- History of Sudan
The history of Sudan is marked by influences (military and cultural) on
Sudanfrom neighboring areas (e.g. Egypt, Arabian Peninsula, Ethiopia, Congo, Chad) and world powers (e.g. United Kingdom, United States). The territory of Sudan combines the lands of several ancient kingdoms, including Kush, Darfur, and three Nubiankingdoms.
Excavationof archaeological sites on the Nileabove Aswanhas confirmed human habitation in the river valley during the Paleolithic periodthat spanned more than sixty thousand years of Sudanese history. A prehistoric burial discovered in northern Sudanreveals what is believed to be the world's earliest indication of warfare, dating to the twelfth millennium BC [http://smu.edu/newsinfo/releases/01033.html] . By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithicculture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mud-brickvillages, where they supplemented huntingand fishingon the Nile with graingathering and cattleherding. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC. [http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/keita-1993.pdf] But during the close of the Nagada III period, Nagada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole nile valley, seems to have conquered their southern neighbors and "Egyptianized" them. [http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/further_study_keita.pdf] . The result appears to have been the depopulation of the entire Lower Nubian area, either by the genocidal efforts of the First Dynasty Egyptian kings, or by the migration (forced or voluntary) of the nubians to areas north and south.
Southern Sudan's earliest historical record comes from Egyptian sources, which described the land upstream from the
First Cataract, called Kush, as "wretched." For more than two thousand years after the Old Kingdom(c.2700-2180 BC), Egyptian political and economic activities determined the course of the central Nile region's history. Even during intermediate periods when Egyptian political power in Kush waned, Egypt exerted a profound cultural and religious influence on the Kushite people.
Over the centuries, trade developed. Egyptian caravans carried grain to Kush and returned to Aswan with
ivory, incense, hides, and carnelian(a stone prized both as jewelryand for arrowheads) for shipment downriver. Egyptian traders particularly valued goldand slaves, who served as domestic servants, concubines, and soldiers in the pharaoh's army. Egyptian military expeditions penetrated Kush periodically during the Old Kingdom. Yet there was no attempt to establish a permanent presence in the area until the Middle Kingdom(c.2100-1720 BC), when Egypt constructed a network of forts along the Nile as far south as Samnah, in southern Egypt, to guard the flow of gold from mines in Wawat.
Around 1720 BC, Asian nomads named
Hyksostook over Egypt, ended the Middle Kingdom, severed links with Kush, and destroyed the forts along the Nile River. To fill the vacuum left by the Egyptian withdrawal, a culturally distinct indigenous kingdom emerged at Karmah, near present-day Dunqulah. After Egyptian power revived during the New Kingdom(c.1570-1100 BC), the pharaoh Ahmose Iincorporated Kush as an Egyptian province governed by a viceroy. Although Egypt's administrative control of Kush extended only down to the fourth cataract, Egyptian sources list tributary districts reaching to the Red Seaand upstream to the confluence of the Blue Nileand White Nilerivers. Egyptian authorities ensured the loyalty of local chiefs by drafting their children to serve as pages at the pharaoh's court. Egypt also expected tribute in gold and slaves from local chiefs.
Once Egypt had established political control over Kush, officials and priests joined military personnel, merchants, and artisans and settled in the region. The
Egyptian languagebecame widely used in everyday activities. Many rich Kushites worshipped Egyptian gods and built temples for them. The temples remained centers of official religious worship until the coming of Christianityto the region during the sixth century. When Egyptian influence declined or succumbed to foreign domination, the Kushite elite regarded themselves as central powers and believed themselves as idols of Egyptian culture and religion.
By the eleventh century BC, the authority of the New Kingdom dynasties had diminished, allowing divided rule in Egypt, and ending Egyptian control of Kush. There is no information about the region's activities over the next three hundred years. In the eighth century BC, however, Kush emerged as an independent kingdom ruled from
Napataby an aggressive line of monarchs who slowly extended their influence into Egypt. Around 750 BC, a Kushite king called Kashtaconquered Upper Egyptand became ruler of Thebes until approximately 740 BC. His successor, Piankhy, subdued the delta, reunited Egypt under the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, and founded a line of kings who ruled Kush and Thebes for about a hundred years. The dynasty's intervention in the area of modern Syriacaused a confrontation between Egypt and Assyria. When the Assyrians in retaliation invaded Egypt, Taharqa(688-663 BC), the last Kushite pharaoh, discontinued his rule there and returned the dynasty to Napata, where it continued to rule Kush and extended its dominions to the south and east.
