- Evangelical Catholic
The term "Evangelical Catholic" is used by
Christianbelievers who consider themselves both " catholic" and "evangelical." "Evangelical Catholic" ("catholic" is the noun with "evangelical" modifying) can refer to: evangelical Protestant Christians who consider themselves catholic Christians identified with the historic Christian Church, who believe that the early ecumenical councilsand the Protestant Reformationwere both part of the progressive illumination of the Holy Spirit; Roman Catholicswho want to identify themselves more closely with evangelical Protestants with similar ecumenical ideals and "progressive illumination"; Catholics who simply want to define themselves according to a penchant for evangelism. Evangelical Catholics may include Eastern Rite Catholic Churches or other churches that are not Roman Catholic, such as Anglican, Lutheran, Reformed, Baptist, or Pentecostal.
Lutheran Evangelical Catholicity
Lutheranism, the term "evangelical catholic" has special meaning. Lutheranism can be regarded as Protestant, but never Reformed [ A comparison to Anglicanismhere is interesting, because Anglicanism often regards itself as reformed but not Protestant ] . Lutheran Protestantism differs historically from all other kind of Protestantism in that Lutheranism is the only historical Protestant denomination that confesses belief in the efficacy of sacraments: regeneration in Holy Baptism, Confessionas the sacrament of Absolution, and The Real Presenceof Christ in Holy Eucharist. [Also inside of Anglican Church there has been similar sacramentalism than in orthodox Lutheranism, but historically eucharistic doctrine has been there more towards Calvinism, which can be seen e.g. from Black Rubric. On the other hand those who today have strong belief of Real Presence like in historical Lutheranism, usually do not want to call themselves Protestants.] The Augsburg Confessionstresses that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Catholic Church." [ [http://www.bookofconcord.org/augsburgconfession.html#conclusion/ Conclusion of the Augsburg Confession] ] In early Lutheranism, the Gnesio-Lutheranslike Joachim Westphal and Andreas Musculushad a strong understanding of the sacramentsbut were strongly opposed to any compromise with Calvinismand Zwinglias with the Roman Catholic Church. In the era of Lutheran orthodoxy, theologians Martin Chemnitzand Johann Gerhard(the latter's Confessio Catholica) were deeply rooted in patristictheology) saw the continuity of Catholicism in Lutheranism, which they understood not as a re-formation of the Church, but rather a renewal movement within and for the Catholic Church, from which they had been involuntarily and only temporarily separated. The only real evangelical feature of Lutheranism is characterized by justification by faith, as defined by Law and Gospeland simul iustus et peccator. The term "evangelical" has a very different origin and meaning in Lutheranismthan in Evangelicalism. Thus it can be also in the names of church bodies like Evangelical Lutheran Church in Americawithout any specific meaning. After Enlightenment Schleiermachercreated in his theological system a contradiction of Protestantism and Catholicism, which changed radically traditional Lutheran understanding and deepened gap to orthodox Lutheran evangelical catholicity [The Catholicity of the Augsburg Confession by Avery Dulles] .
The term "Evangelical Catholic" is often used instead of
High Church Lutheranism(as are the terms Anglo-Catholic and Old Catholicin their respective traditions) because it is a theological term and genuinely Lutheran. Evangelical Catholic Lutheranism is not strictly defined, and can mean, for example, the theologically, biblically, and socially conservative ultra-high church Lutheranism of the strongly Roman Catholic-oriented Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Churchand the more Eastern Orthodox-oriented Evangelical Catholic Church, the relative high church Confessional Lutheranism found in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synodand Arthur Carl Piepkorn, the "Evangelical Catholic Orthodoxy" of Gunnar Rosendal, the more theologically-liberal high ecclesiologyof Carl Braaten, the very liberal "Evangelical Catholicism" of Nathan Söderblom, even more liberal Catholicism of Friedrich Heiler, or ecumenical vision of Hans Asmussenand Max Lackmann. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canadadefines its doctrinal basis as such: "We derive our teachings from the Holy Scriptures and confess the three ecumenical creeds of the Christian church. We hold to orthodox catholic theology as enunciated in the ecumenical councils of the first five centuries of Christianity." [ [http://www.elcic.ca/who.html/ ELCIC — Who] ]
Some small, specifically Evangelical Catholic Lutheran, church bodies include the
Evangelical Catholic Church, Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church, Lutheran Orthodox Church, Evangelical Marian Catholic Church, International Lutheran Fellowship, and Association of Independent Evangelical Lutheran Churches. Nordic Catholic Churchin Norway has roots in High Church Lutheranism.
Among other church bodies
In recent years, the term "Evangelical Catholic", has been adopted by high church elements of the
Methodistand Reformed Churches. This is especially apt among the Reformed, given that one of the older documented uses of the term is by John Williamson Nevinand Philip Schaff, during their efforts (from roughly 1841 forward) to repristinate the theology of the German Reformed Church in the United States. In 1849the "Mercersburg Review" was founded as the organ of their " Mercersburg Theology".
