Pano-Tacanan languages


Pano-Tacanan languages

:"Tacana redirects here, for the Peruvian region see Tacna Region."Infobox Language family
name=Páno-Takána
region=southern Amazon
familycolor=American
fam1=Macro-Panoan ?
child1=Panoan
child2=Tacanan

Pano-Tacanan (also Pano-Takana, Pano-Takánan, Pano-Tacana, Páno-Takána) is a family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, Bolivia and northern Paraguay.

Family division

Pano-Tacanan consists of 2 major branches, Panoan and Tacanan (Adelaar & Muysken 2004; Kaufman 1990, 1994). There are 33 Pano-Tacanan languages. (Note: the list below does not show internal branching.)

I. "Panoan": 1. Kaxararí also known as Kashararí): 2. Kulino (a.k.a. Culino) "(†)": 3. Nocamán (a.k.a. Nokamán) "(†)": 4. Cashibo (a.k.a. Cacataibo, Kashibo): 5. Pánobo "(†)": 6. Huariapano (a.k.a. Pano, Waripano) "(†)": 7. Shipibo (a.k.a. Shipibo-Conibo, Shipibo-Konibo): 8. Capanahua (a.k.a. Kapanawa): 9. Marubo (a.k.a. Marobo): 10. Waninnawa: 11. Remo (a.k.a. Sakuya, Kukini) "(†)": 12. Tuxinawa (a.k.a. Tushinawa) "(†)": 13. Amahuaca (a.k.a. Amawaka): 14. Isconahua (a.k.a. Iscobakebo, Iskonawa): 15. Cashinahua (a.k.a. Kashinawa, Kaxinawa, Tuxinawa): 16. Sharanawa (a.k.a. Marinahua, Mastanahua, Parquenahua): 17. Yaminahua (a.k.a. Yaminawa): 18. Atsahuaca (a.k.a. Yamiaca, Atsawaka-Yamiaka) "(†)": 19. Parannawa "(†)": 20. Puinaua (a.k.a. Poyanawa): 21. Xipinahua (a.k.a. Shipinawa) "(†)": 22. Karipuna: 23. Pacahuara (a.k.a. Pacaguara, Pakaguara): 24. Chácobo (a.k.a. Chákobo): 25. Shaninawa (a.k.a. Xaninaua, Shanenawa, Xanenaua): 26. Sensi "(†)": 27. Mayoruna-Matsés (a.k.a. Matse, Matis, Majoruna)

II. "Tacanan": 28. Tacana (a.k.a. Tupamasa, Takana): 29. Reyesano (a.k.a. San Borjano, Maropa): 30. Araona (a.k.a. Carina, Cavina): 31. Cavineña (a.k.a. Kavinenya): 32. Ese’ejja (a.k.a. Ese’eha, Tiatinagua, Chama, Huarayo, Guacanawa, Chuncho, EseIPA|ʔexa, Tatinawa, Ese exa): 33. Toromona "(†)"

Most Panoan languages are spoken in either Peru or western Brazil; a few are in Bolivia. All Tacanan languages are spoken in Bolivia (Ese’ejja is also spoken in Peru). Panoan has considerable sub-branching.

Kulino, Nocamán, Pánobo, Huariapano, Remo, Tuxinawa, Atsahuaca, Parannawa, Xipinahua, Sensi, and Toromona are now extinct (a total of 11 languages).

Genealogical relations

External links

* Ethnologue: [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90762 Panoan]
* Ethnologue: [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90755 Tacanan]
* Proel: [http://www.proel.org/mundo/pano_takanan.htm Familia Pano-Tacanana]
* Proel: [http://www.proel.org/mundo/panoan.htm Familia Panoana]
* Proel: [http://www.proel.org/mundo/takanan.htm Familia Tacanana]

Bibliography

* Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). "The languages of the Andes". Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.
* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world" (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), "Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages" (pp. 13-67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), "Atlas of the world's languages" (pp. 46-76). London: Routledge.


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