- Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
English name = Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
birth_date = Birth date and age|1930|4|8
title = Duke of Parma, King of Spain, King of Etruria
Parma, Spain, Etruria
pretend from =
7 May 1977
year = 1859
king = Robert I
relationship = Grandson
Xavier, Duke of Parma
Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
Princess Irene of the Netherlands(1964-1981)
Xavier, Duke of Parma
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (born
April 8, 1930in Paris, France) is the current titular duke of Parmaand the head of the House of Bourbon-Parma(a branch of the House of Bourbon). Carlos Hugo is also known as having been a Carlist pretenderto the throne of Spainunder the name Carlos Hugo I.
He was baptized "Hugues Marie Sixte Robert Louis Jean Georges Benoît Michel". On
28 June 1963he was officially renamed "Charles Hugues", by judgement of the court of appeal of La Seine, France. He was a French citizen, and since 1980 a naturalized Spanish citizen.
His marriage to
Princess Irene of the Netherlandsin 1964 caused a constitutional crisis in The Netherlands.
Carlos Hugo is the son of
Xavier, Duke of Parmaand Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset. In 1977, his father died, and Carlos Hugo succeeded him as Duke of Parma.
Carlismis a Spanish political movement seeking to place Carlos Hugo's branch of the House of Bourbonon the Spanish throne.
In 1952, Carlos Hugo's father publicly laid claim to the Spanish throne as Javier I, but he was ignored by Spanish dictator
Francisco Franco, who later chose Juan Carlos to be his successor instead. On May 5 1957Javier proclaimed Carlos Hugo Prince of the Asturiasand Duke of San Jaime. In February 1964 Carlos Hugo assumed the title Duke of Madrid.
After alienating many Carlists with his attempts to approach Franco (1965–1967), Carlos Hugo switched to a leftist
Titoist socialist movement. His mother, Madeleine of Bourbon, and his brother, Sixto Enrique de Borbón, stood for traditional Carlism.
Carlos Hugo assumed Carlist leadership in August, 1975. During the Franco regime, the organization of Carlism has been known as the Traditionalist Communion. After Franco's death, also the Carlist movement was badly split, and unable to get wide public attention again. In May 1976, a year after Franco's death, two Carlist sympathizers were shot down by far-right terrorists, among whom Gladio operative
Stefano Delle Chiaieand members of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance("Triple A"), with logistic support of Francoist elements inside Spanish Intelligence agencies and the Civil Guard[ [http://www.elmundo.es/2001/05/06/espana/991175.html "Montejurra-76: crimen de Estado sin castigo"] , "El Mundo", 6 May 2001] [CARCEDO, Diego: "Sáenz de Santamaría: el general que cambio de bando", ISBN 8484603091] . This incident became known as the Montejurra massacre. [ [http://www.montejurra-jurramendi.3a2.com/ Crimes of Montejurra (translation)] ]
In the first democratic elections on 15 June, 1977, only one Carlist senator was elected, journalist and writer Fidel Carazo from
Soria, who ran as an independent candidate. In the parliamentary elections of 1979, Carlists integrated in the coalition " Unión Nacional", that won a seat in Congress for Madrid; but the elected candidate was Blas Piñar, Francoist leader of " Fuerza Nueva". Since then, Carlists have remained extra-parliamentary, obtaining only town council seats.
Carlos Hugo abandoned his Carlist claims in 1979 and became a naturalised Spanish citizen as Carlos-Hugo de Borbón-Parma y Borbón, by royal decree of King Juan Carlos. In 1980, he left the political arena, abandoning the new "Partido Carlista" which he had created. The party would later become a founding member of the United Left coalition.
In 2002 Carlos Hugo donated his House's archives to Spain's national historical archives. This decision was opposed by his brother Sixtus.
28 September, 2003at Arbonnein France, Carlos Hugo re-asserted his Carlist claim. [ [http://www.borbonparma.org/docs/sar.html Palabras de S.A.R. el Príncipe Don Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma en al acto de imposición de cruces de la Orden de la Legitimad Proscrita, celebrado el domingo día 28 de septiembre de 2003 en Arbonne (Francia)] ] He announced that he would use the title Count of Montemolin (conde de Montemolín) for himself, and that three of his children would have Carlist titles: Duke of Madrid (duque de Madrid) for his son Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (duque de San Jaime) for his son Jaime, and Duchess of Gernika (duquesa de Gernika) for his daughter Carolina.
