- Tempelhof International Airport
name = Berlin-Tempelhof Airport
nativename = Flughafen Berlin-Tempelhof
IATA = THF
ICAO = EDDI
type = Public
operator = Berlin Airports
elevation-f = 167
elevation-m = 51
coordinates = Coord|52|28|23|N|13|24|14|E|type:airport_region:DE
r1-number = 09L/27R
r1-length-f = 6,870
r1-length-m = 2,094
r1-surface = Paved
r2-number = 09R/27L
r2-length-f = 6,037
r2-length-m = 1,840
r2-surface = Paved
United States Air Forcemilitary use of this facility, see Tempelhof Central Airport"
Berlin-Tempelhof Airport Airport codes|THF|EDDI also known as Tempelhof Airport ( _de. Flughafen Tempelhof) is one of the three airports in
Berlin, Germany, situated in the south-central borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg. The airport is commonly known as Tempelhof.
Designated by the ministry of transport on
October 8, 1923, Tempelhof became the world's first airport with an underground railway station in 1927, now called "Platz der Luftbrücke" after the Berlin Airlift. While occasionally cited as the world's oldest still-operating commercial airport, Chicago's Midway Airportis the same age, and Sydney Airportin Sydney, Australia, predates it by three years. Ciampino Airportin Romewas opened in 1916, and it is also regarded as the oldest still-operating airport.
Tempelhof was one of
Europe's three iconic pre-war airports — the others being London's old Croydon Airportand ParisLe Bourget. One of the airport's most distinguishing features is its large, canopy-style roof that was able to accommodate most contemporary airliners during its heyday in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, thereby saving passengers from the elements. Tempelhof Airport's main building used to be among the 20 largest buildings on earth. Tempelhof used to have the world's smallest duty-freeshop."Airports International June 1975 (industry magazine)"]
Tempelhof Airport is due to close on
October 31, 2008.
Tempelhof is often called the "City Airport". Tempelhof mostly has commuter flights to other parts of Germany and neighbouring countries, but has in the past received long-haul, wide-bodied
airliners, such as the Boeing 747[ [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=1230780&WxsIERv (picture)] ] and the Lockheed C5A "Galaxy".
Tempelhof Airport has two parallel runways. Runway 9L/27R has a length of 2,094 metres (6,870 ft) and runway 9R/27L has a length of 1,840 m (6,037 ft). Both runways are paved with asphalt. The
taxiwayis in the shape of an oval around these two runways, with a single terminal on the north side of the airport.
It is scheduled to close at the end of October 2008. Other possible uses are being discussed. However, many people are trying to keep the airport buildings preserved. A non-binding
referendumon the level of the "Land" (state of) Berlinwas held on April 27, 2008against the impending closure (see below) but failed due to low turnout.
Airlines and destinations
The following regular airlines fly from/to Tempelhof:
air taxioperators fly from/to Tempelhof:
*AAF Aviona Air
*Air Service Berlin (scheduled sightseeing flights using a historic "raisin bomber"
Douglas DC-3) [operates from Berlin-Schönefeld Airportstarting November]
*AIRSHIP Air Service
*Business Air Charter
*Jet Club Deutschland Chartermanagement
The site of the airport was originally
Knights Templarland in medieval Berlin, and from this beginning came the name "Tempelhof". Later, the site was used as a parade field by Prussian forces, and by unified German forces from 1720 to the start of World War I. In 1909, FrenchmanArmand Zipfel made the first flight demonstration in Tempelhof, followed by Orville Wrightlater that same year. [ [http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Wright_Bros/Military_Flyer/WR11G1.htm] ] Tempelhof was first officially designated as an airport on 8 October 1923. Lufthansawas founded in Tempelhof on 6 January 1926.
The old terminal, originally constructed in 1927, received politicians and celebrities from around the world during the 1930s. As part of
Albert Speer's plan for the reconstruction of Berlin during the Nazi era, Prof. Ernst Sagebielwas ordered to replace the old terminal with a new terminal building in 1934.
The airport halls and the neighbouring buildings, intended to become the gateway to Europe and a symbol of Hitler's "world capital" Germania, are still known as the largest built entities worldwide, and have been described by British architect Sir Norman Foster as "the mother of all airports". With its façades of shell limestone, the terminal building, built between 1936 and 1941, forms a massive 1.2-kilometre long
quadrantyet has a charmingly intimate feel; planes can taxi right up to the building and unload, sheltered from the weather by its enormous overhanging canopy. Passengers walk through customscontrols and find themselves in a dazzlingly simple and luminous reception hall. Tempelhof is served conveniently by the U6 U-Bahn line along Mehringdamm and up Friedrichstraße(Platz der Luftbrücke station).
