Embraer ERJ 145 family


Embraer ERJ 145 family

Infobox Aircraft
subtemplate = Infobox Embraer Aircraft
name = ERJ 135/ERJ 140/ERJ 145
type = Regional jet
manufacturer = Embraer




caption = An ERJ 145 of Air France Régional
designer =
first flight = August 11 1995
introduced = 1989
retired =
status = In Service
primary user = ExpressJet Airlines (262)
more users = American Eagle Airlines (206)
produced = 1989-present
number built = 1000 as of October, 2007 [ [ttp://www.aviation.com/business/071004-1000th-embraer-erj.html Embraer Celebrates Completion of 1,000th ERJ] . Aviation.com. October 4, 2007. Retrieved on October 15, 2007.]
unit cost = US$16.08M - 22.18M (2006) fact|date=July 2008
developed from = Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia
variants with their own articles = R-99 and P-99 Embraer Legacy 600

The ERJ 145 is a family of regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company. Family members include the ERJ 135, ERJ 140, and ERJ 145, as well as the Legacy business jet and the R-99 family of military aircraft. The ERJ 145 is the largest of the group. Each jet in the series is powered by two turbofan engines. The family's primary competition comes from the Canadair regional jets.

Development

Early design

The ERJ 145 was launched at the Paris Airshow in 1989 as a stretched and turbofan-powered modification of the EMB 120 Brasilia. Key components of this design included:
* Straight wing (with winglets)
* Wing-mounted engines
* Range of 2500 km
* 75% parts commonality with the EMB 120.

Interim design

By 1990, Embraer engineers found that results from wind-tunnel testing were satisfactory, and began considering a significantly different design from the EMB 120. A modified design was proposed which included:Fact|date=July 2007
* 22.3° swept wing (measured at the quarter-chord) (with winglets)
* Wing-mounted engines
* Range of 2500 km

Production design

The second design showed better performance in wind tunnel testing, but the combination of swept wings and wing-mounted engines required a significantly higher undercarriage than previous iterations. The design evolved until late 1991, at which time it was frozen. Though the aircraft went through many alterations before it was finalized, it did retain a few of the original influences of the EMB 120 such as the three abreast seating (2+1) configuration. The key features of the production design included:
* Rear fuselage-mounted engines
* Swept wings (no winglets)
* "T"-tail configuration
* Range of 2500 km

The company was seen to be at a disadvantage due to the delay in bringing the aircraft to service, partly because of the change in the aircraft's design. The first design was intended to retain as much commonality as possible with the EMB 120. However, the aircraft has sold well thus overcoming the initial setbacks. Embraer delivered 892 units of all variants through 2006, and predicts that another 102 units will be delivered in the 2007-2016 time period. [Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 October 2007 issue, p. 66]

Derivatives

The ERJ 140 is based on the ERJ 145 with 96% parts commonality and the same crew type rating. The only significant changes are a shorter fuselage, a slightly derated engine and an increased range. At launch, Embraer estimated the cost of an ERJ 140 to be approximately US$15.2 million. The estimated cost of development of the ERJ 140 was US$45 million. The ERJ 135, with a service entry date of 1999, has 95% parts commonality with the ERJ 145, but is 11.7 feet (3.6 m) shorter.

The ERJ 145 seats 50 passengers, the ERJ 140 seats 44, and the ERJ 135 seats 37. The ERJ 140 was designed with fewer seats in order to meet the needs of some major United States airlines, which have an agreement with the pilot union as to the number of 50-seat aircraft that can be operated in their mixed fleets.

In 2003, Embraer entered a partnership with the Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation of Harbin, China. The resulting company, Harbin Embraer, began producing the ERJ 145 for the Chinese market by assembling kits premanufactured by other worldwide Embraer operations.

Operations

The first flight of the ERJ 145 was on 11 August, 1995, with the first delivery in December 1996 to ExpressJet Airlines (then the regional division of Continental Airlines). ExpressJet is the largest operator of the ERJ 145, with 270 of the nearly 1000 ERJ 145s in service. The second largest operator is American Eagle, with 206 ERJ 145 aircraft. Chautauqua Airlines also operates 95 ERJ 145s through its alliances with American Connection, Delta Connection, US Airways Express, Continental Express, and United Express.

By some accounts, the ERJ 145 has a cost of ownership of about $2,500,000 per year.

In March 2007 ExpressJet entered into a short-term agreement to operate some regional routes for JetBlue Airways using its ERJ 145 aircraft.

