- Transport in Singapore
Singaporeis mainly land-based. Almost all parts of Singapore are accessible by road, including islands such as Sentosaand Jurong Island. The other major form of transportation within Singapore is rail: the Mass Rapid Transit which runs the length and width of Singapore, and the Light Rapid Transit which runs within a few neighbourhoods. The main island of Singapore is connected to the other islands by ferryboatservices.
Singapore also has many links to the rest of the world — there are two bridges which link Singapore to
Malaysia— the Causeway, and the Second Link. The Singapore Changi Airportis a major aviation hub for many airlines, and Singapore is a major transshipmentport.
Pre and post world wars
Before World War 2,
rickshaws were an important part of urban public transportation. Rickshaws were taken over by the trishaw after the world war. The Trishawhas been discontinued for usage as a means of transportation after 1980. However, there are some trishaws left which now serve as tourist attractions, taking tourists for a ride around the downtown district for a unique Singapore experience.
Transportation within Singapore
Singapore pioneered the modern use of toll roads to enter the most congested city area with the
Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, which has since been replaced with the Electronic Road Pricing, a form of electronic toll collection.
* Total length of expressways: 150 km
* Total length of major arterial roads: 604 km
* Total length of collector roads: 468 km
* Total length of local access roads: 2040 km
* Total road length: 3262 km [cite web|url=http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Road_Length(km).pdf|title=Road Length In Kilometer|publisher=Land Transport Authority|accessdate=2008-03-26]
Traffic drives on the left which is typical in
;CarsTotal population: 514,685^ (as of 2007) [cite web|url=http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/MVP01-5%20(Cars%20by%20cc).pdf|title=Annual Vehicle Statistics 2007 - Car population by CC rating|publisher=Land Transport Authority|accessdate=2008-03-26] "^Excluding taxis and tax exempted cars"
The planning, construction and maintenance of the road network is overseen by the
Land Transport Authority(LTA), and this extends to expressways in Singapore. These form key transport arteries between the distinct towns and regional centres as laid out in Singapore's urban planning, with the main purpose of allowing vehicles to travel from satellite towns to the city centre and vice-versa in the shortest possible distance. These expresswaysinclude:
Ayer Rajah Expressway(AYE)
Bukit Timah Expressway(BKE)
* Central Expressway (CTE)
East Coast Parkway(ECP)
Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway(KPE)
Pan Island Expressway(PIE)
Marina Coastal Expressway(MCE) (under construction)
* North-South Expressway (under planning)cite web| url=https://app-pac.mica.gov.sg/data/vddp/embargo/27390895.htm | title=SPEECH BY MR RAYMOND LIM,MINISTER FOR TRANSPORT, AT VISIT TO KALLANG-PAYA LEBAR EXPRESSWAY, 30 JANUARY 2008, 10.15 AM | publisher=Singapore Government Media Release | date=
The influence of expressways on Singapore's transport policy developed shortly after independence during the
history of Singaporebecause of frequent traffic congestionin the Central district. The aim was to encourage residential development in other parts of the island and give residents in these new "satellite towns" a convenient link between their homes and their workplaces (which were mostly situated around the city centre.)
* Total length of railways (MRT & LRT): 138.2km [cite web|url=http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Rail_Length.pdf|title=Rail Length (km) At End-Of-Year|publisher=Land Transport Authority|accessdate=2008-03-26]
The Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is a
standard gaugesystem with a total rail network length of 109.4 km and 64 stations. There are three main lines running at present: the North South Line, the East West Line (both operated by SMRT Corporation), and the North East Line (operated by SBS Transit). A new Circle Line is slated for completion in 2010 and will be opened in phases as various stations are completed.
In 1998, a 7.8 km-Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system with 14 stations was introduced in Bukit Panjang. The
Sengkang LRT Line, a 10.7 km light railline was opened in 2003; a third LRT line, Punggol LRT Line, was opened in 2005 Jan with the East Loop of the system serving the residences in Punggol.
Sentosa Express monorailbuilt by Hitachi Asia Ltd was opened on 15 January 2007, linking Sentosa island to mainland Singapore.