Zentralflughafen Tempelhof-Berlin had an advantage of central location just minutes from the heart of Berlin and quickly became one of the world's busiest airports. Tempelhof saw its greatest pre-war days during 1938–1939 when more than 52 foreign and 40 domestic aircraft arrived and departed daily from the old terminal, while the new one was still under construction.
The air terminal was designed as headquarters for Deutsche Lufthansa, the German national airline. As a forerunner of today's modern airports, the building was designed with many unique features including giant arc-shaped hangars for aircraft parking. Although under construction for more than ten years, it was never finished because of
World War II.
The building complex was designed to resemble an eagle in flight with semicircular hangars forming the bird's spread wings. A mile long hangar roof was to have been laid in tiers to form a stadium for spectators at air and ground demonstrations
World War II
Weserwerke started war production in a new building for assembling
Junkers Ju 87"Stuka" dive bombers and later Focke-Wulf Fw 190fighter planes in Tempelhof's underground tunnels. Aircraft engines were trucked to Tempelhof and joined to finished airframes. The airport is the hub of a "hub and spoke" arrangement of underground tunnels, and parts for the airplanes were brought from all parts of the city to the air base to be assembled and then flown out. Germany did not use Tempelhof as a military airfield during World War II, except for occasional emergency landings by fighter aircraft.
Soviet forces took Tempelhof in the
Battle of Berlinon 24 April 1945in the closing days of the war in Europe following a fierce battle with Luftwaffetroops. Tempelhof's German commander, Colonel Rudolf Boettger, refused to carry out orders to blow up the base, choosing instead to kill himself. After he died the Russian troops attempted to clear the 5 lower levels of the airbase but the Germans had booby trapped everything and too many were killed, leading the Russian commander to order the lower levels be flooded with water. The lower 3 levels are still flooded to this day, having never been opened up due to un-exploded ordinance.
In accordance with the Yalta agreements, Zentralflughafen Tempelhof-Berlin was turned over to the
United States Army2nd Armored Division on 2 July 1945by the Soviet Unionas part of the American occupation zone of Berlin. This agreement was later formalised by the August 1945 Potsdam Agreement, which formally divided Berlin into four occupation zones.
The [http://ixengineercommand.com/units/852nd.php 852nd Engineer Aviation Battalion] arrived at Tempelhof (Code Number [http://ixengineercommand.com/airfields/general.php#r-95 R-95] ) on
10 July 1945and conducted the original repairs.
20 June 1948Soviet authorities, claiming technical difficulties, halted all traffic by land and by water into or out of the western-controlled section of Berlin. The only remaining access routes into the city were three 25-mile-wide air corridors across the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany. [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1972/1972%20-%202017.html?search=BEA%20in%20Berlin "BEA in Berlin", Air Transport, Flight International, 10 August 1972, pp. 180/1] ] Faced with the choice of abandoning the city or attempting to supply its inhabitants with the necessities of life by air, the Western Powers chose the latter course, and for the next eleven months sustained the city's two-and-a-half millionresidents in one of the greatest feats in aviation history.
"Operation Vittles", as the
airliftwas unofficially named, began on 26 Junewhen USAF Douglas C-47 "Skytrains" carried 80 tons of food into Tempelhof, far less than the estimated 4,500 tons of food, coal and other essential supplies needed daily to maintain a minimum level of existence. But this force was soon augmented by United States Navyand Royal Air Forcecargo aircraft, as well as British European Airways (BEA) and some of Britain's fledgling wholly privately owned, Independent airlines. The latter included the late Sir Freddie Laker's Air Charter, Eagle Aviation and Skyways. On 15 October1948, to promote increased safety and cooperation between the separate US and British airlift efforts, the Allies created a unified command -- the Combined Airlift Task Force under Maj. Gen. William H. Tunner, USAF, was established at Tempelhof. To facilitate the command and control, as well as the unloading of aircraft, the USAF 53rd Troop Carrier Squadron was temporarily assigned to Tempelhof.
