History of Senegal


History of Senegal

The History of Senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era.

Precolonial Senegal

Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times. Islam established itself in the Senegal River valley in the 11th century. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the Mandingo empires to the east; the Jolof Empire of Senegal also was founded during this time. In the 16th century, the Jolof Empire split into four competing kingdoms: the Jolof, Waalo, Cayor and Baol kingdoms.

Colonialism

Various European powers - Portugal, the Netherlands, and England - competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward, until in 1677, France ended up in possession of what had become an important slave trade departure point - the infamous island of Gorée next to modern Dakar. It was only in the 1850s that the French, under the governor, Louis Faidherbe, began to expand their foothold onto the Senegalese mainland, at the expense of the native kingdoms.

Independence

In January 1959, Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on June 20 1960, as a result of the independence and the transfer of power agreement signed with France on April 4 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on August 20 1960. Senegal and Soudan (renamed the Republic of Mali) proclaimed independence. Léopold Senghor, internationally known poet, politician, and statesman, was elected Senegal's first president in August 1960.

After the breakup of the Mali Federation, President Senghor and Prime Minister Mamadou Dia governed together under a parliamentary system. In December 1962, their political rivalry led to an attempted coup by Prime Minister Dia. The coup was put down without bloodshed and Dia was arrested and imprisoned. Senegal adopted a new constitution that consolidated the President’s power. In 1980, President Senghor retired from politics, and handed power over to his handpicked successor, Abdou Diouf, in 1981.

1980-2006

Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia on February 1 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group in the Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.

Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Domestic politics on occasion spilled over into street violence, border tensions, and a violent separatist movement in the southern region of the Casamance. Nevertheless, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights has strengthened over time. Diouf served four terms as President. In the presidential election of 2000, he was defeated in a free and fair election by opposition leader Abdoulaye Wade. Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power, and its first from one political party to another.

On December 30, 2004 President Abdoulaye Wade announced that he would sign a peace treaty with two separatist factions of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC)in the Casamance region. This will end West Africa's longest-running civil conflict. As of late 2006, it seemed the peace treaty was holding, as both factions and the Senegalese military appeared to honor the treaty. With recognized prospects for peace, refugees began returning home from neighboring Guinea-Bissau. However, at the beginning of 2007, refugees began fleeing again, as the sight of Senegalese troops rekindled fears of a new outbreak of violence between the separatists and the government.

ee also

*History of Africa
*History of West Africa
*Government of Senegal

References

* [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2862.htm Background Note: Senegal]

Bibliography

Primary Sources

*Michel Adanson, "Histoire naturelle du Sénégal. Coquillages. Avec la relation abrégée d’un voyage fait en ce pays pendant les années 1749, 50, 51, 52 et 53", Paris, 1757, réédité partiellement sous le titre "Voyage au Sénégal", présenté et annoté par Denis Reynaud et Jean Schmidt, Publications de l'Université de Saint-Etienne, 1996.
*Stanislas, chevalier de Boufflers, "Lettres d’Afrique à Madame de Sabran", préface, notes et dossier de François Bessire, s. l. , Babel, 1998, 453 p. (coll. Les Épistolaires)
*Marie Brantôme, "Le Galant exil du marquis de Boufflers", 1786
*Jean Baptiste Léonard Durand, "Voyage au Sénégal 1785-1786", Paris, Agasse, 1802.
*Georges Hardy, "La mise en valeur du Sénégal de 1817 à 1854", Paris, Larose, 1921, XXXIV + 376 p. (Thèse de Lettres)
*André Charles, marquis de La Jaille, "Voyage au Sénégal pendant les années 1784 et 1785, avec des notes jusqu’à l’an X par P. Labarthe", Paris, Denter,1802.
*Saugnier, "Relation des voyages de Saugnier à la côte d’Afrique, au Maroc, au Sénégal, à Gorée, à Galam", publiée par Laborde, Paris, Lamy, 1799.
*René Claude Geoffroy de Villeneuve, "L’Afrique ou Histoire, mœurs, usages et coutumes des Africains : le Sénégal, orné de 44 planches exécutées la plupart d’après des dessins originaux inédits faits sur les lieux", Paris, Nepveu,1814.