Singapore's only cable car system, the
Singapore Cable Car, plies between Mount Faberon the main island of Singapore and the resort island of Sentosaas an alternative means of accessing that tourist attraction.
Public transportin Singaporecovers a variety of transport modessuch as bus, rail and taxi and is widely utilised by her population. This is a result of great emphasis by the Government of Singaporein order to promote its use over private transport. About 5.308 million trips [cite web | url=http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Average_Daily_Public_Transport_Ridership.pdf | title=Public Transport Ridership | publisher=Land Transport Authority| accessdate=2008-03-26] are made on a daily basis on the public transport system and at least half of its population utilizes it daily.
The public transport system is the most important means of transportation to work and to school for Singaporeans. About 52.4% of Singaporean residents (excluding foreigners) go to work using public transport according to the
Singapore Census of Population 2000[cite web|url=http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/catalogue.html#census |title=Singapore Census of Population 2000| publisher=Statistics Singapore| accessdate=2008-03-26] , with 41.6% using private transport and the remaining 6.1% not requiring any form of transport. Amongst school-going residents, 41.5% of them goes to school by public transport, 24.9% by private transport, and a further 30.1% do not require any form of transport at all.
A slight dip has been noted in the number of Singaporeans and permanent residents using public transport compared to 1990, which had 55.0% and 46.3% of them going to work and to school respectively. The government aims to reverse this trend such that the total average number of commuters on public transport rises above 75% of all trips made.
SBS Transit[cite web|url=http://www.sbstransit.com.sg/transport/trpt_bus_overview.aspx|title=Bus transport overview | publisher=SBS Transit | accessdate=2008-03-26]
* Routes: 217
* Fleet: More than 2,700
* Daily trips: 2.34 million passenger trips
SMRT Corporation[cite web|url=http://www.smrt.com.sg/investors/documents/annual_reports/2007/pdf/SMRT_Buses.pdf|publisher=SMRT Corporation Ltd| title=Annual Report 2007 - SMRT Buses|accessdate=2008-03-26]
* Routes: 78 (48 trunk, 30 feeder)
* Fleet: 863
* Daily Trips: about 787,066 passenger trips [cite web|url=http://www.smrt.com.sg/investors/key_operating_matrix_bus.asp| title=Monthly total Bus Ridership|publisher=SMRT Corporation Ltd|accessdate=2008-03-26]
Total fleet: 24,022 (as of April 2008) [cite web|url=http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Taxi%20Info%20for%20LTA%20Website%2008.pdf| title=Taxi Info for LTA Website 2008|publisher=Land Transport Authority|accessdate=2008-06-08]
All taxis are fitted with
meters; all are air conditioned; the majority of the taxis are 5-seaters; about 90% of taxis have radiophones; call booking is done via GPS or digital voice dispatch. All passengers must fasten their seat belts by law. Most taxis run on dieselfuel.
Daily trips: about 588,632
Taxi companies and vehicle types used:
ComfortDelgro Comfort Taxis (11147 cabs)cite web| url=http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Taxi%20Info%20for%20LTA%20Website%2008.pdf|title=Taxi Info for LTA Website 2008|publisher=Land Transport Authority|accessdate=2008-06-08]
SMRT Taxis (3004 cabs)
Nissan Cedric(5 Units)
* Mercedes-Benz E220 CDI (Prestige)
SsangYong RodiusSV270 XDI (Space: 7-seater)
Hyundai AzeraUnion Energy Corporation TransCab (2139 cabs)
* Mercedes-Benz E220 CDIPremier Taxis SilverCab (2436 cabs)
* Mercedes-Benz E220 CDI (Silverstar)
Skoda Superb2.5 V6 TDI (SilverArrow)
Smart Automobile (781 cabs)
* Mercedes-Benz E200 NGT, natural gas/petrol bi-fuel (Supreme)
Volkswagen Touran1.9 TDI PD (Supreme)
* Toyota Camry JDM, natural gas
Public transport regulation
The public transport system is regulated by the
Land Transport Authority, which overseas the three main modes of public transportation. Fare regulation and bus service standards are under the purview of an independent body, the Public Transport Council, while TransitLink, established by SBS Transit, SMRT Trainsand SMRT Buses, helps to create an integrated multi-modal system with a common fare-payment mode, information platform, and a physical network without duplication of services.