In addition to the airlift operations, American engineers constructed a new 6,000-ft runway at Tempelhof between July and September 1948 and another between September and October 1948 to accommodate the expanding requirements of the airlift. The last airlift transport touched down at Tempelhof on
30 September 1949.
As the Cold War intensified in the late 1950s and 1960s, access problems to
West Berlin, both by land and air, continued to cause tension. USAF aircraft were harassed as they flew in and out of the city. Throughout the Cold War years, Tempelhof was the main terminal for American military transport aircraft accessing West Berlin.
With the fall of the
Berlin Walland the reunification of Germany, the presence of American forces in Berlin ended. The USAF 7350th Air Base Group at Tempelhof was deactivated in June 1993. In July 1994, with President Clinton in attendance, the British, French, and American air and land forces in Berlin were deactivated in a ceremony on the Four Ring Parade field at Tempelhof in accordance with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany. The Western Alliesreturned a united city of Berlin to the unified German government.
U.S. Armyclosed its Berlin Army Aviation Detachment at TCA in August 1994, ending a 49-year American military presence in Berlin.
Postwar Commercial Use
American Overseas Airlines (AOA), at the time the overseas division of
American Airlines, inaugurated the first commercial air link serving Tempelhof after the war with a flight from New Yorkvia Frankfurton 18 May 1946."Berlin Airport Company - Airline Portrait - Pan Am, January 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975]
In 1950 Pan Am acquired AOA from American Airlines and established a presence at Tempelhof. In addition to continuing AOA's Berlin-Frankfurt-New York service, Pan Am commenced regular, year-round scheduled services to most major West German cities from Tempelhof with
Douglas DC-4s as these were widely available at the time due to the large number of war-surplus C-54 "Skymasters" on the second-hand aircraft market.
1950 was also the year BEA and
Air Francejoined Pan Am at Tempelhof."Berlin Airport Company - Airline Portrait - British Airways, February 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975] "Berlin Airport Company - Airline Portrait - Air France, March 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975] The former transferred its operations from Gatow and the latter resumed operations to Tempelhof following their cessation during the war years. This was furthermore the year Allied restrictions making commercial airline services from/to West Berlin accessible to Allied military personnel and their dependants only were lifted. This decision gave a major boost to West Berlin's fledgeling post-war scheduled air services, all of which were concentrated at Tempelhof at that time.
From 1951 onwards, several of the new, wholly privately owned Independent UK airlines and US supplemental carriers commenced regular air services to Tempelhof from the UK, the US and
West Germany. These airlines initially carried members of the UK and US armed forcesstationed in Berlinand their dependants as well as essential raw materials, finished goods manufactured in West Berlin and refugees from East Germanyand Eastern Europe, who were still able to freely enter the city prior to the construction of the infamous Berlin Wall, on their flights. This operation was also known as the second, "Little Berlin Airlift". ["The Spirit of Dan-Air", Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, p. 11] One of these airlines, UK Independent Dan-Air Services (operating as "Dan-Air London"), would subsequently play an important role in developing commercial air services from Tegel for a quarter century. ["The Spirit of Dan-Air", Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, pp. 9-11]
During the early to mid-1950s BEA leased in aircraft that were bigger than its Tempelhof-based fleet of "Pionair" and "Viking"
piston-engined airliners from other operators to boost capacity, following a steady increase in the airline's passenger loads.
In 1958 BEA began replacing its aging "Pionairs" and "Vikings" with brand-new, state-of-the-art Vickers "Viscount" 800 series
turbopropaircraft. These aircraft's greater range and higher cruising speed enabled BEA to inaugurate a non-stop London Heathrow - Berlin Tempelhof service on November 1, 1965. For many years this was the only non-stop international scheduled air service from Tempelhof.
January 2, 1960Air France, which had served Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Munichand its main base at Paris Orlyduring the previous decade with DC-4, Sud-Est "Languedoc" and Lockheed "Constellation" piston-engined equipment, shifted its entire Berlin operation to Tegel because Tempelhof's runways were too short to permit the introduction of the Sud-Aviation "Caravelle", the French flag carrier's new short-haul jet, with a viable payload. [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1988/1988%20-%201039.html "The battle for Berlin", Flight International, 23 April 1988, pp. 19-21] ]
1960 was also the year Pan Am re-equipped its Tempelhof-based fleet with larger, pressurised
Douglas DC-6B piston-engined airliners. Although the DC-6B was a less advanced aircraft than either the "Viscount" or the "Caravelle", it was more economical. By the early 1960s, Pan Am had a fleet of 15 DC-6Bs stationed at its Tempelhof base, which were configured in a higher-density seating arrangement than competing airlines' aircraft. This gave it the biggest aircraft fleet among the three main scheduled operators flying from West Berlin. It furthermore enabled it to compensate for the DC-6's lack of sophistication with higher frequencies than its competitors, thereby attaining a higher market share(60%) and capturing a greater share of the lucrative business travelmarket than its rivals. During that period, Pan Am moreover achieved an industry-leading ultra short-haul load factor of 70% on its eight scheduled internal routes from Berlin, making the airline's Berlin routes the most profitable in its worldwide scheduled network. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,873948,00.html "Hot route in the Cold War", Friday, Jul. 03, 1964] ]
Following the completion of the Berlin Wall on
August 13, 1961, the West German government introduced a route-specific subsidyof up to 20% for all internal German scheduled air services from and to West Berlin to help the airlines maintain an economically viable operation on these lifelineroutes.
