- Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India (or from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) was the head of the British administration in
India, and later, after Indian independence, the representative of the British Monarch. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-Generalof the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other British East India Companyofficials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official became known as the Governor-General of India.
In 1858, the territories of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown. The Governor-General headed the central Government of India which administered the British
Provinces of India(Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, etc.) collectively known at that time as " British India" (which term is now often used interchangeably with British Rajor British Indian Empire which relate to the pre-Independence period of British control in the whole of un-Partitioned India rather than these "British provinces" only). However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British government: outside of the British provinces there were hundreds of nominally sovereign princely statesor "native states" whose relationship was not with the British government, but directly with the monarch. To reflect the Governor-General's role as representative of the monarch to the feudal rulers of the princely states, from 1858 the term Viceroyand Governor-General of India (known for short as the Viceroy of India) was applied to him; the title of Viceroy was abandoned when India became independent in 1947. The office of Governor-General continued to exist in both India and Pakistan after independence until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956 respectively.
Until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the British East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British government; the
Secretary of State for India, a member of the UK Cabinet, was responsible for instructing him on the exercise of his powers. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but did so on the advice of the Indian government, rather than the British one.
Governors-General served five-year terms, but could be removed earlier. After the conclusion of a term, a provisional Governor-General was sometimes appointed until a new holder of the office could be chosen. Provisional Governors-General were often chosen from among the provincial Governors.
Many parts of India were governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor. In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act. A Governor-General and Council were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in
Bengal. The first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act; their successors were to be elected by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Act provided for a five-year term for the Governor-General and Council, but the Sovereign had the power to remove any of them.
The Charter Act, 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India. The power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval.
Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company was abolished, and its territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign. The Government of India Act 1858vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval.
India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written.
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burmaremained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; Pakistan became an Islamic one in 1956.
The Governor-General originally had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, however, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence. The other Presidencies of the East India Company (Madras, Bombay and Bencoolen) were neither allowed to declare war on nor make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William.
The powers of the Governor-General in respect of foreign affairs were increased by the India Act 1784. The Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General, or by the Company's Court of Directors.
While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India. This status only came with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence, direction and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act also granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council.
After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a
Governor, Lieutenant Governoror Chief Commissioneror Administrator. Governors were appointed by the British government, to whom they were directly responsible; Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners, and Administrators, however, were appointed by and were subordinate to the Governor-General. The Governor-General also oversaw the most powerful princely rulers: the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja(Scindia) of Gwalior, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmirand the Gaekwad(Gaekwar) Maharaja of Baroda. The remaining princely rulers were overseen either by the Rajputana Agencyand Central India Agency(which were headed by representatives of the Governor-General), or by provincial authorities.
Once India acquired independence, however, the Governor-General's role became almost entirely ceremonial, with power being exercised on a day-to-day basis by the Indian cabinet. After the nation became a republic, the non-executive
President of Indiacontinued to perform the same functions.
The Governor-General was always advised by a Council on the exercise of his legislative and executive powers. The Governor-General, while exercising many functions, was referred to as the "Governor-General in Council."
The Regulating Act 1773 provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional vote to break ties. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General.
In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.
The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.
In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 made several changes to the Council's composition. Three members were to be appointed by the Secretary of State for India, and two by the Sovereign. (The power to appoint all five members passed to the Crown in 1869.) The Governor-General was empowered to appoint an additional six to twelve members (changed to ten to sixteen in 1892, and to sixty in 1909). The five individuals appointed by the Indian Secretary or Sovereign headed the executive departments, while those appointed by the Governor-General debated and voted on legislation.