Marriage to Irene
Carlos Hugo's engagement to Princess Irene of the Netherlands, daughter of
Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, caused a constitutional crisis in the Netherlandsfor several reasons. Irene lost her rights of succession to the Dutch throne because the government refused to enact a law permitting the marriage, and her mother could not go to Rome to talk Irene out of the marriage and of her conversion to Catholicismbecause the government advised her against it. The issue that prevented the government from making a law permitting the marriage was Carlos's claim of the Spanish throne. The Dutch government saw international political difficulties arising from a possible heir to the Dutch throne holding a controversial claim to the throne of a foreign state. Also, the Dutch Constitution does not allow the monarch to carry a foreign crown.
Carlos Hugo and Irene were married on
April 29, 1964, in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggioreby Cardinal Paolo Giobbe, the former Apostolic Nuncio to the Netherlands. ["Carlist Colours Flaunted at Princess's Marriage", "The Times" (April 30, 1964): 14.] No members of the Dutch Royal Family were present; Irene's parents watched the ceremony on television. ["Queen Juliana Sees It on Television", "The Times" (April 30, 1964): 14.] After the ceremony, Carlos Hugo and Irene had a private audience with Pope Paul VI. They spent their honeymoon in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, after which they settled in Madrid. [Josep Carles Clement, "Carlos Hugo de Brobon Parma: Historia de una disidencia" (Barcelona: Planeta, 2001), 121.]
Carlos Hugo and Irene divorced in 1981.
Carlos Hugo and Princess Irene had four children:
*Prince Carlos Javier Bernardo Sixto María of Bourbon Parma, Prince of Piacenza, Duke of Madrid, born
January 27, 1970in Nijmegen. He has a natural son, Carlos Hugo Roderik Sybren Klynstra, born on 20 January, 1997by Brigitte (Gitte) Klynstra. Carlos Klynstra is the first great-grand son of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and her husband Prince Bernhard, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Lippe-Biesterfeld.
*Princess Margarita María Beatriz of Bourbon Parma, Countess of Colorno, born
October 13, 1972in Nijmegen.
*Prince Jaime Bernardo of Bourbon Parma, Duke of San Jaime, Count of Bardi, born
October 13, 1972in Nijmegen.
*Princess María Carolina Cristina of Bourbon Parma, Duchess of Guernica, Marchioness of Sala, born
June 23, 1974in Nijmegen.
* [http://www.carlismo.es Comunión Tradicionalista]
* [http://www.borbonparma.org/ Official website of the House of Bourbon-Parma]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Carlos Hugo von Bourbon-Parma — (* 8. April 1930 in Paris; † 18. August 2010 in Barcelona), Herzog von Parma, erbte die Ansprüche der carlistischen Gegenkönige der spanischen Bourbonen, verzichtete jedoch nach der faktischen Wiedererrichtung der spanischen Monarchie… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Charles III, Duke of Parma — Charles III Duke of Parma and Piacenza Duke of Parma and Piacenza Reign 17 May 1849–27 March 1854 Predecessor … Wikipedia
Charles II, Duke of Parma — Charles II / Charles Louis King of Etruria Reign 27 May 1803 10 December 1807 ( 100000000000000040000004 years, 10000000000000197000000197 days) … Wikipedia
Robert I, Duke of Parma — Robert I Duke of Parma Reign 27 March 1854 9 June 1859 Predecessor Charles III Successor Duchy disbanded … Wikipedia
Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma — See also, Odoardo Farnese (cardinal). Odoardo Farnese Duke of Parma Reign 5 March 1622 11 September 1646 Predecessor … Wikipedia
Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma — Ottavio Farnese Predecessor Pier Luigi Farnese Successor Alexander Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza Reign … Wikipedia
Xavier, Duke of Parma — (Francis) Xavier, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (called Francisco Javier de Borbón Parma y de Braganza in Spain; 25 May, 1889 7 May, 1977) was the head of the ducal House of Bourbon Parma and Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name… … Wikipedia
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma — Ferdinand Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla Reign 18 July 1765–9 October 1802 Predecessor Philip … Wikipedia
Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma — Ranuccio II Farnese Duke of Parma Reign 11 September 1646 11 December 1694 Predecessor Odoardo Farnese Successor … Wikipedia
Philip, Duke of Parma — Infante Philip Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla Reign 18 October 1748–18 July 1765 Predecessor Maria Theresa Success … Wikipedia