The ERJ 140 was introduced in September 1999, first flew on June 27, 2000 and entered commercial service in July 2001. American Eagle Airlines, the regional jet subsidiary of American Airlines, operates the majority of the ERJ 140s built, including the first to be delivered, N800AE. Chautauqua Airlines also operate the ERJ 140.

As of early 2005, 74 ERJ 140s had been delivered.

This version is marketed as ERJ 140, but on the company's internal documents and on Federal Aviation Administration certification, the version is designated EMB 135KL.

Variants

Civilian models

* ERJ 135ER - Extended range, although this is the Baseline 135 model. Simple shrink of the ERJ 145, seating thirteen fewer passengers, for a total of 37 passengers.
* ERJ 135LR - Long Range (increased fuel capacity and upgraded engines).
* ERJ 140ER - Simple shrink of the ERJ 145, seating six fewer passengers, for a total of 44 passengers.
* ERJ 140LR - Long Range (increased fuel capacity (5187kg) and upgraded engines).
* ERJ 145STD - The baseline original
* ERJ 145EU - Model for European market. Same fuel capacity as 145STD (4174kg) but an increased MTOW 19990kg
* ERJ 145ER - Extended Range, although this is the Baseline 145 model.
* ERJ 145EP - Same fuel capacity as 145ER (4174kg) but an increased MTOW 20990kg.
* ERJ 145LR - Long Range (increased fuel capacity (5187kg) and upgraded engines).
* ERJ 145LU - Same fuel capacity as 145LR (5187kg) but an increased MTOW 21990kg.
* ERJ 145MK - Same fuel capacity (4174kg), landing weight (MLW) and MTOW as in the 145STD, but a changed MZFW (17700kg).
* ERJ 145XR - Extra-long Range (numerous aerodynamic improvements, including winglets, strakes, etc. for lower cruise-configuration drag, a ventral fuel tank (aft location) in addition to the two main larger capacity wing tanks (same tanks as in the LR models), increased weight capacity, higher top speed and more powerful engines).
* Legacy - Business jet variant is a special variant based on the ERJ135. main|Embraer Legacy

MTOW - Maximum TakeOff Weight; MZFW - Maximum Zero Fuel Weight

The physical engines are the same (Rolls Royce Allison AE3007), however, the FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine/Electronic Control) logic is what differs between the various models in regards to total thrust capability.

The extended range version, the ERJ-145ER, has Rolls Royce AE 3007A engines rated at 31.3kN(7036 lb) thrust, with the option of more powerful AE 3007A1 engines. A, A1, A1P models are mechanically identical but differ in thrust due to variations in FADEC software. The A1E engine, however, has not only new software, but significantly upgraded mechanical components.

The long-range ERJ-145LR aircraft is equipped with Rolls Royce AE 3007A1 engines which provide 15% more power. The engines are flat rated at 33.1kN (7440 lb) thrust to provide improved climb characteristics and improved cruise performance in high ambient temperatures.

The extra-long-range ERJ-145XR aircraft is equipped with Rolls-Royce AE 3007A1E engines. The high performance engines provide lower specific fuel consumption (SFC) and improved performance in hot and high conditions. The engines also yield a higher altitude for one-engine-inoperable conditions." [http://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/erj145/] ExpressJet is the sole operator of the ERJ 145XR.

Despite the multiple variants, pilots need only one type rating to fly any variant of the ERJ aircraft. Companies like ExpressJet Airlines utilize this benefit with their mixed fleet of ERJ135ER/LR and ERJ145EP/LR/XR. Shared type ratings allows operators to utilize a single pilot pool for any ERJ aircraft.

Military models

* C-99A - Transport model
* EMB 145SA (R-99A) - Airborne Early Warning model
* EMB 145RS (R-99B) - Remote sensing model
* EMB 145MP/ASW (P-99) - Maritime patrol model

Operators

Military operators

;BEL
* Belgian Air Component;BRA
* Brazilian Air Force;GRE
* Greek Air Force;IND
* Indian Air Force;MEX
* Mexican Air Force