Egypt's succeeding dynasty failed to reassert control over Kush. Around 590 BC, however, an Egyptian army sacked Napata, compelling the Kushite court to move to a more secure location at Meroe near the
Sixth Cataract. For several centuries thereafter, the Meroitic kingdom developed independently of Egypt, which passed successively under Persian, Greek, and, finally, Roman domination. During the height of its power in the second and third centuries BC, Meroe extended over a region from the third cataract in the north to Soba, near present-day Khartoum, in the south.The pharaonic tradition persisted among a line of rulers at Meroe, who raised stelaeto record the achievements of their reigns and erected pyramids to contain their tombs. These objects and the ruins of palaces, temples, and baths at Meroe attest to a centralized political system that employed artisans' skills and commanded the labor of a large work force. A well-managed irrigationsystem allowed the area to support a higher population density than was possible during later periods. By the first century BC, the use of hieroglyphs gave way to a Meroitic script that adapted the Egyptian writing system to an indigenous, Nubian-related language spoken later by the region's people. Meroe's succession system was not necessarily hereditary; the matriarchal royal family member deemed most worthy often became king. The queen mother's role in the selection process was crucial to a smooth succession. The crown appears to have passed from brother to brother (or sister) and only when no siblings remained from father to son.Although Napata remained Meroe's religious center, northern Kush eventually fell into disorder as it came under pressure from the Blemmyes, predatory nomads from east of the Nile. However, the Nile continued to give the region access to the Mediterranean world. Additionally, Meroe maintained contact with Arab and Indian traders along the Red Sea coast and incorporated Hellenistic and Hinducultural influences into its daily life. Inconclusive evidence suggests that metallurgical technology may have been transmitted westward across the savannabelt to West Africafrom Meroe's iron smelteries.Relations between Meroe and Egypt were not always peaceful. As a response to Meroe's incursions into Upper Egypt, a Roman armymoved south and razed Napata in 23 BC. The Roman commander quickly abandoned the area, however, as too poor to warrant colonization.In the second century AD, the Nobataeoccupied the Nile's west bank in northern Kush. They are believed to have been one of several well-armed bands of horse- and camel-borne warriors who sold their vagility to the Meroitic Population for protection; eventually they intermarried and established themselves among the Meroitic people as a military aristocracy. Until nearly the fifth century, Rome subsidized the Nobatae and used Meroe as a buffer between Egypt and the Blemmyes. Meanwhile, the old Meroitic kingdom contracted because of the expansion of the powerful Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksumto the east. By AD 350, King Ezana of Axumhad captured and destroyed Meroe city, ending the kingdom's independent existence, and conquering its territory into modern-day southern Egypt.
By the sixth century, three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic kingdom.
Nobatiain the north, had its capital at Faras, in what is now Egypt; the central kingdom, Muqurra, was centered at Dunqulah, the old city on the Nile about 150 kilometers south of modern Dunqulah; and Alwa, in the heartland of old Meroe in the south, had its capital at Sawba. In all three kingdoms, warrior aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court.
The earliest references to Nubia's successor kingdoms are contained in accounts by Greek and Coptic authors of the conversation of Nubian kings to Christianity in the sixth century. According to tradition, a missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching the gospel about 540. It is possible that the conversion process began earlier, however, under the aegis of Coptic missionaries from Egypt. The Nubian kings accepted the
MonophysiteChristianity practiced in Egypt and acknowledged the spiritual authority of the Coptic patriarch of Alexandria over the Nubian church. A hierarchy of bishops named by the Coptic patriarch and consecrated in Egypt directed the church's activities and wielded considerable secular power. The church sanctioned a sacerdotal kingship, confirming the royal line's legitimacy. In turn the monarch protected the church's interests. The queen mother's role in the succession process paralleled that of Meroe's matriarchal tradition. Because women transmitted the right to succession, a renowned warrior not of royal birth might be nominated to become king through marriage to a woman in line of succession.