By the early 1960s, a number of UK Independents and US supplementals began operating regular
charter flights from Tempelhof. These carried both inbound tourists from the US, the UK and other countries as well as local outbound tourists to the emerging holiday resorts in the Mediterranean. London Gatwick-based UK Independent Lloyd International became the first charter airlineto permanently station some of its aircraft at Tempelhof, when it based two Bristol "Britannia" turboprops at the airport from the beginning of the 1966 summer season. These aircraft were operating a series of inclusive tour flights under contract to Berliner Flug Ring, a newly established West Berlin package touroperator."Berlin Airport Company, April 1968 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1968]
In January 1966 Pan Am became the first airline to commence regular, year-round jet operations from Tempelhof with the first examples of a brand-new fleet of
Boeing 727100 series, one of the first "short-field" performance jet aircraft. These aircraft were configured in a single class featuring 128 economy seats. Pan Am's move put BEA at a considerable competitive disadvantage, especially on the busy Berlin-Frankfurt route where the former out-competed the latter with both modern jet planes as well as a higher flight frequency. BEA responded by supplementing its Tempelhof-based "Viscount" fleet with a pair of De Havilland "Comet" 4B series jetliners. Although these aircraft could operate from Tempelhof's short runways without payload restrictions - unlike the 4/4C series versions of that aircraft type, they were not suited to the airline's ultra short-haul operation from Berlin (average stage length: 230 miles) given the high fuel consumption of the "Comet", especially when operating at the mandatory 10,000 feet altitudeinside the Allied air corridors. This measure was therefore only a stopgap until BEA's BAC One-Eleven500s arrived in Berlin. BEA furthermore responded to Pan Am's competitive threat by re-configuring its Berlin-based "Viscounts" with a lower-density seating arrangement, as a result of which these aircraft featured only 52 instead of 68 seats. Henceforth, the airline marketed these services as "Super Silver Star".
1968 was also the year all non-scheduled services, i.e. primarily the rapidly growing number of inclusive tour charter flights, were concentrated at Tegel to alleviate increasing congestion at Tempelhof and to make better use of Tegel, which was underutilised at the time.
air trafficfrom/to Berlin Tempelhof peaked in 1971 at just below five-and-a-half million passengers (out of a total of 6.12m passengers for all West Berlin airports during that year). Pan Am accounted for the bulk of this traffic with more than 3.3m passengers, followed by BEA with over 2.1m passengers. 1971 was also the year BEA's last "Viscount" departed Berlin. ["Berlin Airport Company, November 1971 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1971]
East Germany's relaxation of border controls affecting all surface transport modes between West Berlin and West Germany across its territory from 1972 onwards resulted in a decline of scheduled internal German air traffic from/to West Berlin. This was further compounded by the
recessionin the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. The resulting fare increases that were intended to recover the airlines' higher operating costs caused by steeply rising jet fuelprices led to a further drop in demand. This in turn resulted in a major contraction of Pan Am's and BEA's/ British Airways's internal German operations, necessitating a reduction in both airlines' Berlin-based fleets (from 14 to eleven aircraft in Pan Am's case, and from nine to seven aircraft in BA's case) and turning these once profitable routes into loss-makers by the mid-1970s. [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1973/1973%20-%201982.html?search=Pan%20Am%20in%20Berlin "Pan Am's Internal German Services (IGS) division", Archives, flightglobal.com, 1973] ]
1 September 1975Pan Am and British Airways moved their entire Berlin operation to the newly built terminal at Tegel Airport. Following Pan Am's and BA's move to Tegel, Tempelhof was exclusively used by the US military until 1985. [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1988/1988%20-%200850.html?search=Berlin%20Regional%20UK "Berlin's commuter market grows", Flight International, 2 April 1988, pp. 6, 8] ]
The end of the Cold War and German reunification opened Tempelhof for non-allied air traffic on
3 October 1990. US President Bill Clintonchristened a new Boeing C17A "Globemaster III" transport plane (serial number 96-0006) the "Spirit of Berlin" at Tempelhof on 12 May 1998, to commemorate the 49th anniversary of the end of the Berlin Blockade.( May 12, 1949)
Today commercial use is mostly in the form of small
commuter aircraftflying regionally. Plans are in place to shut down Tempelhof and Tegel, and make Schönefeld the sole commercial airport for Berlin.
