- San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive
estuarythrough which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. Technically, both rivers flow into Suisun Bay, which flows through the Carquinez Straitto meet with the Napa Riverat the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay, although the entire group of interconnected bays are often referred to as "San Francisco Bay."
The Bay covers somewhere between 400 [ [http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist9/mcgloin.html Symphonies in Steel: San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate ] ] and 1,600 [ [http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/cpr/watershed/sanfrancisco/sfb_html/sfbenv.html San Francisco Bay Watershed Database and Mapping Project ] ] square miles (1,040 to 4,160
square kilometres), depending on which sub-bays (such as San Pablo Bay), estuaries, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the Bay measures 3 to 12 miles (5 to 20 km) wide east-to-west and somewhere between convert|48|mi|km|01 and convert|60|mi|km|02 north-to-south.
s in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands. The idea was, and remains, controversial. (For further details, see the "Bay Fill and Depth Profile" section.)
There are four large islands in San Francisco Bay. Isolated in the center of the Bay is
Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary. Mountainous Yerba Buena Islandis pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. Closest to shore, Angel Island was known as " Ellis IslandWest" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia. Raccoon Strait, between Tiburon and Angel Island, is the deepest part of the Bay. The federal prison on Alcatraz Islandno longer functions, and the complex is now a popular tourist site.
San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the earth's crust between the
San Andreas Faultto the west and the Hayward Faultto the east, although the precise nature of this continues to be studied. During the last ice age, the basin now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. The rivers of the Central Valley ran out to sea through a canyon which is now the Golden Gate. As the great ice sheets melted, sea level rose 300 feet over 4,000 years, and the valley filled with water from the Pacific, becoming a bay. The small hills became islands.
The first recorded
European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, California, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the convert|1200|ft|m|-1|sing=on high Sweeney Ridge, where he sighted San Francisco Bay.
The first European to enter the bay is believed to have been the Spanish explorer
Juan de Ayala, who passed through the Golden Gateon August 5, 1775in his ship the "San Carlos", and moored in a bay of Angel Island now known as Ayala Cove.
This famous bay was the center of American settlement in the Far West during the 19th century. From the 1820s onward, American presidents and expansionists coveted the bay as a great natural harbor in the Pacific. After many failed efforts to buy the bay and varying areas around it, the US Navy and Army seized the region from
Mexicoduring the Mexican-American War(1845-1848). On February 2, 1848 California was annexed to the U.S. with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. A year and a half later, California requested to join the United States on December 3, 1849 and was accepted as the 31st State of the union on September 9, 1850. During the California gold rushof 1848-1850s, San Francisco Bay instantly became one of the world's greatest seaports, dominating shipping and transportation in the American West until the last years of the nineteenth century. The bay's regional importance became paramount when the transcontinental railroadreached its western terminus in Alameda on September 6, 1869 [Alta California, September 7, 1869] . The terminus was switched to the Oakland Long Wharftwo months later on November 8, 1869. [http://cprr.org/Museum/Southern_Pacific_Bulletin/From_Trail_to_Rail_17.html]
San Francisco Bay continues to support some of the densest industrial production and urban settlement in the United States. The San Francisco Bay Area is the American West's second-largest urban area with approximately 8 million residents.
Despite its urban and industrial character, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta remain perhaps California's most important ecological habitats. California's
Dungeness crab, Pacific halibut, and Pacific salmon fisheriesrely on the bay as a nursery. The few remaining salt marshes now represent most of California's remaining salt marsh, supporting a number of endangered speciesand providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers. Most famously, the bay is a key link in the Pacific Flyway. Millions of waterfowlannually use the bay shallows as a refuge. Two endangered speciesof birds are found here: the California least ternand the California clapper rail. Exposed bay muds provide important feeding areas for shorebirds, but underlying layers of bay mud pose geological hazards for structures near many parts of the bay perimeter. San Francisco Bay provided the nation's first wildlife refuge, Oakland's artificial Lake Merritt(constructed in the 1860s) and America's first urban National Wildlife Refuge, the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge(SFBNWR) (1972). This BAy is also invaded by non-native species.
Tellingly, much of the SFBNWR consists of
salt evaporationponds purchased or leased from Leslie Salt Companyand its successor, Cargill Corporation. These salt ponds produce salt for a variety of industrial purposes, including chlorinebleach and plastics manufacture, as well as supporting dense populations of brine shrimp, and therefore serving as feeding areas for waterfowl. In 2003, California and Cargill entered one of the largest private land purchases in American history, with the state and federal governments paying about $200 million for 16,000 acres (65 km²) of salt ponds in the south bay. SFBNWR and state biologists hope to restore some of the recently purchased ponds as tidal wetlands.
The seasonal range of water temperature in the Bay is from about 8 °C (46 °F) to about 23 °C (73 °F).
Humphrey the whale, entered San Francisco Bay twice on errant migrations, and was successfully rescued and redirected each time in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This occurred again with Dawn and Delta[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_the_whale#Two_More_.22Wayward_Whales.22 ] a mother a baby calf in 2007.
