- Johann Bernoulli
Infobox_Scientist

name = Johann Bernoulli

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image_width = 200px

caption = Johann Bernoulli

birth_date = birth date|df=yes|1667|7|27

birth_place =Basel ,Switzerland

death_date = death date and age|df=yes|1748|1|1|1667|7|27

death_place =Basel ,Switzerland

residence =Switzerland

nationality = Swiss

field =Mathematician

work_institution =University of Groningen University of Basel

alma_mater =University of Basel

doctoral_advisor =Jacob Bernoulli

doctoral_students =Leonhard Euler Johann Samuel König Pierre Louis Maupertuis

known_for = Development ofcalculus

Catenary solution

religion =Calvinist

footnotes= Brother ofJakob Bernoulli , and the father ofDaniel Bernoulli .**Johann Bernoulli**(Basel , 27 July 1667 - 1 January 1748) was a Swissmathematician . He was the brother ofJakob Bernoulli , and the father ofDaniel Bernoulli (for whomBernoulli's principle was named) andNicolaus II Bernoulli . He is also known as**Jean**or**John Bernoulli**. He educated the great mathematicianLeonhard Euler in his youth.**Early life and education**Johann began studying medicine at Basel University. His father desired that he study business so that he might take over the family spice trade, but Johann Bernoulli disliked business and convinced his father to allow him to study medicine instead. However, Johann Bernoulli did not enjoy medicine either and began studying mathematics with his older brother on the side. [

*"A Short History of Mathematics", by V. Sanford, Houghton, Mifflin Company, (1958)*] Throughout Johann Bernoulli’s education at Basel University the Bernoulli brothers worked together spending much of their time studying the newly discoveredcalculus . They were among the first mathematicians to not only study and understand calculus but to apply it to various problems. [*"The Bernoulli Family", by H. Bernhard, Doubleday, Page & Company, (1938)*]**Adult life**After graduating from Basel University Johann Bernoulli moved to

Geneva to teachdifferential equations . Later, in 1694, Johann Bernoulli married Dorothea Falkner and soon after accepted a position as the professor of mathematics at theUniversity of Groningen . At the request of Johann Bernoulli’s father-in-law, Johann Bernoulli began the voyage back to his home town ofBasel in 1705. Just after setting out on the journey he learned of his brother’s death totuberculosis . Johann Bernoulli had planned on becoming the professor of Greek at Basel University upon returning but instead was able to take over as professor of mathematics; his older brother’s former position. As a student ofLeibniz ’s calculus, Johann Bernoulli sided with him in 1713 in the Newton-Leibniz debate over who deserved credit for the discovery of calculus. Johann Bernoulli defended Leibniz by showing that he had solved certain problems with his methods that Newton had failed to solve. However, due to his opposition to Newton and the study that he had done under the followers ofDescartes , Johann Bernoulli also promoted Descartes’ vortex theory over Newton’s theory of gravitation which ultimately delayed acceptance of Newton’s theory inEurope . [*"Johann and Jacob Bernoulli", by J.O. Fleckenstein, Mathematical Association of America, (1949)*]In 1724 he entered a competition sponsored by the French

Académie Royale des Sciences , which posed the question::What are the laws according to which a perfectly hard body, put into motion, moves another body of the same nature either at rest or in motion, and which it encounters either in a vacuum or in a plenum?

In defending a view previously espoused by Leibniz he found himself postulating an infinite external force required to make the body elastic by overcoming the infinite internal force making the body hard. In consequence he was disqualified for the prize, which was won by Maclaurin. However, Bernoulli's paper was subsequently accepted in 1726 when the Académie considered papers regarding elastic bodies, for which the prize was awarded to Mazière. Bernoulli received an honourable mention in both competitions.

**Family rivalries**Although Jakob and Johann worked together before Johann graduated from Basel University, shortly after this the two developed a jealous and competitive relationship. Johann was jealous of Jakob's position and the two often attempted to outdo each other. After Jakob's death Johann's jealousy shifted toward his own talented son, Daniel. In 1738 the father-son duo nearly simultaneously published separate works on

hydrodynamics . Johann Bernoulli attempted to take precedence over his son by purposely predating his work two years prior his son’s.**Contributions to mathematics**In 1691 Johann Bernoulli again fueled the tensions between himself and his brother when he solved the problem of the

catenary presented by Jakob. In 1696 Johann Bernoulli proposed the problem of thebrachistochrone , despite already having solved the problem himself. Within two years he received five answers, one of which was from his older brother, Jakob. Bernoulli also proposed afluid energy perpetual motion machine.**L'Hôpital controversy**Bernoulli was hired by Guillaume François Antoine de L'Hôpital to tutor him in mathematics. Bernoulli and L'Hôpital signed a contract which gave L'Hôpital the right to use Bernoulli’s discoveries as he pleased. L'Hôpital authored the first textbook on calculus, which mainly consisted of the work of Bernoulli, including what is now known as

