official_name = Karaganda
native_name = Қарағанды
pushpin_mapsize = 280
pushpin_map_caption =Location in Kazakhstan
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name = flag|Kazakhstan
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1931
leader_title = Akim (
1 January 2006
population_total = 446, 200
area_total_km2 = 543.28
timezone = BTT
utc_offset = +6
postal_code = 100001 - 100030
area_code = +7 7212
website = http://www.karaganda.kz Karaganda, also spelled Karagandy ( _kz. Қарағанды, _ru. Караганда), is the capital of
Karagandy Provincein Kazakhstan. It is located at coord|49|53|N|73|10|E|region:KZ_type:city(437,000). It is the fourth most populous city in Kazakhstan, behind Almaty, Astanaand Shymkent, with a population of 446,200 (as of 1 January 2006).cite web
url = http://www.karaganda-region.kz/index.php?rus=akimats_karaganda
title = Акимат Карагандинской области. «Караганда. Паспорт региона.»
accessdate = 26 July
accessyear = 2007
language = ru] In the 1940s up to 70% of the city's inhabitants were ethnic
Germans. Most of the ethnic Germans are descendants of Soviet Volga Germans who were collectively deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan on Stalin's order when Hitler invaded Poland. Until the 1950s many were interned in labor camps often only due to their heritage. The population of Karaganda fell by 14% from 1989-1999. One hundred thousand people have since emigrated to Germany.
The name "Karagandy" is derived from a "
caragana" bushes ( Caragana arborescens, Caragana frutex) which are abundant in the area. Karaganda is an industrial city, built to exploit nearby coal mines using the slave work of prisoners of labor camps. Commercial extraction of coal continues to be an important activity in the region even today. In the early 1990s, it was briefly considered as a candidate for the capital of the (then) recently independent Republic of Kazakhstan, but its bid was turned down in favor of Astana.
It is the birthplace of the late Chechen President
Aslan Maskhadov. It is also the home city of Kazakh World War IIhero Nurken Abdirov. A statue in Abdirov's honor is located in the center of the city.
The original site of Karaganda is now labeled on city maps as the "Old Town," but almost nothing remains on that site. In exploiting the rich coal deposits next door, the Soviets undermined the entire city, and the town had to be abandoned completely and moved several miles to the south.
Karaganda suffered the most severe
electromagnetic pulseeffects ever observed in history, when its electrical power plant was set on fire by currents induced in a 1,000 km long shallow buried power cable by Soviet Test ‘184’ on 22 October 1962. The test was part of ‘Operation K’ (ABM System A proof tests), and consisted of a 300-kt nuclear explosionat 290-km altitude over Zhezkazgan. Prompt gamma ray-produced EMP induced a current of 2,500 amps measured by spark gaps in a 570-km stretch of overhead telephone line to Zharyq, blowing all the protective fuses. The late-time MHD-EMP was of low enough frequency to enable it to penetrate the 90 cm into the ground, overloading a shallow buried lead and steel tape-protected 1,000-km long power cable between Aqmola and Almaty, firing circuit breakers and setting the Karaganda power plant on fire [http://glasstone.blogspot.com/2006/03/emp-radiation-from-nuclear-space.html] .
Karaganda is often used as the punchline in a popular joke in the former
Soviet Union. Karaganda is fairly isolated in a vast area of uninhabited steppe, and is thought by many to be "the middle of nowhere". When used in the locative case(Караганде), the final syllable rhymes with the Russian word for "where" (где), as well as with a Russian obscenity used to answer to an unwanted question "Where?". Thus the exchange: "Where is it?" "In Karaganda!"
Kate Brown, "Gridded Lives: Why Kazakhstan and Montana are Nearly the Same Place." "American Historical Review" 106, 1 (2001): 17-48.
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