The policies of the Land Transport Authority are meant to encourage the use of
public transportin Singapore. The key aims are to provide an incentive to reside away from the Central district, as well as to reduce air pollution. Singapore has a Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Light Rapid Transit (LRT) rail system consisting of five lines. There is also a system of bus routes throughout the island, most of which have air conditioningdue to Singapore's tropical climate. Buses without air conditioningare gradually being phased out. A contactless smartcardcalled the EZ-linkcard is used to pay bus and MRT fares.
Public transport for tourists
Launched in December 2007 by
Land Transport Authority, Singapore Tourism Boardand EZ-Link, the Singapore Tourist Pass [cite web|url=http://www.thesingaporetouristpass.com|title=The Singapore Tourist Pass|accessdate=2008-03-26] offers unlimited travel for tourists to Singapore on Singapore's public transport system. For $8 a day, tourists can take any number of rides on buses and trains operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Busesand SMRT Trains. Certain buses like Night Rider are not applicable. The Singapore Tourist Pass is available at selected MRT stations.
International transport links
Singapore is well connected to other countries via land, air and sea.
Singapore has two land links to
Malaysia. The Causeway, built in the 1920s to connect Johor Bahru( Johor, Malaysia) to Woodlands in Singapore, carries a road and a railway line. The Tuas Second Link, a bridge further west, was completed in 1996 and links Tuasin Singapore to Tanjung Kupangin Johor (Malaysia).
The island rail's terminal at
Tanjong Pagar Railway Stationis linked to the Malaysian rail network KTM across the 1.2 km causeway to Johor Bahruon the Malay Peninsula. It connects with Kuala Lumpurand Bangkok.
There are boats and ferry services to nearby islands of Malaysia and Indonesia. These services can be found at
Changi Ferry Terminal, Changi Point Ferry Terminal, Tanah Merah Ferry Terminaland Singapore Cruise Centre.
Port of Singapore, run by the port operators PSA International (formerly the Port of Singapore Authority) and Jurong Port, is the world's busiest in terms of shipping tonnage handled. 1.04 billion gross tons were handled in the year 2004, crossing the one billion mark for the first time in Singapore’s maritime history. Singapore also emerged as the top port in terms of cargo tonnage handled with 393 million tonnes of cargo in the same year, beating the Port of Rotterdamfor the first time in the process. In 2006, it handled a total of 448 million tonnes of cargo [cite web|url=http://www.mpa.gov.sg/infocentre/pdfs/cargo-throughput.pdf|title=Total Cargo (in '000 tons)|publisher=Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore|accessdate=2008-03-26] .
Singapore is ranked second globally in terms of containerised traffic, with 21.3 million Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs) handled in 2004 [http://www.mpa.gov.sg/infocentre/pdfs/container-throughput.pdf] , and is also the world's busiest hub for transshipment traffic. Additionally, Singapore is the world's largest bunkering hub, with 23.6 million tonnes sold in 2004 [cite web|url=http://www.mpa.gov.sg/infocentre/pdfs/bunker-sales.pdf|title=Total Container Throughput (in '000 TEUs)|publisher=Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore|accessdate=2008-03-26] .
