- Treaty of Rapallo, 1922
Treaty of Rapallo, 1920"
The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement made in the Italian town of
Rapalloon April 16, 1922between Germany (the Weimar Republic) and the Soviet Russia under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovskand World War I.
The two governments also agreed to normalise their diplomatic relations and to "co-operate in a spirit of mutual goodwill in meeting the economic needs of both countries".
The Treaty was signed during the
Genoa Conferenceby Georgi Chicherin, foreign minister of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic, and his German counterpart Walther Rathenau.
A supplementary agreement signed at
Berlinon November 5extended the treaty to cover Germany's relations with Russian controlled (or heavily influenced) Soviet republics of Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armeniaand the Far Eastern Republic.
A secret annex signed on
July 29allowed Germany to train their military in Soviet territory, thus violating the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
The treaty ended the diplomatic isolation of both countries in the wake of
World War Iand the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was intended to form as an anti-Versailles axis against the West, since both groups lost a considerable amount of territory and political power under the treaty. In the West, it was viewed with alarm as strengthening the international position of both governments. Many conservative and far-rightelements with the Weimar Republicwere also alarmed by the government's decision to negotiate and maintain good relations with a communiststate, despite the Weimar coalition's SPDhaving been involved in the brutal suppression of the national communist party ( KPD) including the murder of Rosa Luxemburgand Karl Liebknecht. Poland, the Baltic states and Finlandwere concerned by this strengthening of Russian (now USSR) positions. The attempt to counter this development by closer cooperation in the fields of defence and foreign politics failed however, mainly due to resistance in the parliaments.
Though reaffirmed on paper in the
Treaty of Berlin, 1926, the understanding between the two powers waned with Germany's "reapprochement" with Britain and Francein the middle years of the decade.
Soviet-German relations before 1941
* [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/interwar/rapallo.htm The text of the agreement (Mount Holyoke College website)]
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