- Security sector reform
Security Sector Reform (
SSR) is a concept to reform or rebuild a state's security sectorthat emerged first in the 1990s in Eastern Europe. It starts where a dysfunctional security sectoris unable to provide security to the state and its people effectively and under democratic principles. Even worse, the security sector can be a source of widespread insecurity by itself. In this respect, an unreformed or misconstructed security sector represents a decisive obstacle to the promotion of sustainable development, democracy and peace. SSR is an operational as well as a normative concept. SSR can be seen as a branch of an increasing international efforts to secure one's human security. [http://www.dcaf.ch/publications/kms/details.cfm?lng=en&id=18889&nav1=4]
For a better understanding of the concept, it is important to distinguish between three very different reform environments. SSR is not limited to one specific political situation, but can occur in different country contexts: Post-conflict, in transitional and in developed countries. The most obvious though is SSR in post-conflict settings:
Post-Conflict environments are characterized by mostly destroyed or dismissed political institutions and widespread insecurity. Security Sector Reform in such a situation can be understood as
Security Sector Reconstruction, since the state's monopoly on the use of force and effective and efficient structures need to be rebuilt.
Transitional countries are at a borderline from one political system to another, but no violent longterm conflict has occurred yet. SSR in this environment has to improve the state's performance in the security sector, to rebuild or to reorganize security institutions and sometimes to dissolve non-statutory forces like paramilitary police units. The main aim of SSR in transitional countries is to introduce the principles of democratic governance to the security sector.
In developed countries, SSR has mainly the objective of optimizing the security sector, mostly to make it more effective and efficient in the sense of its orientation towards the citizens.
SSR is essentially aimed at the efficient and effective provision of state and
human securitywithin a framework of democratic governance. In a narrow perspective, the security sector of a country can be seen as the state's security and justice apparatus and the relevant civilian bodies responsible for its management. The concept of SSR is holistic in its approach to the security sector. It states that all the relevant actors and instruments should be included into the process from a dysfunctional security sector to a reformed one. This includes not only the state's forces, but also non-state actors, armed groups as well as the civil society. In this respect, the different country contexts have different implications on the application of SSR. In post-conflict situations, SSR can merely be seen as Security Sector Reconstruction. In transitional and developed countries, the reform aspect is generally more important. SSR is not only integrating relevant security branches, but also linking measures aimed at increasing efficiency and effectiveness of security forces to overriding concerns of democratic governance. Efforts to modernize security forces, e.g. by buying new weapons or reorganize hierarchical structures, would not be considered SSR without ensuring the sector's democratic accountability. SSR-related activities must always be aimed at improving the governanceof the security sector.
Basic instruments of SSR are:
*Measures aimed at strengthening
civilian managementand democratic accountability of the security apparatus.
It is imperative to link each area of engagement because efforts will not succeed unless complementary work is carried out in other areas.
In post-conflict peacebuilding, SSR is confronted with a unique set of challenges which are distinguished from the other contexts. Typical additional SSR instruments in post-conflict situations are:
Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration(DDR) of former combatants, including child and female soldiers
Small Armsand Light Weapons ( SALW)
rule of law
traffickingin human beings, weapons and drugs
*Good practices for the
To apply this instruments in a stand-alone manner would not suit the requirements of SSR. Rather, they should be integrated into an overall security sector reform concept. For example, combating SALW is useless until the rule of law is not reestablished. Only by integrating all instruments and combine them with democratic oversight can SSR influence the security situation substantially and sustainably and prevent the region from a flare up of the armed conflict.
Although SSR is still an evolving and contested concept, and lessons learned from practical experience are still scarce, it has emerged as a key concept which is increasingly accepted. SSR is a precondition for good governance, security, human rights, and the achievement of long-lasting peace.