The emergence of Christianity reopened channels to Mediterranean civilization and renewed Nubia's cultural and ideological ties to Egypt. The church encouraged literacy in Nubia through its Egyptian-trained clergy and in its monastic and cathedral schools. The use of Greek in liturgy eventually gave way to the Nubian language, which was written using an indigenous alphabet that combined elements of the old Meroitic and Coptic scripts. Coptic, however, often appeared in ecclesiastical and secular circles. Additionally, early inscriptions have indicated a continuing knowledge of colloquial Greek in Nubia as late as the twelfth century. After the seventh century, Arabic gained importance in the Nubian kingdoms, especially as a medium for commerce.
The Christian Nubian kingdoms, which survived for many centuries, achieved their peak of prosperity and military power in the ninth and tenth centuries. However,
MuslimArab invaders, who in 640 had conquered Egypt, posed a threat to the Christian Nubian kingdoms. Nobatia and Muqurra merged into the kingdom of Dunqulah sometime before 700. Although the Arabs soon abandoned attempts to reduce Nubia by force, Muslim domination of Egypt often made it difficult to communicate with the Coptic patriarch or to obtain Egyptian-trained clergy. As a result, the Nubian church became isolated from the rest of the Christian world.
The coming of Islam
Islamcame to Egypt in the 640s, and pressed southward; around 651 the governor of Egypt raided as far south as Dongola. The Muslims or the Arabs met with stiff resistance and found little wealth worth capturing. They thus ceased their offensive and a treaty known as the baqtwas signed between the Arabs and Makuria. This treaty held for some seven hundred years. The area between the Nile and the Red Seawas a source of goldand emeralds, and Arabminers gradually moved in. Around the 970s an Arabic envoy Ibn Sulaymwent to Dongola and wrote an account afterwards; it is now our most important source for this period. Despite the baqt northern Sudan became steadily Islamicized and Arabized; Makuria collapsed in the fourteenth century with Alodia disappearing somewhat later.
Far less is known about the history of southern Sudan. It seems as though it was home to a variety of semi-nomadic tribes. In the 16th century one of these tribes, known as the
Funj, moved north and united Nubia forming the Kingdom of Sennar. The Funj sultans quickly converted to Islam and that religion steadily became more entrenched. At the same time, the Darfur Sultanatearose in the west. Between them, the Taqaliestablished a state in the Nuba Hills.
The economy of Sudan was
feudally based, with a large number of slaves supporting the ruling Funjclass.They traded across the region, and brought much wealth to their kingdom. [http://www.kean.edu/~jspauldi/krump2seven.html]
In 1820–21, an Ottoman force conquered and unified the northern portion of the country. The new government was known as the "
Turkiyah" or Turkish regime. They were looking to open new markets and sources of natural resources. Historically, the pestilential swamps of the Sudddiscouraged expansion into the deeper south of the country. Although Egypt claimed all of the present Sudan during most of the nineteenth century, and established a province Equatoriain southern Sudan to further this aim, it was unable to establish effective control over the area, which remained an area of fragmented tribes subject to frequent attacks by slave raiders. In the later years of the Turkiyah, the British missionaries traveled from what is now modern day Kenya in to the Sudd to convert the local tribes to Christianity.
During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in southern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces.
Mahdism and condominium
In 1881, a religious leader named
Muhammad ibn Abdallaproclaimed himself the Mahdi("guided one") and began a war to unify the tribes in western and central Sudan. His followers took the name “ Ansars” ("followers") which they continue to use today, in association with the single largest political grouping, the Umma Party(once led by a descendant of the Mahdi, Sadiq al Mahdi). Taking advantage of conditions resulting from Ottoman-Egyptian exploitation and maladministration, the Mahdi led a nationalist revolt culminating in the fall of Khartoumon 26 January 1885. The interim governor-general of the Sudan, the British Major-General Charles George Gordon, and many of the fifty thousand inhabitants of Khartoum were massacred.
The Mahdi died in June 1885. He was followed by Khalifa Abdullah, who began an expansion of Sudan's area into Ethiopia.
An Anglo-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener in 1898 was sent to Sudan. Sudan was proclaimed a condominium in 1899 under British-Egyptian administration. The
Governor-Generalof the Sudan, for example, was appointed by "Khedival Decree", rather than simply by the British Crown, but while maintaining the appearance of joint administration, the British Empire formulated policies, and supplied most of the top administrators.
In 1892, a Belgian expedition claimed portions of southern Sudan that became known as the
Lado Enclave. The Lado Enclave was officially part of the Belgian Congo. An 1896 agreement between the United Kingdomand Belgium saw the enclave turned over to the British after the death of King Léopold II in 1910.