Closing down air traffic and the referendum against it
In 1996, the former
mayorof Berlin Eberhard Diepgen, Brandenburg’s governorStolpe and the federal transportminister Wissmann established the so-called “Consensus resolution”. The entire planning aimed at concentrating domestic and international air traffic in Berlin and Brandenburg at one airport: Berlin-Schönefeld International Airport. [ [http://www.wahlen-berlin.de/wahlen/volksentscheid-2008/amtlinfo.pdf Official public information brochure of the pros and cons of the referendum] (German).] To ensure investmentprotection as well as to fend off opposition to Schöenefeld International's expansion, it was mandated that first Tempelhof and then Tegel must be closed. On December 4, 2007, the Federal Administrative Court of Germany("Bundesverwaltungsgericht") made the final decision as court of last instance to close Tempelhof Airport. ["Grünes Licht für Schließung des Flughafens Berlin-Tempelhof". Press release of the Federal Administrative Court of Germany, 4. Dec. 2007 (available at [http://www.bundesverwaltungsgericht.de www.bundesverwaltungsgericht.de] )]
An initiative for a nonbinding referendum on the level of the "Land" Berlin against closure was held and failed, after the initial number of signatures required were collected. [ [http://www.wahlen-berlin.de/wahlen/volksbegehren-2007/LAL-VB-SRR-B.pdf Official public announcement of the call for support] (German)] According to the constitution of the state of Berlin, the number of supportive signatures that were required to be collected within four months in order to compel a referendum amounts to 7% of the population of Berlin entitled to vote, or 169,784. [ [http://www.berlin.de/wahlen/index.php/volksbegehren-2007/Rechtsgrundlagen/VvB_Artikel_62_63.htm Official page of the State of Berlin: see Article 63 (1), second sentence of the Berlin constitution] (German); with regard to the figures, see the [http://www.berlin.de/wahlen/index.php/volksbegehren-2007/Fristen_Termine.htm official referendum schedule, at the end of the page] (German).] The four months period for the collection of signatures at the Berlin district townhalls ended on 14 February 2008. [ [http://www.berlin.de/wahlen/index.php/volksbegehren-2007/Fristen_Termine.htm Official referendum schedule, at A. 6] (German).] 203,408 signatures were lodged. [ [http://www.berlin.de/wahlen/index.php/volksbegehren-2007/AnzahlderUnterschriften.htm Official information on the number of signatures lodged] .] The referendum was held on 27 April 2008. [ [http://www.berlin.de/wahlen/index.php/volksbegehren-2007/Fristen_Termine.htm Official referendum schedule, at B. 2] (German).] All eligible voters received an information brochure along with their notification. A majority of the votes was necessary to support the referendum, but this had to be at least one quarter of all eligible Berlin voters. [ [http://www.wahlen-berlin.de/wahlen/volksentscheid-2008/amtlinfo.pdf Official public information brochure of the pros and cons of the referendum] (German)] [ [http://www.berlin.de/wahlen/index.php/volksentscheid-2008/presse/akt-pm.html Official press release on the referendum] (German)]
The initiative for keeping Tempelhof open was supported by the ICAT ("Interessengemeinschaft City-Airport Tempelhof") [ [http://www.tempelhof-retten.de/ ICAT Interessengemeinschaft City-Airport Tempelhof] ] along with a couple of opposition parties in the Berlin city parliament: the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party citing primarily the need for an inner-city airport for business and private flyers as well as nostalgic reasons. [ [http://www.wahlen-berlin.de/wahlen/volksentscheid-2008/amtlinfo.pdf Official public information brochure of the pros and cons of the referendum] (German).] Representatives from the ICAT suggested keeping the airport open just until Schönefeld Airport is completed in about 2012. The
Berlingovernment insisted on the closure of the airport for legal, long-term economic, and environmental reasons [ [http://www.wahlen-berlin.de/wahlen/volksentscheid-2008/amtlinfo.pdf Official public information brochure of the pros and cons of the referendum] (German)] , in particular to ensure the expansion of Schönefeld International. Environmental groups and the Green party supported them in this. Plans for the future would include for example an airlift museum in the old terminal building, commercial space for innovative businesses, new housing and industrial areas, sports facilities, and parks. Legally the decision in favour of closure at the end of October 2008 was irrevocable [ [http://www.berlin-airport.de/EN/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2008/2008_03_14_Bundesverfassungsgericht_zum_BBI.html BBI Press release: Berlin Airports welcome BBI decision by the Federal Constitutional Court on BBI] ] and the referendum was nonbinding. A subsequent reopening would have faced high legal barriers. However, some legal experts said there may be means to circumvent this.