econdary Sources

*en Ailsa Auchnie, "The commandement indigène" in Senegal. 1919-1947", Londres, SOAS, 1983, 405 p. (Thèse)
*en H. Oludare Idowu, "The Conseil General in Senegal, 1879-1920", Ibadan, University of Ibadan, 1970 (Thèse)
*en Conley Barrows Leland, "Général Faidherbe, the Maurel and Prom Company, and French Expansion in Senegal", University of California, Los Angeles, 1974, XXI-t.1, p.1-519 ; t.2, p. 520-976, (thèse)
*en David Wallace Robinson Jr, "Faidherbe, Senegal and Islam", New York, Columbia University, 1965, 104 p. (thèse)
*fr Rodolphe Alexandre, "La Révolte des tirailleurs sénégalais à Cayenne, 24-25 février 1946", 1995, 160 p. ISBN 2738433308
*fr Jean-Luc Angrand, "Céleste ou le temps des signares", Éditions Anne Pépin, 2006
*fr Boubacar Barry, "La Sénégambie du XVe au XIXe siècle. Traite négrière, Islam et conquête coloniale", Paris, L'Harmattan, 1991 (rééd.), 544 p. ISBN 285802670X
*fr Boubacar Barry, "Le Royaume du Waalo : le Sénégal avant la Conquête", Karthala, 2000 (rééd.), 420 p. ISBN 2865371417
*fr Abdoulaye Bathily, "Les Portes de l'or : le royaume de Galam (Sénégal) de l'ère musulmane au temps des négriers (VIIIe-XVIIIe siècles)", Paris, L'Harmattan, 1989.
*fr Claire Bernard, "Les Aménagements du bassin fleuve Sénégal pendant la colonisation française (1850-1960)", ANRT, 1996, ISBN 2284000770
*fr Germaine Françoise Bocandé, "L’implantation militaire française dans la région du Cap-Vert : causes, problèmes et conséquences des origines à 1900", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1980, 112 p. (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
*fr Jean Boulègue, "Le Grand Jolof : XIIIe-XVIe siècles, les Anciens royaumes Wolof, t. 1", Karthala, 1987, 207 p.
*fr Paul Bouteiller, "Le Chevalier de Boufflers et le Sénégal de son temps (1785-1788), Lettres du Monde", Paris, 1995.
*fr Bruno A. Chavane, "Villages de l'ancien Tekrour : recherches archéologiques dans la moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal", Karthala-CRA, 2000 (rééd.)
*fr Sékéné Mody Cissoko, "Le Khasso face à l’empire Toucouleur et à la France dans le Haut- Sénégal 1854-1890", Paris, L'Harmattan, 1988, 351 p. ISBN 2738401333
*fr Catherine Clément, "Afrique esclave", Agnès Vienot, 1999, 200 p. ISBN 2911606361
*fr Cyr Descamps, "Contribution à la préhistoire de l’Ouest-sénégalais", Paris, Université de Paris, 1972, 345 p. (Thèse de 3e cycle publiée en 1979, Dakar, Travaux et Documents Faculté des Lettres : 286 p.
*fr Falilou Diallo, "Histoire du Sénégal : de la conférence de Brazzaville à la fondation du bloc démocratique sénégalais : 1944-1948", Paris, Université de Paris I, 1983, 318 p. (Thèse de 3rd cycle)
*fr Papa Momar Diop, "Les administrateurs coloniaux au Sénégal. 1900-1914", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1985, 107 p. (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
*fr Mamadou Diouf, "Le Kajoor au s-|XIX|e", Karthala, 1989
*fr Mamadou Diouf, "Le Sénégal sous Abdou Diouf", Karthala, 1990
*fr Mamadou Diouf, "Une histoire du Sénégal : le modèle islamo-wolof et ses périphéries", Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 2001, 250 p. ISBN 2706815035
*fr Babacar Fall, "Le Travail forcé en Afrique Occidentale Française (1900-1946)", Karthala, 2000, 336 p. ISBN 286537372X
*fr Denys Ferrando-Durfort, "Lat Dior le résistant", Paris : Chiron, 1989. - 45 p. ISBN 2702704034