At the same time the French claimed several areas:
Bahr el Ghazal, and the Western Upper Nile up to Fashoda. By 1896 they had a firm administrative hold on these areas and they planned on annexing them to French West Africa. An international conflict known as the Fashoda incidentdeveloped between France and the United Kingdom over these areas. In 1899, France agreed to cede the area to the UK.
From 1898, the United Kingdom and Egypt administered all of present day Sudan, but northern and southern Sudan were administered as separate colonies. In the very early 1920s, the British passed the Closed Districts Ordinances which stipulated that passports were required for travel between the two zones, permits were required to conduct business in the other zone, and totally separate administrations.
In the south, English,
Dinka, Bari, Nuer, Latuko, Shilluk, Azandeand Pari (Lafon) were official languages, while in the north Arabic and English were used as official languages. Islam was discouraged in the south, where Christianmissionaries were permitted to work. Colonial governors of south Sudan attended colonial conferences in East Africa, not Khartoum, and the British hoped to add south Sudan to their East African colonies.
Most of the British focus was on developing the economy and infrastructure of the north. Southern political arrangements were left largely as they had been prior to the arrival of the British. Until the 1920s, the British had very little authority in the south.
In order to establish their authority in the north, the British promoted the power of
Sayyid Ali al-Mirghani, head of the Khatmiyyasect and Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, head of the Ansar sect. The Ansar sect essentially became the Umma party, and Khatmiyya became the Democratic Unionist Party (Sudan).
In 1943, the British began preparing the north for self-rule, establishing a North Sudan Advisory Council to advise on the governance of the six North Sudan provinces: comprising of Khartoum,
Kordofan, Darfur, and Eastern, Northern and Blue Nile provinces.
Then, in 1946, the British colonial authority reversed its policy and decided to integrate north and south Sudan under one government. South Sudanese authorities were informed at the
Juba Conferenceof 1947 that they would now be governed by a common administrative authority with the north. From 1948, 13 delegates, picked by the British authorities represented the south on the Sudan Legislative Assembly.
Many southerners felt betrayed by the British because they were largely excluded from the new government. The language of the new government was Arabic, but the bureaucrats and politicians from southern Sudan had, for the most part, been trained in English. Of the eight hundred new governmental positions vacated by the British in 1953, only four were given to southerners.
Also, the political structure in the south was not as organized in the north, so political groupings and parties from the south were not represented at the various conferences and talks that established the modern state of Sudan. As a result, many southerners do not consider Sudan to be a legitimate state.
Independence and the First Civil War
In February 1953, the
United Kingdomand Egypt concluded an agreement providing for Sudanese self-government and self-determination. The transitional period toward independence began with the inauguration of the first parliament in 1954. With the consent of the British and Egyptian Governments, Sudan achieved independence on 1 January, 1956, under a provisional constitution. The United Stateswas among the first foreign powers to recognize the new state. However, the Arab-led Khartoum government reneged on promises to southerners to create a federal system, which led to a mutiny by southern army officers that sparked seventeen years of civil war (1955-1972). In the early period of the war, hundreds of northern bureaucrats, teachers, and other officials, serving in the south were massacred.
National Unionist Party(NUP), under Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari, dominated the first cabinet, which was soon replaced by a coalition of conservative political forces. In 1958, following a period of economic difficulties and political maneuvering that paralyzed public administration, Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Ibrahim Abboudoverthrew the parliamentary regime in a bloodless coup d'état.
Gen. Abboud did not carry out his promises to return Sudan to civilian government, however, and popular resentment against army rule led to a wave of riots and strikes in late October 1964 that forced the military to relinquish power.
The Abboud regime was followed by a provisional government until parliamentary elections in April 1965 led to a coalition government of the Umma and National Unionist Parties under Prime Minister
Muhammad Ahmad Mahjoub. Between 1966 and 1969, Sudan had a series of governments that proved unable either to agree on a permanent constitution or to cope with problems of factionalism, economic stagnation, and ethnic dissidence. The succession of early post-independence governments were dominated by Arab Muslims who viewed Sudan as a Muslim Arab state. Indeed, the Umma/NUP proposed 1968 constitution was arguably Sudan’s first Islamic-oriented constitution.
