Procambarus clarkii

Procambarus clarkii

Taxobox
name = "Procambarus clarkii"



image_width = 250px
status = LR/lc
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
subphylum = Crustacea
class = Malacostraca
ordo = Decapoda
infraordo = Astacidea
familia = Cambaridae
genus = "Procambarus"
subgenus = "P. (Scapulicambarus)"
species = "P. clarkii"
binomial = "Procambarus clarkii"
binomial_authority = Girard, 1852

"Procambarus clarkii" is a freshwater crayfish species, native to the Southeastern United States, but found also on other continents, where it is often an invasive pest. It is known variously as the red swamp crawfish, red swamp crayfish, Louisiana crawfish or Louisiana crayfish.

Range and range expansion

The native range of "P. clarkii" is along the Gulf Coast from northern Mexico to the Florida panhandle, as well as inland, to southern Illinois and Ohio. It has also been introduced, sometimes deliberately, outside its natural range to countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and elsewhere in the Americas. In northern Europe, the populations are self maintaining but not expanding, while in southern Europe, "P. clarkii" is multiplying and actively colonising new territory, at the expense of the native crayfish, "Astacus astacus" and "Austropotamobius spp.". Individuals are reported to be able to cross many miles of relatively dry ground, especially in wet seasons, although the aquarium trade and anglers may have hastened the spread in some areas (it is believed that anglers using "P. clarkii" as bait introduced it to the American state of Washington). Attempts have also been made to use "P. clarkii" as a biological control organism, to reduce levels of the snails involved in the life cycle of schistosomiasis, leading to the dispersal of "P. clarkii" in, for instance, Kenya.

Ecology

"P. clarkii" is most commonly found in warm fresh water, such as slowly-flowing rivers, marshes, reservoirs, irrigation systems and rice paddies. It is considered to be the most ecologically plastic species in the Order Decapoda, and is able to grow quickly even in only seasonally present water, being able to tolerate dry spells of up to four months. "P. clarkii" grows quickly, and is capable of reaching weights in excess of 50 g, and sizes of 5½–12 cm long. It is also able to tolerate slightly saline water, which is unusual for a crayfish. The average lifetime of Procambarus clarkii is 5 years. It is known that some individuals have reached ages (in nature) over 6 years.

Economic importance

The rapid growth and ecological tolerance of "P. clarkii" facilitates a large farming industry in Louisiana, worth millions of dollars annually, and with more than 500 km² in cultivation. Harvests of "P. clarkii" account for a large majority of the crayfish produced in the United States and elsewhere. "P. clarkii" has also been introduced elsewhere for cultivation, such as Spain, where its success is attributable to its ability to colonise disturbed habitats that would be unsuitable for the native crayfish. "P. clarkii" is also marketed by biological supply companies for teaching and research.

Ecological impacts

The burrowing activities of "P. clarkii" can lead to damage to water courses and to crops, particularly rice crops, and its feeding can disrupt native ecosystems. It may out-compete the native crayfish species, and is a vector for the crayfish plague fungus "Aphanomyces astaci", for crayfish virus vibriosis and a number of worms parasitic on vertebrates.

Miscellany

"Procambarus clarkii" was named by Charles Frédéric Girard in honour of John H. Clark, who surveyed the US-Mexican border in 1851.Fact|date=January 2008

References

*cite journal |quotes=no |author=Girard C. |year=1852 |title=A Revision of the North American Astaci, with Observations on Their Habits and Geographic Distribution |journal=Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. |volume=6 |pages=87–91
*UCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. . Downloaded on 14 October 2007.
*cite journal |quotes=no |author=M. James Norrocky |year=1991 |title=Observations on the Ecology, Reproduction and Growth of the Burrowing Crayfish Fallicambarus (Creaserinus) fodiens (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in North-central Ohio |journal=American Midland Naturalist |volume=125 |pages=75–86 |doi=10.2307/2426371

External links


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Procambarus clarkii — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Procambarus clarkii Estado de conservación …   Wikipedia Español

  • Procambarus clarkii — Écrevisse de Louisiane Écrevisse de Louisiane …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Procambarus clarkii — Roter Amerikanischer Sumpfkrebs Roter Amerikanischer Sumpfkrebs (Procambarus clarkii) Systematik Unterordnung: Pleocyemata …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Procambarus — Roter Amerikanischer Sumpfkrebs (Procambarus clarkii) Systematik Ordnung: Zehnfußkrebse (Decapoda) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Procambarus — clarkii Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia …   Wikipedia

  • Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) — Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) — Taxobox | name = Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) image width = 240px image caption = Procambarus clarkii regnum = Animalia phylum = Arthropoda subphylum = Crustacea classis = Malacostraca ordo = Decapoda familia = Cambaridae genus = Procambarus… …   Wikipedia

  • Procambarus alleni — Blauer Floridakrebs Blauer Floridakrebs (Procambarus alleni) Systematik Unterordnung: Pleocyemata …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) — Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Écrevisse de Louisiane — Écrevisse de Louisiane …   Wikipédia en Français


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