*fr Jean Girard, "L'Or du Bambouk : du royaume de Gabou à la Casamance une dynamique de civilisation ouest-africaine", Genève, Georg, 1992, 347 p.
*fr Bernard Grosbellet, "Le" Moniteur du Sénégal et dépendances " comme sources de l’histoire du Sénégal pendant le premier gouvernement de Faidherbe (1856- 1861)", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1967, 113 p. (Diplôme d’Etudes Supérieures)
*fr Gerti Hesseling, "Histoire politique du Sénégal : institutions, droit et société" (traduction Catherine Miginiac), Karthala, 2000, 437 p. ISBN 2865371182
*fr Abdoulaye Ly, "La Compagnie du Sénégal", Karthala, 2000, 448 p. ISBN 2865374068
*fr Mahamadou Maiga, "Le Bassin du fleuve Sénégal - De la traite négrière au développement", Paris, L’Harmattan, 1995, 330 p. ISBN 2738430937
*fr Laurence Marfaing, "Évolution du commerce au Sénégal : 1820-1930", Paris, L’Harmattan, 1991, 320 p. ISBN 2738411959
*fr Saliou Mbaye, "Le Conseil privé du Sénégal de 1819 à 1854", Paris, Université de Paris, 1974, 431 p. (Thèse de l’École des Chartes)
*fr Djibril Tamsir Niane, "Soundjata ou l'épopée Mandingue", Présence africaine, 2000 (rééd.) 160 p. ISBN 2708700782
*fr Jean-Pierre Phan, "Le Front Populaire au Sénégal (1936-1938)", Paris, Université de Paris I, 1974, 176 p. (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
*fr Christian Roche, "Histoire de la Casamance : Conquête et résistance 1850-1920", Karthala, 2000, 408 p. ISBN 2865371255
*fr Christian Roche, "Le Sénégal à la conquête de son indépendance, 1939-1960. Chronique de la vie politique et syndicale, de l’Empire français à l’Indépendance", Paris, Karthala, 2001, 286 p.
*fr Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, "Une source de l’histoire coloniale du Sénégal. Les rapports de situation politique (1874-1891)", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1964, 147 p. (Dipôme d’Etudes Supérieures)
*fr Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, "La formation territoriale de la colonie du Sénégal sous le Second Empire 1850-1871", Nantes, Université de Nantes, 1980, 2 vol. 1096 p. (Thèse d’État)
*fr Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, "Le Sénégal sous le Second Empire", Karthala, 2000, 680 p. ISBN 2865372014
*fr H. Y. Sanchez-Calzadilla, "A l’origine de l’expansion française, la commission des comptoirs du Sénégal", Paris, Université de Paris I, 1973 (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
*fr Alain Sinou, "Comptoirs et villes coloniales du Sénégal : Saint-Louis, Gorée, Dakar", Karthala, 1999, 344 p. ISBN 2865373932
*fr Charles Uyisenga, "La participation de la colonie du Sénégal à l’effort de guerre 1914-1918", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1978, 216 p. (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
*fr Nicole Vaget Grangeat, "Le Chevalier de Boufflers et son temps, étude d'un échec", Paris, Nizet, 1976
*fr Baïla Wane, "Le Conseil colonial du Sénégal, 1920-1946", Paris, Université de Paris VII, 1978, 20 p. (Diplôme d’Études Approfondies).

External links

* [http://membres.lycos.fr/anthropa/A.Robert.html? VIIe Colloque euroafricain] Aline Robert - Les sources écrites européennes du XVe au XIXe s : un apport complémentaire pour la connaissance du passé africain
* [http://tdm.vo.qc.ca/uniforme/un010.htm Uniformes des tirailleurs sénégalais]


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