- Adon Olam
Adon Olam ( _he. אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם; "Lord of the World") is one of the few strictly metrical hymns in the
Jewish liturgy, the nobility of the diction of which and the smoothness of whose versification have given it unusual importance. According to the custom of the Sephardimand in British synagoguesgenerally, it is congregationally sung at the close of the Sabbath and festival morning services, and among the Ashkenazi Jewsalso it often takes the place of the hymn Yigdalat the close of the evening serviceon these occasions, while both hymns are almost universally chanted on the Eve of Atonement ( Kol Nidre). Because of this solemn association, and on account of its opening and closing sentiments, the hymn has also been selected for reading in the chamber of the dying. It is likewise printed at the commencement of the daily morning prayer, that its utterance may help to attune the mind of the worshiper to reverential awe. In the Sephardic version the hymn comprises six stanzas of two verses each, but the fourth (which is but an amplification of the third) is omitted by the Ashkenazim. For so wide-spread and beloved a hymn, the traditional tunes are singularly few. Only four or five of them deserve to be called traditional. Of these the oldest appears to be a short melody of Spanish origin.
Of similar construction is a melody of northern origin associated by English Jews with the penitential season.
This melody is often sung antiphonally, between precentor and congregation, although it was obviously intended for congregational rendering only, like the Spanish tune given above it. The best known of the other traditional antiphonal settings exists in two or three forms, the oldest of which appears to be the one given below (C).
Every one of the synagogal composers of the 19th century has written several settings for "Adon 'Olam". Most of them—following the earlier practise of the continental synagogues during the modern period (see
Choir) — have attempted more or less elaborately polyphonic compositions. But the absurdity of treating an essentially congregational hymn so as to render congregational singing of it impossible is latterly becoming recognized, and many tunes in true hymn form have been more recently composed. Special mention should be made of the setting written by Simon W. Waley(1827 - 1876) for the West London Synagogue, which has become a classic among the British Jews, having been long ago adopted from the "reform" into the "orthodox" congregations, of England and her colonies.
The Adon 'Olam is one of the most familiar hymns in the whole range of the Jewish liturgy, employed in the various rituals all over the world, though not always at the same period of the service or on the same occasions; thus in the Roman
Maḥzorit is placed at the end of the Sabbath service and sung together with Yigdal( Leopold Zunz, " Ritus", p. 80). In the Sephardic liturgy it has 12 strophes; in the German, only 10. Baer, in his commentary on the " Prayer-book" ( Rödelheim, 1868), says that the hymn seems to have been intended to be recited before retiring, as it closes with the words: "Into His hand I commit my spirit when I fall asleep, and I shall awake". It may be, however, that the beauty and grandeur of the hymn recommended its use in the liturgy, and that it was chanted indiscriminately at the beginning or the close of the service. The date and the name of the author are unknown.
This song is sung to many different tunes, and can be sung to virtually any. Many synagouges like to use "seasonal" tunes, for instance, the
Shabbatbefore Hanukkah, they might do it to Maoz Tzur. In Hebrew schools (as at Associated Hebrew Schools), the Adon Olam hymn is sometimes set, for fun, to secular tunes like " Yankee DoodleWent to Town".
Probably the most famous tune of the song was composed by Israeli song-writer
Uzi Hitmanfor the Hasidicfestival in 1976, and has become widely used in synagogues around the world.
Bibliography of the Jewish Encyclopedia
Landshuth's note in " Siddur Hegyon Leb", p.5, Königsberg, 1845:JewishEncyclopedia ( [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=851&letter=A] )
; Hebrew texts:
* [http://www.britavot.info/HebrewSite/kriyaShemLilaylHabrit.htm] ; Recordings:
* [http://zemirotdatabase.org/view_song.php?id=23 Text, translation, transliteration, recordings from The Zemirot Databse.]
* [http://www.shulmusic.org/midi/adon_olam_files.html some midis of various versions]
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Adon Olam — Adon Olam, avec paroles et mélodie, de la Jewish Encyclopedia. Adon Olam (Hébreu: אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם, litt. Seigneur du Monde ) est l un des seuls hymnes strictement métriques de la liturgie juive, dans lequel la noblesse de langage et le lissage de… … Wikipédia en Français
Adon olam — Adon Olam, avec paroles et mélodie, de la Jewish Encyclopedia. Adon Olam (Hébreu: אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם, litt. Seigneur du Monde ) est l un des seuls hymnes strictement métriques de la liturgie juive, dans lequel la noblesse de langage et le lissage de… … Wikipédia en Français
ADON OLAM — (Heb. אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם; Lord of the World ), rhymed liturgical hymn in 12 verses (in the Ashkenazi rite) extolling the eternity and unity of God and expressing man s absolute trust in His providence. The Sephardi rite has 16 verses. The author is… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Adon Olam — 3 verschiedene Vertonungen von Adon Olam Adon Olam (hebr. אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם, Herr der Welt) sind die Anfangsworte einer Hymne, welche die Ewigkeit und Einheit Gottes sowie das menschliche Vertrauen in seine Vorsehung ausdrückt. Die aschkenasische… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Adon Olam — /ah dohn oh lahm /, Judaism. a liturgical prayer or hymn expressing the faith of Israel in God, often sung in unison usually at the close of a service. [ < Heb adhon olam lit., Lord of the world] * * * … Universalium
Adon Olam — /ah dohn oh lahm /, Judaism. a liturgical prayer or hymn expressing the faith of Israel in God, often sung in unison usually at the close of a service. [ < Heb adhon olam lit., Lord of the world] … Useful english dictionary
Olam — is a Hebrew word which means world and may refer to: Businesses Olam International, a multinational business based in Singapore which supplies commodity products to food packaging industries. Media HaOlam HaZeh a now dufunct weekly Israeli… … Wikipedia
Jewish prayer — Part of a series on … Wikipedia
Yigdal — ; yighdal ; means Magnify [O Living God] ) is a Jewish hymn which in various rituals shares with Adon Olam the place of honor at the opening of the morning and the close of the evening service. It is based on the 13 Articles of Faith (sometimes… … Wikipedia
CHOIRS — A choir is a group of singers who perform together either in unison, or, more usually, in parts. Some choirs are composed of professional singers who are paid for their art, while others are associations of amateurs who come together for social… … Encyclopedia of Judaism