L'Hôpital's rule . [*"The Story of a Number", by Eli Maor, Princeton University Press, Princeton, (1998) p. 116, ISBN 0-691-05854-7*] [*"The Mathematics of Great Amateurs", by Julian Lowell Coolidge, Dover, New York, (1963), pp. 154-163*] [*"A Source Book in Mathematics, 1200-1800", ed. D. J. Struck, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, (1969), pp.312-316*]**ee also**Sophomore's dream **References****External links*** [

*http://www.genealogy.ams.org/html/id.phtml?id=53410 Entry*] at theMathematics Genealogy Project

*

* Golba, Paul, " [*http://www.shu.edu/projects/reals/history/bernoull.html Bernoulli, Johan*] '"

* " [*http://www.bernoulli.ag.vu/ Johann Bernoulli*] "

*

* C. Truesdell [*http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-1753%28195803%2949%3A1%3C54%3ATNBE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1 The New Bernoulli Edition*] Isis, Vol. 49, No. 1. (Mar., 1958), pp. 54-62, discusses the strange agreement between Bernoulli and de l'Hôpital on pages 59-62.----Persondata

NAME= Bernoulli, Johann

ALTERNATIVE NAMES= John, Jean

SHORT DESCRIPTION=Mathematician

DATE OF BIRTH= 27 July 1667

PLACE OF BIRTH=Basel ,Switzerland

DATE OF DEATH= 1 January 1748

PLACE OF DEATH=Basel ,Switzerland

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**Johann Bernoulli**— (* 27. Julijul./ 6. August 1667greg. in Basel; † 1. Januar 1748 in Basel) war Schweizer Mathematiker und Arzt, der jüngere Bruder von … Deutsch Wikipedia**Johann Bernoulli**— Retrato de Johann Bernoulli. Nacimiento 27 de julio de 1667 … Wikipedia Español**Johann Bernoulli**— (27 de julio 1667 11 de enero 1748) fue un matemático, médico y filólogo suizo. Discípulo de su hermano Jakob, tras haber ejercido como profesor de matemáticas en Groninga (1695 1705) le sustituyó como catedrático de matemáticas en Basilea… … Enciclopedia Universal**Johann Bernoulli**— Jean Bernoulli Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bernoulli. Jean Bernoulli Naissance … Wikipédia en Français**Johann Bernoulli**— noun Swiss mathematician (1667 1748) • Syn: ↑Bernoulli, ↑Jean Bernoulli, ↑John Bernoulli • Instance Hypernyms: ↑mathematician … Useful english dictionary**Bernoulli: Eine Mathematikerfamilie**— Es ist ein seltenes Phänomen in der Geistesgeschichte, dass eine einzige Familie innerhalb von drei Generationen acht Mitglieder hervorbringt, welche durch ihre besondere Begabung nicht nur einzelne bedeutende wissenschaftliche Entdeckungen… … Universal-Lexikon**Bernoulli**— ist der Name einer Gelehrtenfamilie, die vom 17. Jahrhundert bis heute viele berühmte Wissenschaftler und Künstler hervorgebracht hat. Als Stammvater wird der niederländische Protestant Leon Bernoulli angesehen, der als Arzt in Antwerpen wirkte.… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Johann II. Bernoulli**— (* 18. Mai 1710 in Basel; † 17. Juli 1790 ebenda) war ein Schweizer Mathematiker, Physiker und Jurist aus der berühmten Familie Basler Mathematiker Bernoulli. Leben und Wirken Johann II. Bernoulli war der dritte von fünf Söhnen von Johann… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Johann III. Bernoulli**— Johann Bernoulli (* 4. November 1744 in Basel; † 13. Juli 1807 in Berlin) war ein Schweizer Astronom aus der Familie Bernoulli. Johann III. war der älteste Sohn von Johann II. Bernoulli u … Deutsch Wikipedia**Bernoulli**— Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Los Bernoulli (o Bernouilli) son una familia de matemáticos y físicos suizos procedentes de la ciudad de Basilea, que irrumpió en el mundo científico a finales del siglo XVII. El fundador de esta familia fue Jacob el … Wikipedia Español