In 2007, The Port of Singapore is ranked the world's busiest port once again, surpassing Hong Kong and Shanghai. [cite news |title=Singapore remains world's busiest port |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-01/12/content_4045562.htm |date=
2006-01-12|publisher=Xinhuanet] The Port of Singapore is also ranked the Best Seaport in Asia. Ports and Harbours Data Port Operator Type Berths Quay length
Quay cranes Area
Capacity (kTEUs) Brani (BT) PSA Container 9 31 790,000 Cosco-PSA (CPT) Cosco/PSA Container 2 720 228,000 >1 million Jurong JTC Multi-Purpose 23 4,486 1,200,028 Keppel (KT) PSA Container 14 36 960,000 Pasir Panjang (PPT) PSA Container 12 49 1,770,000 Pasir Panjang Wharves PSA General Sembawang PSA General Tanjong Pagar (TPT) PSA Container 8 27 840,000
Singapore aims to be Asia's aviation hub chiefly via the promotion of liberal aviation policies in a bid to encourage airlines to commence and maintain operations there. The aviation industry is regulated by the
Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore, a statutory board of the Singapore government under the Ministry of Transport.
An open skies agreement was concluded with the United Kingdom in October 2007 permitting unrestricted services from Singapore by UK carriers. Singapore carriers were allowed to operate domestic UK services as well as services beyond London Heathrow to a number of destinations, including the United States. [cite news|url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporebusinessnews/view/303608/1/.html|title=Singapore, UK conclude landmark Open Skies Agreement|date=2007-10-03|publisher=Channelnewsasia.com]
There are currently 5 local scheduled service airlines, all of them operating out of Singapore Changi Airport, offering scheduled flights to over 70 cities on 5 continents. The national flag carrier,
Singapore Airlinescurrently operates out of Changi Airport Terminal 2 and 3. Its subsidiary, SilkAir, operate out of Changi Airport Terminal 2. Singapore's two budget airlines, Jetstar Asiaand Valuair, currently operate out of Changi Airport Terminal 1. Only one budget airline, Tiger Airways, has chosen to operate at the Budget Terminal; other budget airlines have cited various reasons for not shifting operations to the Budget terminal, including accessibility and ease of transfers to connecting flights.
Jetstar Asia- founded 2004
SilkAir- founded 1976
Singapore Airlines- founded 1947 (as Malayan Airways)
Tiger Airways- founded 2003
Valuair- founded 2004 (has since merged with Jetstar Asia to form OrangeStar)
Singapore Changi Airport, with its four terminals (including one budget terminal), is one of the most important air hubs in the region. The international airportis situated at the eastern most tip of the main island, and serves 185 cities in 58 countries [cite web|url=http://www.changiairport.com/changi/en/about_us/fact_sheets/air_network/?__locale=en |title=Air Network|publisher=changiairport.com|accessdate=2008-03-26] . With the recent opening of the third terminal, Changi is now capable of handling 64 million passengers every year. Seletar Airportis Singapore's first civil aviation airport and is primarily used for private aviation today. The airport also serves limited scheduled commercial flights by Berjaya Airto the Malaysian islands of Pulau Tiomanand Pulau Redang Airport and airbase technical data Airport ICAO IATA Usage Runway Length
Remarks Paya Lebar Air Base WSAP QPG Military Paved 12400 3800 m Former civilian Seletar Airport WSSL XSP Civilian Paved 5300 1615 Mainly non-scheduled flights Sembawang Air Base WSAG Military Paved 3000 914 Singapore Changi Airport WSSS SIN Civilian Paved 13200 4000 Tengah Air Base WSAT TGA Military Paved 8900 2713
* [http://www.mot.gov.sg/ Singapore Ministry of Transport]
* [http://www.sgwiki.com/wiki/Buses A local Wikipedia on Singaporean buses]
* [http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/185131/1/.html Transport sector's highs and lows in year 2005]
* [http://www.lta.gov.sg/public_transport/index_pt_overview.htm LTA public transport]
* [http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/white%20paper.pdf White Paper on a World Class Land Transport System]
* [http://www.ptc.gov.sg/ Public Transport Council]
* [http://www.transitlink.com.sg/ Transitlink]
* [http://www.limousinecab.com/ Limousine Cab]
* [http://www.efxsoft.com/tripsum/main.html TripSum.com (By Efxsoft Solutions): 1st online taxi fare calculator to check and calculate taxi fare inclusive of Electronic Road Pricing(ERP) amount and types of taxi surcharges applicable in a passenger's taxi trip in Singapore]
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