- Project Genie
Project Genie was a
computerresearch project started in 1964 at the University of California, Berkeleyby J.C.R. Licklider, the head of DARPA at that time. The project was a smaller counterpart to MIT's Project MAC.
Project Genie pioneered several computer hardware techniques, such as commercial time-sharing which allowed end-user programming in
machine language, separate protected user modes, memory paging, and protected memory. Concepts from Project Genie influenced the development of the TENEX operating system for the PDP-10and Unix(Unix co-creator Ken Thompson worked on an SDS 940 while at Berkeley). The SDS 940 mainframe was used by Douglas Engelbart's OnLine System at the Stanford Research Instituteand was the first computer used by the Community Memory Project at Berkeley.
The system that SDS (later XDS) would call the 940 was created by modifying an SDS 930 24-bit commercial computer so that it could be used for timesharing. The work was funded by ARPA and directed by the late Dr. Mel Pirtle at and Dr. Wayne Lichtenberger at UC Berkeley.
Butler Lampson, Chuck Thacker, and L. Peter Deutschwere among the young technical leaders of that project. When completed and in service, the first 940 ran reliably in spite of its array of tricky mechanical issues such as a huge disk drive driven by hydraulic arms! It served about forty or fifty users at a time and still managed to drive a graphics subsystem that was quite capable for its time.
When SDS realized the value of the time sharing system, and that the software was in the public domain, they came back to Berkeley and collected enough information to begin manufacturing. Because SDS manufacturing was overloaded with the 9 series production and the startup of the Sigma Series production, it could not incorporate the 940 modifications into the standard production line. Instead, production of the 940s was turned over to the Systems Engineering Department, which manufactured systems customised to user requirements. To produce a 940, the Systems Engineering Department ordered a 930 from SDS manufacturing, installed the modifications developed by the Berkeley engineers, and shipped machine to the SDS customer as a 940.
Several members of the project left UCB to form the
Berkeley Computer Corporation(BCC), which produced one prototype, the BCC-500. When the company went bankrupt, the BCC-500 was transferred to the University of Hawaii, where it continued in use through the 1970s.
Several BCC employees became the core of
Xerox PARC's computer research group (Deutsch, Lampson and Thacker) in 1970. Dr. Lichtenberger went to the University of Hawaii, and Dr. Pirtle became technical director for the ILLIAC IVproject at NASA Ames Research Center.
Berkeley Timesharing System
Timeline of operating systems
* [http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/sds/ucbProjectGenie Project Genie Documentation]
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