Industrial, mining, and other uses of mercury have resulted in a widespread distribution in the bay, with uptake in the bay's
phytoplanktonand contamination of its sportfish. [cite journal |journal= Rev Environ Contam Toxicol |date=2008 |volume=194 |pages=29–54 |title= Mercury in the San Francisco Estuary |author= Conaway CH, Black FJ, Grieb TM, Roy S, Flegal AR |pmid=18069645] In November 2007, a ship named " Cosco Busan" collided with the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge and spilled over 58,000 gallons of bunker fuel, creating the largest oil spillin the region since 1996. [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-bay9nov09,1,1303799.story?coll=la-headlines-california Oil oozes in S.F. Bay after ship hits bridge - Los Angeles Times ] ]
Bay Fill and Depth Profile
San Francisco Bay's profile changed dramatically in the late nineteenth century and again with the initiation of dredging by the
US Army Corps of Engineersin the twentieth century. Before about 1860, most bay shores (exception: rocky shores such as those in Carquinez Strait, along Marin shoreline, Point Richmond, Golden Gate area) contained extensive wetlands that graded nearly invisibly from freshwater wetlands to salt marsh and then tidal mudflat. A deep channel ran through the center of the bay, following the ancient drowned river valley.
In the 1860s and continuing into the early twentieth century, miners dumped staggering quantities of mud and gravel from
hydraulic miningoperations into the upper Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. GK Gilbert's estimates of debris total more than eight times the amount of rock and dirt moved during construction of the Panama Canal. This material flowed down the rivers, progressively eroding into finer and finer sediment, until it reached the bay system. Here some of it settled, eventually filling in Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, and San Francisco Bay, in decreasing order of severity.
By the end of the nineteenth century, these "
slickens" had filled in much of the shallow bay flats, raising the entire bay profile. New marshes were created in some areas.
In the last years of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth century, at the behest of local political officials and following Congressional orders, the US Army Corps began dredging the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and the deep channels of San Francisco Bay. This work has continued without interruption ever since, an enormous federal subsidy of San Francisco Bay shipping. Some of the dredge spoils were initially dumped in the bay shallows (including helping to create "Treasure Island" on the former
shoalsto the north of Yerba Buena Island) and used to raise an island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The net effect of dredging has been to maintain a narrow deep channel - deeper perhaps than the original bay channel - through a much shallower bay. At the same time, most of the marsh areas have been filled or blocked off from the bay by dikes.
San Francisco Bay has been traversed by watercraft since the coming of Europeans. The indigenous peoples used their canoes to fish and clam along the shoreline. The era of sail brought ships which communicated with the rest of the world as well as serving as early ferries and freighters within the Bay and also between the Bay and inland ports such as Sacramento and Stockton. These were gradually replaced by steam-powered vessels starting in the late 19th century. Several shipyards were early established around the Bay, augmented during wartime. ("See e.g."
San Francisco Bay is spanned by five bridges: the
Golden Gate Bridge(which was the largest single span suspension bridgeever built at the time of its construction), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, the Hayward-San Mateo Bridge, and the Dumbarton Bridge. The bay is also spanned by the Transbay Tube, an underwater tunnel through which BART runs. Prior to the construction of these infrastructures, transbay transportation was dominated by fleets of ferryboats operated by the Southern Pacific Railroadand the Key Systemtransit company. However, in recent decades, ferries have returned, primarily serving commuters from Marin County, relieving the traffic bottleneck of the Golden Gate Bridge. ("See article" Ferries of San Francisco Bay).
The Bay also continues to serve as a major international shipping port, served by a large container facility operated by the
Port of Oakland, and two smaller facilities in Richmond and San Francisco.
San Francisco Bay is a mecca for sailors (boats, as well as windsurfing and kitesurfing), due to consistent strong westerly/northwesterly thermally-generated winds (Beaufort force 6 (15-25 knots) is common on summer afternoons) and protection from large open ocean swells.
Yachtingand yacht racingare popular pastimes and the San Francisco Bay Area is home to many of the world's top sailors. Kite boardingand wind surfingare also popular in the bay.
Islands of San Francisco Bay
* Mount Tamalpais State Park
* Mount Diablo State Park
Napa Sonoma Marsh
Pelagic Ecology of the Low Salinity San Francisco Estuary
Point Pinole Regional Shoreline, Richmond
Eastshore State Park
Hydrography of the San Francisco Bay Area
*1999 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia.
*1988 Encyclopedia Britannica.
* [http://www.sanfranciscobaybook.com/ "San Francisco Bay: Portrait of an Estuary", David Sanger and John Hart, University of California Press]
* [http://www.baycrossings.com/Archives/2001/07_August/barging_in.htm Barging In - A Short History of Liveaboards on the Bay]
* [http://www.spn.usace.army.mil/bmvc/ Army Corps of Engineers Bay Model: Working scale model of the Bay]
* [http://www.boatingsf.com/ BoatingSF.com: Photos of SF Bay and its boats, plus online cruising guide]
* [http://stillhere.org/ecoatlas/Habitat/maps/SFBay/pastpres2.html SF Estuary Institute: San Francisco Bay Historical View Maps]
* [http://savesfbay.org Save San Francisco Bay: Protect and Restore San Francisco Bay]
* [http://www.sfbaywildlife.info San Francisco Bay Wildlife] Guide to San Francisco Bay wildlife
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/ca/ Early History of the California Coast, a National Park Service "Discover Our Shared Heritage" Travel Itinerary]
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