- Ivy Lee
Ivy Ledbetter Lee (
July 16, 1877– November 9, 1934) is considered by some to be the founder of modern public relations, although the title could also be held by Edward Bernays. The term Public Relations is to be found for the first time in the 1897 "Yearbook of Railway Literature".
Early life and career
Ivy Lee was born near
Cedartown, Georgiaas the son of a Methodistminister, James Wideman Lee, who founded an important Atlantafamily. He studied at Emory College and then graduated from Princeton. He worked as a newspaper reporter and stringer. Together with George Parker he established the United States's third public relations firm, Parker and Lee, in late 1904. The new agency boasted of "Accuracy, Authenticity, and Interest." They made this partnership after working together in the Democratic Party headquarters handling publicity for Judge Alton Parker's unsuccessful presidential race against Theodore Roosevelt.
The Parker and Lee firm lasted less than four years, but the junior partner — Lee — was to become one of the most influential pioneers in public relations. He evolved his philosophy in 1906 into the "Declaration of Principles", the first articulation of the concept that public relations practitioners have a public responsibility that extends beyond obligations to the client. In the same year, after an accident with the
Pennsylvania Railroad, Lee issued what is often considered to be the very first press release, convincing the company to openly disclose information to journalists, before they could hear information from elsewhere. [cite book |last= Jenkins|first=James Sage |title= Atlanta in the Age of Pericles|year= 1995|publisher= Chimney Hill |pages= 68-70]
When Lee was hired full time by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1912, he was considered to be the first public relations person placed in an executive-level position. In fact, his archives reveal that he drafted one of the first job descriptions of a VP-level corporate public relations position.
In 1919 he founded the public relations counselling office
Ivy Lee & Associates.
Impact on public relations
Many historians credit Lee with being the originator of modern crisis communications. His principal competitor in the new public relations industry was Edward Bernays.
In 1914 he was to enter public relations on a much larger scale when he was retained by
John D. Rockefeller Jrto represent his family and Standard Oil, ("to burnish the family image"), after the coal mining rebellion in Colorado known as the "Ludlow Massacre". From then on he faithfully served the Rockefellers and their corporate interests, including a strong involvement in Rockefeller Center— he was in fact the first to suggest to Junior (against his reservations) that he give to the complex his family name — even after he moved on to set up his own consulting firm.
He became an inaugural member of the
Council on Foreign Relationsin the U.S. when it was established in New York Cityin 1921.
His supposed instruction to the son of the Standard Oil fortune was to echo in public relations henceforth: "Tell the truth, because sooner or later the public will find out anyway. And if the public doesn't like what you are doing, change your policies and bring them into line with what people want". The context of the quote was said to be apocryphal, being spread by Lee as self promotion, making it both famous and infamous.
Lee is considered to be the father of the modern public relations campaign when, from 1913-1914, he successfully lobbied for a successful railroad rate increase from a reluctant federal government.
Lee espoused a philosophy consistent with what has sometimes been called the "two-way street" approach to public relations, in which PR consists of helping clients listen as well as communicate messages to their publics. In practice, however, Lee often engaged in one-way propagandizing on behalf of clients despised by the public. Shortly before his death, the US Congress had been investigating his work in Nazi
Germanyon behalf of the controversial company IG Farben.
Lee also worked for
Bethlehem Steel, in which capacity he famously advised managers to list their top priorities and work on tasks in that order, not proceeding until a task was completed. For this suggestion company head Charles M. Schwabpaid him $25,000. Over his career he also was a public relations advisor to the following: George Westinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, John W. Davis, Otto Kahnand Walter Chrysler. [cite book
title=Biographical dictionary of American business leaders
author=John N. Ingham
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group
Through his sister Laura, Lee was an uncle to novelist
William S. Burroughs.
Ivy Ledbetter Lee died in New York in 1934 at the age of 57.
Writings by Ivy Ledbetter Lee:
*"Present-day Russia". New York: Macmillan, 1928.
*"James Wideman Lee: biographical sketch." in, James W. Lee, "The geography of genius." New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1920, p. xi-xxiv.
*"New York Times" article of February 13, 2005, "Spinning Frenzy: P.R.'s Bad Press," by
Timothy L. O'Brien.
*Hiebert, Ray Eldon. "Courtier to the crowd : the story of Ivy Lee and the development of public relations". Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1966.
* [http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/fall01%5CJones/lee.html Short Biography]
* [http://libweb.princeton.edu/libraries/firestone/rbsc/finding_aids/lee.html Ivy Ledbetter Lee Papers]
* [http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/spincycles/transcript-seitel.html CBC interview with Fraser Seitel]
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Ivy Lee — Ivy Ledbetter Lee (* 16. Juli 1877 nahe Cedartown, Georgia; † 9. November 1934 in New York, NY) war neben Edward Bernays einer der Begründer der modernen Public Relations (PR). Zudem war er Autor und Philanthrop … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ivy lee — Ivy Ledbetter Lee, né dans le Comté de Polk (Géorgie) le 16 juillet 1877 et mort à New York le 9 novembre 1934, est considéré comme le père fondateur américain de la profession des relations … Wikipédia en Français
Ivy Lee — Ivy Ledbetter Lee, né dans le Comté de Polk (Géorgie) le 16 juillet 1877 et mort à New York le 9 novembre 1934, est considéré comme le père fondateur américain de la profession des relations publiques … Wikipédia en Français
Ivy Lee — Archivo:13pr 184 1guy.jpg En este artículo sobre biografías se detectaron los siguientes problemas: Necesita ser wikificado conforme a las convenciones de estilo de Wikipedia. Carece de fuentes o referencias que aparezcan en una fuente acreditada … Wikipedia Español
Ivy Lee (actress) — Infobox actor name = Ivy Lee (李锦梅) caption = birthname = birthdate = 16 July 1973 (age 34) birthplace = deathdate = deathplace = restingplace = restingplacecoordinates = othername = occupation = yearsactive = 1993 present spouse = partner =… … Wikipedia
Ivy Ledbetter Lee — (* 16. Juli 1877 nahe Cedartown, Georgia; † 9. November 1934 in New York, NY) war neben Edward Bernays einer der Begründer der modernen Public Relations. Zudem war er Autor und Philanthrop. Lee studierte in Princeton, arbeitete ab 1899 als… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ivy Ledbetter Lee — Ivy Lee Ivy Lee Ivy Ledbetter Lee, né dans le Comté de Polk (Géorgie) le 16 juillet 1877 et mort à New York le 9 novembre 1934, est considéré comme le père fondateur américain de la profession des relations … Wikipédia en Français
Ivy (Vorname) — Ivy ist ein weiblicher Vorname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Ivy ist englisch und heißt übersetzt Efeu. Gemeinsam mit Namen wie Daisy oder Clover (deutsch Gänseblümchen, Klee) gehört sie zu den im Englischen verbreiteten Pflanzennamen für Frauen.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lee (Name) — Lee ist ein häufiger in englischsprachigen Ländern sowie in Südkorea und anderen asiatischen Staaten verbreiteter Familienname, seltener auch ein Vorname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Bei dem Namen Lee handelt es sich um eine historisch bedingte… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lee — /lee/, n. 1. Ann, 1736 84, British mystic: founder of Shaker sect in U.S. 2. Charles, 1731 82, American Revolutionary general, born in England. 3. Doris Emrick /em rik/, born 1905, U.S. painter. 4. Fitzhugh /fits hyooh / or, often, / yooh ; fits… … Universalium