The Nimeiry Era
Dissatisfaction culminated in a second coup d'état on
May 25, 1969. The coup leader, Col. Gaafar Nimeiry, became prime minister, and the new regime abolished parliament and outlawed all political parties.
Marxistand non-Marxist elements within the ruling military coalition resulted in a briefly successful coup in July 1971, led by the Sudanese Communist Party. Several days later, anti-communist military elements restored Nimeiry to power.
In 1972, the
Addis Ababa Agreementled to a cessation of the north-south civil war and a degree of self-rule. This led to ten years hiatus in the civil war.
Until the early 1970s, Sudan's agricultural output was mostly dedicated to internal consumption. In 1972, the Sudanese government became more pro-Western, and made plans to export food and
cash crops. However, commodity prices declined throughout the 1970s causing economic problems for Sudan. At the same time, debt servicing costs, from the money spent mechanizing agriculture, rose. In 1978, the IMFnegotiated a Structural Adjustment Programwith the government. This further promoted the mechanized export agriculture sector. This caused great economic problems for the pastoralists of Sudan (See Nuba Peoples).
In 1976, the Ansars mounted a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt. In July 1977, President Nimeiry met with Ansar leader Sadiq al-Mahdi, opening the way for reconciliation. Hundreds of political prisoners were released, and in August a general amnesty was announced for all opponents of Nimeiry’s government.
Sudan relied on a variety of countries for its arms supplies. Since independence the army had been trained and supplied by the British, but relations were cut off after the Arab-Israel
Six-Day Warin 1967. At this time relations with the USA and West Germanywere also cut off.
From 1968 to 1972, the
Soviet Unionand eastern bloc nations sold large numbers of weapons and provided technical assistance and training to Sudan. At this time the army grew from a strength of 18,000 to roughly 50,000 men. Large numbers of tanks, aircraft, and artillery were acquired at this time, and they dominated the army until the late 1980s.
Relations cooled between the two sides after the coup in 1972, and the Khartoum government sought to diversify its suppliers. The USSR continued to supply weapons until 1977, when their support of
Marxistelements in Ethiopia angered the Sudanese sufficiently to cancel their deals. Chinawas the main supplier in the late 1970s.
Egypt was the most important military partner in the 1970s, providing
missiles, personnel carriers, and other military hardware. At the same time military cooperation between the two countries was important.
Western countries began supplying Sudan again in the mid 1970s. The United States began selling Sudan a great deal of equipments around 1976, hoping to counteract Soviet support of Marxist Ethiopians and
Libyans. Military sales peaked in 1982 at US$101 million. After the start of the second civil war, American assistance dropped, and was eventually all but cancelled in 1987. [http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-13451.html]
econd Civil War
In 1983 the civil war was reignited following the government's Islamicization policy which would have instituted Islamic law, among other things. After several years of fighting, the government compromised with southern groups.
On April 6, 1985, a group of military officers, led by Lieutenant General Abd ar Rahman Siwar adh Dhahab, overthrew Nimeiri, who took refuge in Egypt. Three days later, Dhahab authorized the creation of a fifteen-man Transitional Military Council (TMC) to rule Sudan.
In June 1986, Sadiq al Mahdi formed a coalition government with the Umma, the DUP, the NIF, and four southern parties. Unfortunately, however, Sadiq proved to be a weak leader and incapable of governing Sudan. Party factionalism, corruption, personal rivalries, scandals, and political instability characterized the Sadiq regime. After less than a year in office, Sadiq al Mahdi dismissed the government because it had failed to draft a new penal code to replace the sharia, reach an agreement with the IMF, end the civil war in the south, or devise a scheme to attract remittances from Sudanese expatriates. To retain the support of the DUP and the southern political parties, Sadiq formed another ineffective coalition government.
In 1989, it appeared the war would end, but a
coup d'étatbrought a military junta into power which was not interested in compromise. Since that time the war raged across Sudan.
The civil war has displaced more than 4 million southerners. Some fled into southern cities, such as Juba; others trekked as far north as Khartoum and even into Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Egypt, and other neighboring countries. These people were unable to grow food or earn money to feed themselves, and malnutrition and starvation became widespread. The lack of investment in the south resulted as well in what international humanitarian organizations call a “lost generation” who lack educational opportunities, access to basic health care services, and little prospects for productive employment in the small and weak economies of the south or the north.