In 1919, an Indian legislature, consisting of a Council of State and a Legislative Assembly, took over the legislative functions of the Governor-General's Council. The Governor-General nonetheless retained significant power over legislation. He could authorize the expenditure of money without the Legislature's consent for "ecclesiastical, political [and] defence" purposes, and for any purpose during "emergencies." He was permitted to veto, or even stop debate on, any bill. If he recommended the passage of a bill, but only one chamber cooperated, he could declare the bill passed over the objections of the other chamber. The Legislature had no authority over foreign affairs and defence. The President of the Council of State was appointed by the Governor-General; the Legislative Assembly elected its President, but the election required the Governor-General's approval.
tyle and title
The Governor-General (including when he was Viceroy from 1858 to 1947) used the style "Excellency" and enjoyed precedence over all other government officials in India. He would be referred to as 'His Excellency' and addressed as 'Your Excellency'. From 1858 to 1947, Governors-General were known as "Viceroys" (from the French "roi", meaning "king"). Wives of Viceroys were known as Vicereines (from the French "reine", meaning "queen"). The Vicereine would be referred to as 'Her Excellency' and would also be addressed as 'Your Excellency'. Neither title was employed while the Sovereign was in India.
Order of the Star of Indiawas founded in 1861, the Viceroy was made its Grand Master "ex officio". The Viceroy was also made the "ex officio" Grand Master of the Order of the Indian Empireupon its foundation in 1877.
Most Governors-General and Viceroys were peers. Of those that were not, Sir John Shore was a
baronet, and Lord William Bentinckwas entitled to the courtesy title"Lord" because he was the son of a Duke. Only the first and last Governors-General — Warren Hastingsand Chakravarti Rajagopalchari — as well as some provisional Governors-General, had no special titles at all.
From around 1885, the Governor-General was allowed to fly a Union Flag augmented in the centre with the "Star of India" surmounted by a Crown. This flag was not the Governor-General's personal flag; it was also used by Governors, Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners and other British officers in India. When at sea, only the Governor-General flew the flag from the mainmast, while other officials flew it from the foremast.
From 1947 to 1950, the Governor-General of India used a dark blue flag bearing the royal crest (a lion standing on a crown), beneath which was the word "India" in gold majuscules. The same design is still used by many other Governors-General. This last flag was the personal flag of the Governor-General only.
The Governor-General of Fort William resided in Belvedere House,
Calcuttauntil the early nineteenth century, when Government House was constructed. In 1854, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal took up residence there. Now, the Belvedere Estatehouses the National Library of India. Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, who is reputed to have said that "India should be governed from a palace, not from a country house," constructed a grand mansion, known as Government House, between 1799 and 1803. The mansion remained in use until the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhiin 1912. Thereafter, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, who had hitherto resided in Belvedere House, was upgraded to a full Governor and transferred to Government House. Now, it serves as the residence of the Governor of the Indian state of West Bengal, and is referred to by its Hindiname Raj Bhavan.
After the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi, the Viceroy occupied a newly-built Viceroy's House, designed by Sir
Edwin Lutyens. Though construction began in 1912, it did not conclude until 1929; the home was not formally inaugurated until 1931. The final cost exceeded £877,000 (over £35,000,000 in modern terms) — more than twice the figure originally allocated. Today the residence, now known by the Hindi name of " Rashtrapati Bhavan," is used by the President of India.
Throughout the British administration, Governors-General retreated to the Viceregal Lodge "(see
Rashtrapati Niwas)" at Shimlaeach summer to escape the heat, and the government of India moved with them. The Viceregal Lodge now houses the Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
List of Governors-General
Governors-General of the Presidency of Fort William, 1774–1833
Warren Hastings, 20 October 1773– 1 February 1785
*"Sir John MacPherson,
