- Val di Stava Dam collapse
The Val di Stava Dam collapse occurred on
July 19, 1985when a tailings damabove the village of Stava, near Tesero, northern Italy, failed. It resulted in one of Italy's worst disasters, killing 268 people, destroying 62 buildings and demolishing 8 bridges.
The upper dam broke first, leading to the collapse of the lower dam. Around 200,000
cubic metres of mud, sand and water were released into the Rio di Stava valley and toward the village of Stava at a speed of 90 km/h. Having crashed through the village, the torrent continued until it reached the Avisio Rivera further 4.2 km away, destroying everything in its path.
An investigation into the disaster found that the dams were poorly maintained and the margin of safe operation was very small.
A pipe in the upper dam used to drain water had begun to sag under the weight of
sediment, making the dam's drainage less effective. Meanwhile, water continued to be pumped into the reservoir behind the dam, which, coupled with the less efficient drainage, meant the pressure on the bank of the upper dam began to increase. Following the path of least resistance, water began penetrating the bank, causing the soil within to liquefy and weaken the bank until it failed. The water and tailingsfrom the upper dam then flowed into the lower dam, which, under the immense pressure produced, failed thirty seconds later.
* National Geographic "Seconds From Disaster" episodes
* [http://www.tailings.info/stava.htm Stava tailings dam failure]
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