Harvey Cushing


Harvey Cushing

Infobox Medical Person
name =Harvey Williams Cushing


box_width =


image_width =
caption =Harvey Cushing (c.1900)
birth_date =birth date|1869|04|08
birth_place =Cleveland, Ohio, United States
death_date =death date and age|1939|10|07|1869|04|08
death_place =New Haven, Connecticut, United States
profession =Surgeon
specialism =Neurosurgery
research_field =
known_for =Pioneering brain surgery
years_active =1895-1935
education =Yale University
Harvard Medical School
work_institutions =Massachusetts General Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Peter Bent Brigham Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Yale University School of Medicine
prizes =
relations =

Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery. He is widely regarded as the greatest neurosurgeon of the 20th century, and often called the "father of modern neurosurgery".

Life

Cushing was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Kirke Cushing, a physician, and Bessie Williams. He was the youngest of ten children. Cushing graduated from Yale, where he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon, studied medicine at Harvard Medical School and graduated in 1895. He completed his internship at Massachusetts General Hospital and then studied surgery under the guidance of a famous surgeon, William Stewart Halsted, at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore. During his medical career he was a surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital, at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston and as professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School. From 1933, until his death, he worked at Yale University School of Medicine. He served in the U.S. Army Medical Corps as a surgeon with the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.

He married Katharine Stone Crowell on June 10, 1902. They had five children: William Harvey Cushing; Mary Benedict Cushing (who married Vincent Astor and painter James Whitney Fosburgh); Betsey Cushing, wife successively of James Roosevelt and John Hay Whitney; Henry Kirke Cushing; and Barbara Cushing, socialite wife of Stanley Grafton Mortimer and William S. Paley.

Achievements

In the beginning of the 20th century he developed many of the basic surgical techniques for operating on the brain. This established him as one of the foremost leaders and experts in the field. Under his influence neurosurgery became a new and autonomous surgical discipline.
* He considerably improved the survival of patients after difficult brain operations for intracranial tumors.
* He used x-rays to diagnose brain tumors.
* He used electrical stimuli for study of the human sensory cortex.
* He played a pivotal role in development of the Bovie electrocautery tool with W.T. Bovie, a physicist.
* He was the world's leading teacher of neurosurgeons in the first decades of the 20th century.

Cushing's name is commonly associated with his most famous discovery - Cushing's disease. In 1912 he reported in a study an endocrinological syndrome caused by a malfunction of the pituitary gland which he termed "polyglandular syndrome". He published his findings in 1932, as "The Basophil Adenomas of the Pituitary Body and Their Clinical Manifestations pituitary Basophilism). Cushing was also awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1926, for a biography of one of the fathers of modern medicine - Sir William Osler. He died in 1939 in New Haven, Connecticut from complications from a myocardial infarction, and was interred in Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland.

In 1988, the United States Postal Service issued a 45 cent postage stamp in his honor, as part of the Great Americans series. [Scott catalog # 2188.]

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library

The Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library [ [http://www.med.yale.edu/library/subjects/digital.html Digital Library Collections (Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University) ] at www.med.yale.edu] at Yale University contains extensive collections in the field of medicine and the history of medicine. In 2005, the library released portions of its collection online, including the Peter Parker Collection which consists of a collection of portrait engravings and 83 mid-19th century oil paintings rendered by artist Lam Qua of Chinese tumor patients, and a biography of Harvey Cushing by John F. Fulton.

Notes

ee also

* History of medicine
* Timeline of medicine and medical technology

ources and External links

*Fulton, John F. [http://cwmldl.med.yale.edu/cushing/ Biography of Harvey Cushing] John F. Fulton’s biography of Harvey Cushing, was the first book-length biography of Cushing and has remained the standard source on his life. It is now available in its entirety in digital form at the website of the [http://www.med.yale.edu/library/subjects/digital.html Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library] at Yale University.
* [http://mssa.library.yale.edu/findaids/eadHTML/mssa.ms.0160.html Guide to the Harvey Williams Cushing Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library]
*Harvey Cushing : a Life in Surgery, by Michael Bliss (Oxford University Press, 2005)


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Harvey Cushing — (um 1900) Harvey Williams Cushing [ˈkʊʃɪŋ] (* 8. April 1869 in Cleveland, Ohio; † 7. Oktober 1939 in New Haven, Connecticut) war ein US amerikanischer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Harvey Cushing — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cushing. Harvey Williams Cushing Naissance …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Harvey Cushing — Cartel con breve reseña histórica de su vida en el Cementerio de Lake View. Harvey Williams Cushing (Cleveland, Ohio el 8 de abril de 1869 7 de octubre de 1939). Fue un médico estadounidense, instaurador de la neurocirugía como técnica quirúrgica …   Wikipedia Español

  • Harvey Cushing — noun United States neurologist noted for his study of the brain and pituitary gland and who identified Cushing s syndrome (1869 1939) • Syn: ↑Cushing, ↑Harvery Williams Cushing • Instance Hypernyms: ↑neurologist, ↑brain doctor …   Useful english dictionary

  • Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library — The Harvey Cushing and John Hay Whitney Medical Library is the central library of the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut. Previously known as the Yale Medical Library, it is one of the finest modern medical libraries. The library… …   Wikipedia

  • Harvey W. Cushing — Harvey Williams Cushing [ˈkʊʃɪŋ] (* 8. April 1869 in Cleveland (Ohio); † 7. Oktober 1939 in New Haven (Connecticut)) war ein US amerikanischer Neurologe und Chirurg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Harvey Williams Cushing — [ˈkʊʃɪŋ] (* 8. April 1869 in Cleveland (Ohio); † 7. Oktober 1939 in New Haven (Connecticut)) war ein US amerikanischer Neurologe und Chirurg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Cushing reflex — (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing s Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that… …   Wikipedia

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  • Cushing — ist der Name einer Krankheit für die Humanmedizin siehe Cushing Syndrom und Morbus Cushing für die Veterinärmedizin siehe Equines Cushing Syndrom der Name folgender Personen: Caleb Cushing (1800–1879), US amerikanischer Politiker Frank Hamilton… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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