1851, William Augustus Muhlenberg, Episcopal clergyman of Lutheran background and father of Ritualist movementin Episcopal Church in the United States of America [ [http://anglicanhistory.org/usa/ascension_chicago_giles/intro.html/ History of the Church of the Ascension, by George C. Giles, Jr. (1984) ] ] also published a periodical called "The Evangelical Catholic."
Already earlier, there was an evangelical revival in
Roman Catholic Churchin Germany, involving Boos, Gossner and Feneberg. This evangelical revivalist movement contributed also to German Lutheranism. Lusitanian Catholic Apostolic Evangelical Churchin Portugalhas its origins in Old Catholicmovement of the 19th century. Today it belongs to the Anglican Communion.
Ulric Vernon Herford(1866-1938), Mar Jacobus, Bishop of Mercia & Middelesex, founded The Evangelical Catholic Communion. His succession line was brought to the United States in the 1960s and continues in Evangelical Apostolic Church of North America. [ [http://www.eacna.org/whoweare.html :: www.eacna.org :: ] ]
New Church Bodies
In the end of 20th century,
Convergence Movementhas formed some new church bodies, like Charismatic Episcopal Church. One of the new Catholic Evangelical church is the King's Family of Churches. It governs by an Episcopal polity, embraces the Charismatic renewal, use different liturgical versions in worship, both Anglican and Lutheran, and it has a strong focus in missions and church planting according to its Mission Statement [Mission of the King's Family of Churches http://www.thekingsfamily.org/index.php/christs-mission-2/] .
Apart from the Convergence Movement,
The Evangelical Old Catholic Communionhas its roots in Independent Catholicism.
Old Catholic Church
Reformed Catholic Church
Scottish Church Society
*Brodd, Sven-Erik: Evangelisk katolicitet. Ett studium av innehall och funktion under 1800- och 1900-talet. Uppsala 1982.
*Pryzywara, Erich: Evangelische Katholizität - Katholische Evangelizität. Katholische Krise. Düsseldorf 1967
*Aulén, Gustaf: The Catholicity of Lutheranism. A Contribution to the Ecumenical Discussion (World Lutheranism Today. A Tribute to Anders Nygren 15 November 1950. Lund 1950)
* [http://www.jstor.org/view/00224189/ap040266/04a00040/0 "The Catholicity of the Augsburg Confession"] by
Avery Dulles, S.J. ( JSTOR, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 63, No. 4, Martin Luther, 1483-1983. (Oct., 1983), pp. 337-354.)
* [http://www.ctsfw.edu/library/files/pb/999 "Evangelical and Catholic — A Slogan in Search of a Definition"] by David P. Scaer, Concordia Theological Quarterly 65:4, October 2001.
* [http://www.luthersem.edu/word&world/Archives/9-3_Finality/9-3_Face_to_Face.pdf "Evangelical Catholicity: A Lutheran Faction" (PDF)] by Walter Sundberg. Word & World 9/3 (1989)
* [http://global-dialogue.com/swidlerbooks/VANGUARD.htm "The Ecumenical Vanguard — The History of the Una Sancta Movement"] by
* [http://www.jstor.org/stable/view/3165653?seq=1 "Lutheran and Catholic Reunionists in the Age of Bismarck"] by Manfred Fleischer. Church History, Vol. 57, Supplement: Centennial Issue (1988), pp. 89-107 (
* [http://books.google.fi/books?id=yaecVMhMWaEC&pg=PA213&lpg=PA213&dq=evangelical+catholicity&source=web&ots=fyW-RLrWGG&sig=_XxUWYhjKppO_QLihAMlEyERHL0&hl=fi#PPA213,M1 "Evangelical Catholicity"] , article in "The Encyclopedia of Christianity" by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley, David B. Barrett. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 1999, ISBN 9004116958
Roman Catholic links
* [http://www.evangelicalcatholic.com/ The Evangelical Catholic]
* [http://www.econi.org/ Centre for Contemporary Christianity in Ireland]
* [http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_caev.htm Catholic - Evangelical Cooperation]
* [http://www.CatholicBridge.com/ CatholicBridge.com - Center for Catholic and Evangelical Dialogue]
* [http://www.e-ccet.org/ Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology]
** [http://www.e-ccet.org/princeton_proposal.htm "The Princeton Proposal for Christian Unity"]
* [http://www.piepkorn.info Arthur Carl Piepkorn Center for Evangelical Catholicity]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20060430170834/orthodoxlutheran.fws1.com/notprot.html "Lutherans are not Protestants"] by Darel E. Paul, 2001
* [http://risenchristlutheran.org/is_your_church_catholic_enough.php "Is Your Church Catholic Enough?"] by J.P. Winsor, March 7, 2002
* [http://www.evmcc.org/ Evangelical Marian Catholic Church]
* [http://www.associationofindependentevangelicallutheranchurches.org/ Association of Independent Evangelical Lutheran Churches]
* [http://www.thekingsfamily.org/ King's Family of Churches]
* [http://www.evangelicalcatholicchurch.org/ Independent Evangelical Catholic Church of America]
* [http://www.eacna.org/ The Evangelical Apostolic Church of North America]
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