Second Barbary War


Second Barbary War

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Second Barbary War
partof=Barbary Wars


caption=
partof=Barbary Wars
date=c. 1812 - 1816
place=Mediterranean sea, Barbary states
result=Decisive American victory and "de facto" British victory
combatant1= (from 1815)

combatant2="'
commander1=
commander2=
strength1=10 United States Ships
Anglo-Dutch fleet (in 1816)
strength2=Numerous ships of the Barbary Pirates
casualties1=10 United States prisoners (released 1815)
casualties2=500 Algerian prisoners (released 1815)
The Second Barbary War (1815, also known as the Algerine or Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States of America and the Ottoman Empire's North African regencies of Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis, known collectively as the Barbary States. It brought to a conclusive end the American practice of paying tribute to the pirate states.

Background

After its victory in the First Barbary War (1801–1805), the attention of the United States had been diverted to its worsening relationship with France and the United Kingdom, culminating in the War of 1812. The Barbary pirate states took this opportunity to return to their practice of attacking American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea and holding their crews and officers for ransom. Unable to devote military resources and political will to the situation, the United States quietly recommenced paying ransom for return of the prisoners.

Declaration of War

The expulsion of American vessels from the Mediterranean during the War of 1812 by the British navy further emboldened the pirate nations. Umar ben Muhammad, the "Omar Bashaw" of the 1815 treaty, Dey of Algiers, expelled the US consul general Tobias Lear and declared war on the United States for failing to pay its required tribute. Since there were no American vessels in the region at this time, the challenge went unanswered.

United States' response

At the conclusion of the War of 1812, however, America could once again turn its sights on North Africa. On March 3, 1815, the US Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers, and a force of ten ships was dispatched under the command of Commodores Stephen Decatur, Jr. and William Bainbridge, both veterans of the First Barbary War. Decatur's squadron departed for the Mediterranean on May 20, 1815. Bainbridge's command was still assembling, and did not depart until July 1, thereby missing the military and diplomatic initiatives which Decatur swiftly and decisively handled.

Negotiations

Shortly after departing Gibraltar en route to Algiers, Decatur's squadron encountered the Algerian flagship "Meshuda", and, after a sharp action, captured it. Not long afterward, the American squadron likewise captured the Algerian brig "Estedio". By the final week of June, the squadron had reached Algiers and had initiated negotiations with the Dey. After persistent demands for recompensation mingled with threats of destruction, the Dey capitulated. By terms of the treaty signed aboard the "Guerriere" in the Bay of Algier, 3 July 1815 Decatur agreed to return the captured "Meshuda" and "Estedio" while the Algerians returned all American captives, estimated to be about ten, and a significant proportion of European captives wereexchanged for about five hundred subjects of the Dey ["the United States according to the usages of civilized nations requiring no ransom for the excess of prisoners in their favor." Article3.] along with $10,000 in payment for seized shipping. The treaty guaranteed no further tributes ["It is distinctly understood between the Contracting parties, that no tribute either as biennial presents, or under any other form or name whatever, shall ever be required by the Dey and Regency of Algiers from the United States of America on any pretext whatever." Article 2.] and granted the United States full shipping rights.

Defeat of the Dey

Shortly after Decatur set off for Tunis to negotiate a similar agreement with the Bey of Tunis and enforce prior agreements with the Pasha of Tripoli, the Dey repudiated the treaty. The next year an Anglo-Dutch fleet, under the command of British Admiral Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, delivered a punishing nine-hour bombardment of Algiers. The attack immobilized many of the Dey's corsairs and coerced from him a second treaty which reaffirmed the conditions imposed by Decatur. In addition, the Dey agreed to end the practice of enslaving Christians.

Aftermath

Unlike after the First Barbary War, in which the European nations were engaged in warfare with one another (and with the US to a British extent) there was no general European war after the Second Barbary War. Consequently the age of colonization and imperialism allowed the Europeans to build up their resources and challenge Barbary power in the Mediterranean without distraction.

Over the following century, Algiers and Tunis became colonies of France in 1830 and 1881 respectively, while Tripoli returned to the control of the Ottoman Empire in 1835. In 1911, taking advantage of the power vacuum left by the fading Ottoman Empire, Italy assumed control of the colony. Europeans remained in control of the government in eastern North Africa until the mid-twentieth century. By then the iron-clad warships of the late 19th century and dreadnoughts of the early 20th century ensured European and American dominance of the Mediterranean sea.

See also

* Military history of the United States
* Barbary treaties
* Decatur's Squadron in the Second Barbary War

Notes

Further reading

*Adams, Henry. "History of the United States of America During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson". Originally published 1891; Library of America edition 1986. ISBN 0-940450-34-8.
*Lambert, Frank [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0809095335/ "The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World"] New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.
*London, Joshua E. [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471444154 "Victory in Tripoli: How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation"] New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

External links

* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/barbary/barmenu.htm Treaties with The Barbary Powers: 1786-1836]
* http://www.victoryintripoli.com/
* http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl940.cfm
* http://tripolibook.com
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/barbary/bar1815t.htm Text of the treaty signed in Algiers June 30 And July 3, 1815] , between the United States of America and his Highness Omar Bashaw Dey of Algiers.


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