- Tongzhi Emperor
Infobox Chinese Royalty
name = Tongzhi Emperor
native name = 同治帝
temple name = Qing Muzong
11 November, 1861– 12 January, 1875
spouse =Empress Xiao Zhe Yi
full name =Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Zaichun 愛新覺羅載淳
Manchu: Aisin-Gioro Dzai Šun
posthumous name =Emperor Jitian Kaiyun Shouzhong Juzheng Baoda Dinggong Shengzhi Chengxiao Xinmin Gongkuan Yi
temple name = Mùzōng 穆宗
titles = The Emperor
era name = Chinese: Tóngzhì 同治 Manchu: Yooningga dasan
era dates =
January 30, 1862– February 5, 1875
royal house =House of Aisin-Gioro
Empress Dowager Cixi
date of birth =Birth date|1856|4|27
place of birth =
Forbidden City, Beijing
date of death = Death date and age|1875|1|12|1856|4|27
place of death =
Forbidden City, Beijing
place of burial =
Eastern Qing Tombs, Zunhua
The Tongzhi Emperor, born Zaichun (
April 27, 1856– January 12, 1875) was the ninth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875.
The only surviving son of the
Xianfeng Emperorand the Empress Dowager Cixi, Tongzhi attempted political reform in the period of the Tongzhi Restoration. His first reign namewas Qixiang (祺祥; Man: fengšengge sabingga), but this name was later abandoned by Cixi in favour of Tongzhi, a contraction of the classical phrase "tóngguī yǔ zhì" ( Simplified Chinese: 同归与治, Traditional Chinese: 同歸與治), which means "to reform/restore together a state of order", although it has been interpreted as "to rule the state with a united mother/son team" (Simplified and traditional Chinese: 母子同治天下), which fits the description, as his mother, Empress Dowager Cixi, wielded the real power and ruled behind the scene. The traditional Chinese political phrase "attending audiences behind a curtain" "chuí lián tīng zhèng" ( Simplified Chinese: 垂帘听政, Traditional Chinese: 垂簾聽政), which had already been used earlier in Chinese history, was used to describe Cixi's rule through her son, the Tongzhi Emperor. The phrase can still be heard in contemporary Chinese politics.
Tongzhi became emperor at the age of five when his father, the
Xianfeng Emperordied. His birth mother, Empress Dowager Cixi, his father's Empress, the Empress Dowager Ci'an, and his uncle, Prince Gong, became regents after removing the former regent, Sushun.
Tongzhi married Lady Alute from a
Mongolclan and died of smallpox at the age of 18. He was buried in the Eastern Qing Tombs in Hebei province. He had no sons to succeed him. Folklore says that Tongzhi died from a sexually transmitted disease, specifically syphilis, due to his alleged affairs with prostitutes outside of the palace, and that the smallpox diagnosis was given only because the mere discussion of sexually transmitted diseases in China was taboo. However, no credible evidence exists to substantiate the rumours.
His mothers, the two dowagers, resumed regency after appointing
1st Prince Chun's son, Guangxu, his reigning title.
A few months after Tongzhi's death,
Empress Alutedied. It is said that she either committed suicide or that Cixistarved her to death by cutting off her food supply. Chinese Tongzhi ceramicsand other courtly arts of the period are sometimes said to suffer from a diminishment of quantity and sometimes quality.
* Mother: Noble Consort Yi (
Empress Dowager Cixi)
# Empress Xiao Zhe Yi, ( _zh. 孝哲毅皇后) of the Alute clan (1854 - 1875)
Imperial Noble Consort Shushen, ( _zh. 淑慎皇贵妃) (1860 - 1905)
Imperial Noble Consort Zhuanghe, ( _zh. 庄和皇贵妃) (1857 - 1921)
Imperial Noble Consort Jingyi, ( _zh. 敬懿皇贵妃) (1856 - 1932)
Imperial Noble Consort Ronghui, ( _zh. 荣惠皇贵妃) (1854 - 1933)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Tongzhi — ▪ emperor of Qing dynasty Wade Giles romanization T ung chih , personal name (xingming) Zaichun , posthumous name (shi) Yidi , temple name (miaohao) (Qing) Muzong born April 27, 1856, Beijing, China died Jan. 12, 1875, Beijing reign… … Universalium
Tongzhi — This article refers to the term tongzhi . For the emperor who reigned China between 1861 and 1875, see Tongzhi Emperor Tongzhi (同志, tóngzhì) is a term which literally means same will or same purpose in Chinese. Idiomatically, it means comrade .… … Wikipedia
Tongzhi Restoration — The Tongzhi Restoration (c 1860–1874) was an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline of the Qing dynasty of China by restoring the traditional order. The rude realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid century mass uprisings… … Wikipedia
Emperor of China — For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). Emperor is the normal translation of 皇帝 (huangdi), a Chinese term that is not to be confused with the homophonic 黄帝, which refers to the Yellow Emperor. Emperor of China Former… … Wikipedia
Guangxu Emperor — Infobox Chinese Royalty name = Guangxu Emperor native name = 光緒帝 temple name = Qing Dézōng 清德宗 reign = 25 February 1875 – 14 November 1908 predecessor = Tongzhi Emperor successor = Xuantong Emperor spouse =Empress Xiao Ding Jing issue = full name … Wikipedia
Xianfeng Emperor — Infobox Chinese Royalty name = Xianfeng Emperor native name = 咸豐帝 temple name = Qing Wenzong 清文宗 reign = 9 March, 1850 – 22 August, 1861 predecessor = Daoguang Emperor successor = Tongzhi Emperor spouse =Empress Xiao De Xian Empress Xiao Zhen… … Wikipedia
Chinese Tongzhi ceramics — Imperial Presentation Vase, Tongzhi Mark and Period, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan Chinese Tongzhi 同治 (1862–1874) porcelain marks the reconstruction of the Jingdezhen 景德鎮 official kilns after the destructive Taiping Rebellion 太平天国 which completely… … Wikipedia
Jiaqing Emperor — Jiaqing Emperor … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Cixi — 慈禧太后 Regent of the Qing Dynasty Regency 11 November 1861 – 15 November 1908 ( 1000000000000004700000047 years, 100000000000000040000004 days … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Ci'an — 孝贞显皇后（慈安太后） Regent of the Qing Dynasty Regency 11 November 1861 – 8 April 1881 ( 1 … Wikipedia