Peace talks between the southern rebels and the government made substantial progress in 2003 and early 2004, although skirmishes in parts of the south have reportedly continued. The two sides have agreed that, following a final peace treaty, southern Sudan will enjoy autonomy for six years, and after the expiration of that period, the people of southern Sudan will be able to vote in a
referendumon independence. Furthermore, oil revenues will be divided equally between the government and rebels during the six-year interim period. The ability or willingness of the government to fulfill these promises has been questioned by some observers, however, and the status of three central and eastern provinces was a point of contention in the negotiations. Some observers wondered whether hard line elements in the north would allow the treaty to proceed.
A final peace treaty was signed on
9 January 2005in Nairobi. The terms of the peace treaty are as follows:
*The south will have autonomy for six years, followed by a referendum on secession.
*Both sides of the conflict will merge their
armed forcesinto a 39,000-strong force after six years, if the secession referendum should turn out negative.
*Income from oilfields is to be shared evenly between north and south.
*Jobs are to be split according to varying ratios (central administration: 70 to 30, Abyei/Blue Nile State/Nuba mountains: 55 to 45, both in favour of the government).
*Islamic law is to remain in the north, while continued use of the sharia in the south is to be decided by the elected assembly.
In early 2003, a new rebellion in the western region of
Darfurbegan. The rebels accuse the central government of neglecting the Darfur region, although there is uncertainty regarding the objectives of the rebels and whether they merely seek an improved position for Darfur within Sudan or outright secession. Both the government and the rebels have been accused of atrocities in this war, although most of the blame has fallen on Arab militias ( Janjaweed) allied with the government. The rebels have alleged that these militias have been engaging in ethnic cleansingin Darfur, and the fighting has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, many of them seeking refuge in neighboring Chad. The government claimed victory over the rebels after capturing Tine, a town on the border with Chad, in early 2004, but violence continues and as of 2005 the humanitarian situation remains very poor.
Chadian-Sudanese conflictofficially started on December 23, 2005, when the government of Chaddeclared a state of warwith Sudanand called for the citizens of Chadto mobilize themselves against the [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4556576.stm "common enemy,"] which the Chadian government sees as the Rally for Democracy and Liberty(RDL) militants, Chadian rebels, backed by the Sudanesegovernment, and Sudanese militiamen. Militants have attacked villages and towns in eastern Chad, stealing cattle, murdering citizens, and burning houses. Over 200,000 refugees from the Darfurregion of northwestern Sudan currently claim asylum in eastern Chad. Chadian president Idriss Débyaccuses Sudanese President Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashirof trying to "destabilize our country, to drive our people into misery, to create disorder and export the war from Darfur to Chad."
An attack on the Chadian town of
Adrénear the Sudanese border led to the deaths of between one hundred and three hundred rebels based upon conflicting news reports. The Sudanese government was blamed for the attack, which was the [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4544352.stm second in the region in three days] , but Sudanese foreign ministry spokesman Jamal Mohammed Ibrahimdenies any Sudanese involvement, "We are not for any escalation with Chad. We technically deny involvement in Chadian internal affairs." This attack was the final straw that led to the declaration of war by Chad and the alleged deployment of the [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/AB24F0A9-8145-4E1E-96C7-3D8FC9641CC6.htm Chadian airforce into Sudanese airspace, which the Chadian government denies] .
* [http://www.ryanspencerreed.com/main.html Photographs from the Sudan]
P.M. Holtand M.W. Daly, "A History of the Sudan" (1961, 5th ed. Longman2000)
* [http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Hornet/sd_machar.html South Sudan: A History of Political Domination - A Case of Self-Determination, (Riek Machar)]
* [http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Articles_Gen/cvlw_env_sdn.html Civil War in Sudan: The Impact of Ecological Degradation]
* [http://www.detroitfocus.org/Issues/0410/CryForCompassion/index.html Multimedia Presentation on Darfur]
* [http://www.sepnet.org Sudan Emancipation & Preservation Network (SEPNet)]
* [http://www.pharaons-noirs.fr/ Voyage au pays des pharaons noirs] Travel in Sudan : pictures and notes on the nubian history
*Short History of Sudan, Dr. Mohamed H. Fadlalla, iUniverse, 30 April 2004, [ISBN 100595314252]
* The Problem of Dar Fur, Dr. Mohamed Hassan Fadlalla, iUniverse, Inc. (July 21, 2005), [ISBN-13: 978-0595365029]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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