1 February 1785– 12 September 1786, provisional"
* The Earl Cornwallis,
12 September 1786– 28 October 1793, "first time" (from 1792, The Marquess Cornwallis)
* Sir John Shore,
28 October 1793–March 1798
Alured Clarke, March 1798– 18 May 1798, provisional"
* The Earl of Mornington,
18 May 1798– 30 July 1805(from 1799, The Marquess Wellesley)
* The Marquess Cornwallis,
30 July 1805– 5 October 1805, "second time"
George Hilario Barlow, 10 October 1805– 31 July 1807, provisional"
* The Lord Minto,
31 July 1807– 4 October 1813
* The Earl of Moira,
4 October 1813– 9 January 1823(from 1817, The Marquess of Hastings)
* "John Adam,
9 January 1823– 1 August 1823, provisional"
* The Lord Amherst,
1 August 1823– 13 March 1828(from 1826, The Earl Amherst)
William Butterworth Bayley, 13 March 1828– 4 July 1828, provisional"
Lord William Bentinck 4 July 1828–1833
Governors-General of India, 1833–1858
Lord William Bentinck1833– 20 March 1835, "continued"
* "Sir Charles Metcalfe,
20 March 1835– 4 March 1836, provisional"
* The Lord Auckland,
4 March 1836– 28 February 1842(from 1839, The Earl of Auckland)
* The Lord Ellenborough,
28 February 1842–June 1844
William Wilberforce Bird, June 1844– 23 July 1844, provisional"
* Sir Henry Hardinge,
23 July 1844– 12 January 1848(from 1846, The Viscount Hardinge)
* The Earl of Dalhousie,
12 January 1848– 28 February 1856(from 1849, The Marquess of Dalhousie)
* The Viscount Canning,
28 February 1856– 1 November 1858
Governors-General and Viceroys of India, 1858–1947
* The Viscount Canning,
1 November 1858– 21 March 1862, "continued" (from 1859, The Earl Canning)
* The Earl of Elgin,
21 March 1862– 20 November 1863
* "Sir Robert Napier,
21 November 1863– 2 December 1863, provisional"
William Denison, 2 December 1863– 12 January 1864, provisional"
* Sir John Lawrence,
12 January 1864– 12 January 1869
* The Earl of Mayo,
12 January 1869– 8 February 1872
* "Sir John Strachey,
9 February 1872– 23 February 1872, provisional"
* "The Lord Napier,
24 February 1872– 3 May 1872, provisional"
* The Lord Northbrook,
3 May 1872– 12 April 1876
* The Lord Lytton,
12 April 1876– 8 June 1880
* The Marquess of Ripon,
8 June 1880– 13 December 1884
* The Earl of Dufferin,
13 December 1884– 10 December 1888
* The Marquess of Lansdowne,
10 December 1888– 11 October 1894
* The Earl of Elgin,
11 October 1894– 6 January 1899
* The Lord Curzon of Kedleston,
6 January 1899– 18 November 1905
** "The Lord Ampthill, 1904, acting for the Lord Curzon of Kedleston"
* The Earl of Minto,
18 November 1905– 23 November 1910
* The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst,
23 November 1910– 4 April 1916
* The Lord Chelmsford,
4 April 1916– 2 April 1921
* The Earl of Reading,
2 April 1921– 3 April 1926
* The Lord Irwin,
3 April 1926– 18 April 1931
* The Earl of Willingdon,
18 April 1931– 18 April 1936
* The Marquess of Linlithgow,
18 April 1936– 1 October 1943
* The Viscount Wavell,
1 October 1943– 21 February 1947
* The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma,
21 February 1947– 15 August 1947
Governors-General of India, 1947–1950
* The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma,
15 August 1947–June 1948
* Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari, June 1948–
25 January 1950
Governors-General of Pakistan, 1947–1958
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, 15 August 1947– 11 September 1948
Khwaja Nazimuddin, 14 September 1948– 17 October 1951
Ghulam Mohammad, 17 October 1951– 6 October 1955
Iskander Mirza, 6 October 1955– 23 March 1956
Emperor of India
Governor-General of Pakistan
Indian independence movement
President of India
President of Pakistan
Secretary of State for India
Indian Civil Service
Partition of India
History of Bangladesh
History of India
History of Pakistan
* [http://www.acarm.org/goverment_buildings.shtml Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Record Managers, (1999). "Government Buildings - India"]
* Forrest, G.W.,
CIE, (editor), "Selections from The State Papers of the Governors-General of India - Warren Hastings" (2 vols), Blackwell's, Oxford, 1910.
* "Encyclopædia Britannica" ("British Empire" and "Viceroy"), London, 1911, 11th edition,
Cambridge University Press.
* James, Lawrence, "Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India" London: Little, Brown & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-316-64072-7
* Keith, A. B. (editor), "Speeches and Documents on Indian Policy, 1750–1921",
Oxford University Press, 1922.
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557562/India.html Oldenburg, P. (2004). "India." "Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia."]
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