* [http://www.dcaf.ch/publications/bm_sgpc_book.cfm?nav1=4&nav2=2 Hänggi, H. and Bryden, A. (2005): Security Governance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, ISBN 3-8258-9019-8]
*Schnabel, A. and Ehrhardt, H. (2006): Security Sector Reform and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. ISBN 92-808-1109-6
*Hänggi, H. and Bryden, A. (2004) [http://www.dcaf.ch/publications/kms/details.cfm?lng=en&id=18849&nav1=4 Reform and Reconstruction of the Security Sector. ISBN 3-8258-7770-1]
Links to Articles
* [http://www.ssrnetwork.net/publications/ssr_beginn.php A Beginner’s Guide to Security Sector Reform]
* [http://www.ssrnetwork.net/ssrbulletin/index.php A monthly newsletter on Security Sector Reform]
* [http://www.ssrnetwork.net/publications/flacso.php Report on the Security Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean]
* [http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr209.pdf Securing the Future: A Primer on Security Sector Reform in Conflict Countries]
* [http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/supportingsecurity.pdf Understanding and supporting security sector reform (DFID)]
* [http://csdg.kcl.ac.uk/Publications/assets/PDF%20files/Smith.pdf Security-sector reform: development breakthrough or institutional engineering? by C Smith. "Conflict Security Development, vol. 1, issue 1, pp.5-19."]
* [http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No46/Africa.html Africa and the Challenges of Security Sector Reform by Rocklyn Williams]
* [http://www.grc-exchange.org/docs/SSAJ32.pdf Donor Perspective on Security Sector Reform as a Governance Issue by R Evans]
Links to Organisations
* [http://www.ssrnetwork.net/ Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform (GFN-SSR)]
* [http://www.oecd.org/document/33/0,2340,en_2649_34567_33800289_1_1_1_1,00.html Security Sector Reform and Governance - DAC Guidelines, OECD (the only guidelines from an international organization available at this time)]
* [http://www.ssronline.org/ Centre for Security Sector Management (CSSM)]
* [http://www.dcaf.ch/ssr_wg/_index.cfm SSR Working Group, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)]
* [http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/ Justice and Security Sector Reform (UNDP)]
Links to UN-Peacekeeping Missions Conducting SSR
* [http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosil.htm UNOMSIL United Nations Observer Mission to Sierra Leone]
* [http://www.unmikonline.org/ UNMIK United Nations Mission to Kosovo]
* [http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/minustah/ MINUSTAH United Nations Stabilization Mission to Haiti]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Security regulation — What are PMSCs? = Private military and security companies (PMSCs) are businesses that offer specialised services related to war and conflict, including combat operations, strategic planning, intelligence collection, operational and logistical… … Wikipedia
Security Industry Authority — Infobox Non profit Non profit name = Security Industry Authority Non profit Non profit type = Non departmental public body founded date = 2003 founder = location = Liverpool, UK origins = key people = Mike Wilson (Chief Executive) Baroness Henig… … Wikipedia
United States security assistance to the Palestinian Authority — (PA) has been provided since the Palestinian Authority was established by the Oslo Accords in the mid 1990s. The security assistance was given on an ad hoc basis and often covert at the outset. Since 2005 the U.S. State Department has… … Wikipedia
Common Security and Defence Policy missions of the European Union — Since 2002, the European Union has intervened abroad nineteen times in three different continents. Since 2002 the European Union has become increasingly active abroad under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). As of February 2008, it… … Wikipedia
Human security — is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human… … Wikipedia
Institute for Security Studies — See Institute for Security Studies (EU) for a European Union think tank The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) ( fr. Institut d Etudes de Securite) (www.issafrica.org) is a leading policy think tank with a focus on human security in Africa. The … Wikipedia
Mission der Europäischen Union zur Unterstützung der Reform des Sicherheitssektors in der Republik Guinea-Bissau — Die Mission der Europäischen Union zur Unterstützung der Reform des Sicherheitssektors in der Republik Guinea Bissau, kurz EU SSR Guinea Bissau, war eine gemischt zivile und militärische ESVP Mission zur Unterstützung des Sicherheitssektors im… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Social Security debate (United States) — This article concerns proposals to change the Social Security system in the United States. Social Security is a social insurance program officially called Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI), in reference to its three components … Wikipedia
Civil service reform in developing countries — Civil service reform is a deliberate action to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, professionalism, representativity and democratic character of a civil service, with a view to promoting better delivery of public goods and services, with… … Wikipedia
Narasimham Committee on Banking Sector Reforms (1998) — From the 1991 India economic crisis to its status of fourth largest economy in the world by 2010, India has grown significantly in terms of economic development. So has its banking sector. During this period, recognizing the evolving needs of the … Wikipedia