Civilian operators

* ERJ 135 - In August 2006 a total of 113 ERJ 135 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service, with 1 further firm order. Major operators include: American Eagle Airlines (39), Chautauqua Airlines (17) and ExpressJet Airlines (30). Smaller numbers of the aircraft are operated by some 9 other airlines.Flight International, 3-9 October 2006]
* ERJ 140 - In August 2006 a total of 74 ERJ 140LR aircraft remain in airline service, with American Eagle Airlines (59) and Chautauqua Airlines (15).
* ERJ 145 - In August 2006 a total of 661 ERJ 145 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service, with 6 further firm orders. Major operators include: AeroMexico Connect (31), Alitalia Express (14), Flybe through its acquisition in April 2007 of British Airways Connect (28), Bmi regional (11), LOT Polish Airlines (11), Luxair (8), PGA - Portugália (8), Air France Régional (28), American Eagle Airlines (108), Chautauqua Airlines (63), ExpressJet Airlines (244), Freedom Airlines (Mesa Air Group) (36) and Trans States Airlines (48). Some 13 other airlines also operate the aircraft in smaller numbers.

Notable accidents

[
Brazilian Federal Police]

The ERJ 145 family of aircraft has no reported crashes or fatalities due to mechanical malfunction in over 12 million hours (as of January 2008) of flight time for the fleet.Fact|date=June 2008 There have been a small number of incidents and accidents involving the ERJ 145. In one case a Rio-Sul pilot descended beyond the normal rates and landed at a speed significantly higher than the normal landing speed. This aircraft tail section cracked and was dragged along the runway. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6kVHeUgVkU Flight recorder video of Rio-Sul incident] YouTube. Retrieved July 18, 2007.] In the other case, a Continental Express (ExpressJet) flight overran a Cleveland runway in blizzard conditions; there were no injuries and the aircraft was returned to service. Another ExpressJet aircraft crashed on takeoff in Beaumont, Texas during a training flight; that aircraft was a total loss, but again no injuries were sustained. [ [http://ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20001211X09555&key=1 NTSB Accident Summary] ]

* On September 29, 2006, an ExcelAire Embraer Legacy EMB-135BJ, Civil Registration airreg|N|600XL, collided with Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907, a Boeing 737-800, while flying over the northern state of Mato Grosso en route to Manaus from São José dos Campos. The Legacy made an emergency landing at a military airstrip at Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil, with minor damages and with its 5 passengers and 2 crew members uninjured. The Gol 737 crashed in the Amazon forest east of Peixoto de Azevedo, killing all 148 passengers and 6 crew members.

pecifications (ERJ 140)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
ref=Fact|date=July 2007
crew=3; 1 Captain, 1 First Officer, 1 Flight Attendant
capacity=44 passengers
payload main=
payload alt=
length main= 28.45 m
length alt=93 ft 4 in
span main=20.04 m
span alt=65 ft 9 in
height main=6.76 m
height alt=22 ft 2 in
area main= 51.2 m²
area alt= 551 ft²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 11,740 kg
empty weight alt= 25,900 lb
loaded weight main= 17,100 kg
loaded weight alt= 37,700 lb
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main= 21,100 kg
max takeoff weight alt= 46,500 lb
more general=
engine (jet)= Rolls-Royce AE 3007A
type of jet=turbofan
number of jets=2
thrust main= 33.0 kN
thrust alt= 7,420 lbf
thrust original=
afterburning thrust main=
afterburning thrust alt=
max speed main=834 km/h
max speed alt= 518 mph, Mach 0.78
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range main= 3,019 km
range alt=1,876 miles
ceiling main= 11,278 m
ceiling alt= 37,000 ft
climb rate main=780 m/min
climb rate alt= 2,560 ft/min
loading main= 334 kg/m²
loading alt=68 lb/ft²
thrust/weight=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
armament=
avionics=

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia
* Embraer Legacy 600
* Embraer R-99 and P-99
similar aircraft=
* Bombardier CRJ100/200
* Fairchild Dornier 328JET
* Fairchild-Dornier 528
* Yakovlev Yak-40
* VFW-614
sequence=
lists=
* List of civil aircraft
see also =

References

* [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=198 ERJ 145 information at Airliners.net]
* [http://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/embraer_legacy/ Embraer Legacy Super Mid-Size Corporate Jet] AeroSpace Technology website
* [http://www.cs-air.com/en/news/2004/06/010.htm Information on Harbin Embraer]
* [http://www.dac.gov.br/imprensaing/im2-0199.htm EMB-145 Press Release for Rio-Sul Crash]
* Endres, Gunter and Gething, Mike. (2002). "Aircraft Recognition Guide", (2nd Ed.). New York: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-713721-4
* Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 October 2007 issue, p. 66

External links

* [http://www.embraercommercialjets.com/english/content/home_erj/ ERJ Family official site] .


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