Treaty of Paris (1810)


Treaty of Paris (1810)

The Treaty of Paris, signed on January 6, 1810, ended the war between France and Sweden after Sweden's defeat by Russia, an ally of France, in the Finnish War of 1808-1809. Russia had previously been an ally of Sweden in the Third and Fourth Coalitions against France, but after Russia's defeat at Friedland, she joined France and attacked Sweden so as to compel her to join Napoleon's Continental System. Indeed, the primary result of the Treaty of Paris was Sweden's agreement to join the Continental System. [Durant, Will. The Age of Napoleon. New York: MJF Books, 1975. pg. 236.] Shortly after the treaty was signed, on August 21, 1810, one of Napoleon's marshals, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, was elected crown prince of Sweden, and he went on to found the House of Bernadotte, which remains the Royal House of Sweden. The peace resulting from the Treaty of Paris persisted until Napoleon's refusal to permit Sweden to annex Norway, which was then under the sovereignty of Denmark, an ally of France. [Durant, pg. 663.] This was followed in January 1812 by French occupation of Swedish Pomerania for violation of the Continental System and, in April, Sweden's conclusion of the Treaty of Petersburg with Russia against France. [Durant, pg. 663.] "'

On 21 March 1804 the Napoleonic Code was applied over all the territory under French control, and on May 18 Napoleon was titled Emperor by theThe execution of Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Conde in 1804 concluded a convention allowing the British to use Swedish Pomerania against France in exchange for payments. Sweden then joined the third coalition in 1805. Having the much needed support, Sweden then declared war on France.A combine force of British and Russian troops was sent to liberate Hanover. However, in late 1805, the British and Russian troops left Hanover after the battle of Austerlitz. Unable to contain Napoleon’s newly ally forced Sweden to retreat from the Hanover territory. This was made worse when on the French troops made offensives movements towards the Swedish Pomerinia. However, the Swedish were reinforced and with this, they defeated the 15000 men strong French army. France and Sweden agreed a cease-fire according to which French were to leave Pomerania. However, the Swedish government refused to join the Continental System and denounced the armistice under the influence of British diplomacy on July 8, 1807. , 1807, 50,000 French, Spanish and Dutch troops under Marshal Brune begin an assault on Swedish Pomerania and besieged Stralsund again. On August 20, 1807, the defenders of the city capitulated. Swedish army was surrounded at Rügen. However, Swedish General Johan Christopher Toll managed to concluded the convention of Schlatkow with Marshal Brune on favorable terms and his forces withdrew to Sweden with all of their munitions of war on September 7, 1807’s plans to invade Sweden was never realized due to the British activity on the Baltic Sea, the weakness of Danish military and hesitations of French Marshal Bernadotte. Bernadotte's actions made him popular enough to be elected as a Swedish Crown Prince after the coup d'état in March 1809. On August 30, 1809, the new Swedish government was to conclude the treaty of Fredrikshamn with Russia legitimizing the Russian annexation of Finland and Åland. A peace treaty between Sweden and Denmark was signed with no territorial adjustments on December 10 1809.On January 6, 1810, Sweden signed a Russian-mediated Treaty of Paris with France regaining Pomerania, at a cost of joining the Continental System. On November 17 1810, Sweden was forced to declare war against Britain. All British goods in Swedish Pomerania were seized. The government-supported smuggling continued, however, over the North Sea. The English fleet was informed that it would be a phantom war. The war lasted until 1812 and no military action was taken.

The Second War against Napoleon was the second involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars.On January 9, 1812, French troops occupied Swedish Pomerania to end the illegal trade with England from Sweden. The Swedish administration was replaced by a French one, the Swedish estates were confiscated and Swedish officers and soldiers were taken as prisoners of war in Wolgast and Stralsund. In response, Sweden declared neutrality in the British-French war and signed a secrete Treaty of Petersburg with Russia against France and Denmark on April 5, 1812. On July 18, 1812, the peace treaty of Orebro ended the war between the United Kingdom on one side and Russia and Sweden form the other. On March 3, 1813, the Swedish-British treaty of alliance was signed. Great Britain agreed to Sweden's demands on Norway. Sweden declared War against France, thereby joining the Sixth Coalition, and against Denmark on March 24, 1813. In April, Prussia gave its support for Sweden's territorial demands in Norway.

ee also

*Napoleonic Wars
*First War against Napoleon
*Second War against Napoleon
*Treaty of Paris (1814)
*Treaty of Paris (1815)

Notes


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