertiarysaw the majority of Australian tectonism cease. Sparse examples of intraplate volcanism exist, for instance the Glasshouse Mountainsin Queensland, which are Tertiary examples of a chain of small volcanic plugs which decrease in age to the south, where they result in ~10,000 year old maarvolcanoes and basalts of the Newer Volcanics in Victoria.
* [http://www.ga.gov.au/map/#satellite Geoscience Australia Map Server - free downloads]
* [http://www.ga.gov.au/servlet/BigObjFileManager?bigobjid=GA6886 Mines and Mineral Deposits 1.3Mb PDF]
Geology of Victoria
Geology of Tasmania
Geology of the Australian Capital Territory
Mining in Australia
Pirajno, F., Occhipinti, S. A. and Swager, C. P., 1998. "Geology and tectonic evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah, Padbury and Yerrida basins, Western Australia: implications for the history of the south-central Capricorn orogen." Precambrian Research, 90: 119-140.
* [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/LinkView/1279D2D2729E23B8CA256C700083A46B007646974135E3BD4A256DEA0025BF09 Geology of Victoria, Vicmines]
** [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-D7F205365C589DE8CA256C71000D620E?OpenDocument Neoproterozoic to Ordovician]
** [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-04F5204881E042E8CA256C71000EB3BF?OpenDocument Silurian]
** [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-6ED3DF207FCCA4D7CA256C71000F916E?OpenDocument Devonian]
** [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-2EE708AB57BE6B96CA256C7100118611?OpenDocument Early Carboniferous]
** [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-971C9D34CDED08B1CA256C7100126679?OpenDocument Late Carboniferous to Triassic]
** [http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-A38C0EAC2CAFA246CA256C71001399AD?OpenDocument Late Jurassic to Recent]
* [http://www.minerals.nsw.gov.au/geology/nswOverview Geology of New South Wales Overview]
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