- Ludwig von Siegen
Ludwig von Siegen (1609 ?Utrecht – c. 1680 ?
Wolfenbttel, Germany) was a German soldier and amateur engraver, who invented the printmakingtechnique of mezzotint, a variant of engraving. He was a well-educated aristocrat, and a Lieutenant-Colonel who commanded the personal guard of William VI, Landgraveof Hesse-Kassel(or Hesse-Cassel), and acted as a personal aide to the ruler, with the title "kammerjunker" or Chamberlain.
Siegen came from an aristocratic family, and may have been born in the family castle at Sechten near
Cologne, not in Utrecht, as traditionally believed, as he was baptised in Cologne on May 2, 1609.KL Spangeberg (ed), Six Centuries of Master Prints, Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993, no ,ISBN 0931537150] His father was then living in Holland however, apparently because of his Calvinistbeliefs. Sechten was in HesseKassel, and his father Johann became an advisor to the LandgraveMaurice, who in 1620 appointed him chancellor of the "Collegium Mauritaneum", a school for young aristocrats which Siegen attended from 1621 to 1626. Then he studied law at the "Hohe Schule" in Herborn. His father moved to Holland to again in 1627, when the new Landgrave William V dissolved the "Collegium Mauritaneum".
Little is known about Siegen's life between 1629 and 1639, when he asked William V's widow, now Regent for her son William VI, for a position. He may have seen active military service in these missing years in the middle of the Thirty Years War. He was appointed "kammerjunker", which as the Landgrave was a minor, may have been effectively a tutorial position, as well as head of the personal guard of the ruler.
By 1641 he had decided to convert to
Catholicism, which in the atmosphere of the Thirty Years Warwould not have been compatible with his position in the strictly Calvinistic court of HesseKassel. After some friction at court, he therefore repeated his father's move to Holland, although for the opposite reason. He moved to Amsterdamin 1641 and announced his conversion there, remaining in contact with his former employers and sending them works of art he produced, sometimes commissioned by them.
Invention of mezzotint
In Amsterdam Siegen must have been aware of
Rembrandt's increasingly tonal etchings, achieved by conventional methods, filling in the dark areas by repeated lines. In Italy at the same time Giovanni Benedetto Castiglionewas also exploring the possibilities of tonality in printmaking, leading him to invent monotypingat almost the same moment as Siegen invented mezzotint. Mezzotintachieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth.
In a letter of March 6, 1641 to the Landgravine, Siegen announced that he had begun a portrait of her, and hinted that he would appreciate some money. News of his conversion had just reached the court, and the response seems to have been restrained. In August 1642, he finally finished the first known mezzotint engraving, a portrait (right) of the
LandgravineAmalia Elisabeth, Regent of HesseKassel, the widow of his former employer. He sent this to her son, LandgraveWilliam VI with a letter explaining that he had invented the process:
".... I could not pass up dedicating such a rare and previously unseen work of art in humble honour before anyone else to your highness who is an extraordinary connoisseur of art. The way this work is made, no engraver or artist could explain or guess.".
The portrait is rather stiff, but the full range of tones from the very light ones on the layered lace collars to the solid black of the left background make it a very effective showpiece for the potential of mezzotint.
He worked from "light to dark", only roughening the plate where he wanted to produce tones, using "roulettes" or wheels with sharp teeth. This is unlike most later mezzotinters, who first roughened the whole plate, then scraped or burnished the roughness away where they wanted lighter tones, so working from "dark to light".
In 1643–44, he produced portraits of
Elizabeth of Bohemia, (the "Winter Queen", daughter of James I of England), William II of Orange and his wife, Mary, all after paintings by Gerard van Honthorst. All were perhaps potential employers.
In 1654 he did a large portrait of
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperorfrom memory, having seen him at the Diet in Regensburg. He distributed copies to the various princes gathered there, without attracting further commissions.
Apart from portraits he did a
St Brunoand in 1657 copied a "Holy Family with St John the Baptist" by Annibale Carracci. Anthony Griffiths (ed),"Landmarks in Print Collecting",1996, British Museum Press, ISBN 0-7141-2606-3] His total mezzotint production was these seven plates, although he also produced paintings and medals.
iegen's later career
After he left Amsterdam in 1644, Siegen first entered the armies of the Catholic
Bishop of Hildesheim, and then those of the Archbishop of Cologne. In 1654, he went into the service of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainzas a Colonel retired from active service and then to the Protestant Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburgat Wolfenbttel, where he remained after retirement. Most documents after this relate to lawsuits over estates and inheritances, the last mention being in 1676.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine(ie of the Palatinate), a famous Royalist commander in the English Civil War, was the cousin of William VI of HesseKassel, and the son of Elizabeth of Bohemia. Prince Rupert was also an amateur artist, and in about 1654 learned of the process, either from his cousin, or possibly from Siegen himself - whether they ever met is a point of scholarly controversy. A number of letters between Rupert and William referring to the technique survive from the period following 1654.
Rupert produced some stylish mezzotints himself, and through him, after his return to
Englandwith the English Restorationin 1660, the invention became known there, which was to be the main home of the technique. Rupert described it to John Evelyn, who published it (in very enigmatic terms) for the first time in 1662, crediting Rupert with the invention:
" Of the new way of Engraving, or Mezzo Tinto, Invented, and communicated by his Highnesse Prince RUPERT, Count Palatine of Rhyne, &c."
However Rupert probably did invent the "rocker", a wide curved tool with teeth, used to roughen a whole plate, which was an essential tool in the developed technique. Rupert's artistic assistant or tutor Wallerant Vaillant (1623-77) was the first to adopt the process commercially, in
Amsterdamin the 1660s.
* [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/mellonmezzotint.asp The Early History of the Mezzotint] , from the National Portrait Gallery, London
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Ludwig Von Siegen — Amelie Elisabeth von Hessen (1642). Ce portrait par Ludwig von Siegen est considéré comme la première gravure en manière noire. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ludwig von Siegen, parfois appelé Ludwig von Sechten, né à … Wikipédia en Français
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