The referendum of April 27 2008 failed. Although 60.2 % of the votes cast were for the initiative to keep the airport open, this was by only 21.7 % of the eligible voters; 25 % had been required. Support had been highest in western districts of Berlin (up to 80 %), but opposition (i.e. 30 % approval) and disinterest was prevalent in eastern districts. Voter turnout of 36 % was low. [ [http://www.wahlen-berlin.de/wahlen/volksentscheid-2008/Ergebnisse/ve08-proz.asp Official results of the referendum published by the municipal election supervisor] ] Air traffic at Tempelhof Airport will thus cease for good on
November 1, 2008and the expansion of Schönefeld Airport can continue unhindered.
Accidents and incidents
29 April 1952an Air France Douglas C-54A (registration F-BELI) operating a scheduled service from Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport to Berlin Tempelhof came under sustained attack from two Soviet MiG 15fighters while passing through one of the Allied air corridors over East Germany. Although the attack had severely damaged the plane, necessitating the shutdown of engines number three and four, the pilot in command of the aircraft managed to carry out a safe emergency landingat Tempelhof Airport. A subsequent inspection of the aircraft's damage at Tempelhof revealed that it had been hit by 89 shots fired from the Soviet MiGs during the preceding air attack. There were no fatalities among the 17 occupants (six crew, eleven passengers) despite the severity of the attack. The Soviet military authorities defended this attack on an unarmed civilian aircraft by claiming the Air France plane was outside the air corridor at the time of attack. [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19520429-0]
Meigs Field- Chicago's iconic city airport, also forced to close by its mayor.
* cite journal| title=Flight International | publisher=Reed Business Information | place=Sutton, UK | issn= 0015-3710 (various backdated issues relating to commercial air transport at Berlin Tempelhof during the Allied period from 1950 until 1990)
* [http://www.berlin-airport.de/EN/index.php?lang=en&direction=BW&airport=THF Tempelhof International Airport Homepage]
* [http://www.bvg.de/index.php/de/Common/Document/field/file/id/207 local public transportation map (PDF)]
* [http://www.berlin-life.com/travel/travel.php Berlin Life: Berlin Airports and travel info]
* [http://www.tempelhof-retten.de/ ICAT - Initiative for keeping Tempelhof open] "(in German)"
* [http://www.berlin.de/flughafen-tempelhof/ Official Berlin site for closing Tempelhof and future plans] "(in German)"
* [http://www.bift.de/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=59&Itemid=30 BIFT - Initiative for Tempelhof's closure] "(in English)"
* [http://www.afa.org/magazine/June1998/0698berlin.asp The Berlin Airlift]
* [http://www.hill.af.mil/museum/history/candy.htm Berlin "Candy Bomber"]
* [http://www.jedelsky.de/flughafen_tempelhof/index_2.html History of the airport Tempelhof] A representation of the historical development from 1870 till this day. "(in German)"
* [http://www.stephankarl.freehostia.de/Tempelhof6.html Pictures from a guided tour through the airport]
* [http://www.airportsint.com/default.asp on-line version of "Airports International" magazine]
* [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=1891 National Museum Of The USAF Berlin Airlift Factsheet]
* [http://www.west-alliierte-in-berlin.de West-Alliierte-in-Berlin von 1945 bis 1994]
* [http://www.usmvc.de Ein kleiner Verein der sich mit den Fahrzeugen der Alliierten beschaftigt]
* [http://www.zentralflughafen-tempelhof.de Der Zentralflughafen] Vom Tempelhofer Feld zum Zentralflughafen Berlin-Tempelhof. "(in German)"
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