Canton of Schaffhausen


Canton of Schaffhausen
Kanton Schaffhausen
—  Canton of Switzerland  —

Coat of arms
Map of Switzerland, location of Schaffhausen highlighted
Coordinates: 47°43′N 8°34′E / 47.717°N 8.567°E / 47.717; 8.567Coordinates: 47°43′N 8°34′E / 47.717°N 8.567°E / 47.717; 8.567
Capital Schaffhausen
Subdivisions 27 municipalities
Government
 - Executive Regierungsrat (5)
 - Legislative Kantonsrat (80)
Area[1]
 - Total 298.42 km2 (115.2 sq mi)
Population (12/2009)[2]
 - Total 75,657
 - Density 253.5/km2 (656.6/sq mi)
Highest point 912 m (2,992 ft) - Hagen
Lowest point 344 m (1,129 ft) - Rhine at Buchberg
Joined 1501
Abbreviation SH
Languages German
Website SH.ch

The Canton of About this sound Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen.

Contents

History

Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was then known as Villa Scafhusun.[3] Around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190. In 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but also its independence to the Habsburgs. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and was banned by the Emperor Sigismund. As a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two (Uri and Unterwalden) in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501.[3] The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857. In 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Force planes that accidentally strayed from Germany to neutral Switzerland.

The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895.

The distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock, (Billy Goat of Schaffhausen).

Geography

Countryside near Dörflingen

The canton of Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland, located to the north of Zurich. It lies west of Lake Constance and has a size of 298 km2 (115 sq mi).[4] Much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 (51.9 sq mi) (about 45%) of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 (49.7 sq mi) (about 43%) is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton, 31.8 km2 (12.3 sq mi) (about 10%), is developed while only 3.8 km2 (1.5 sq mi) (1.3%) of the canton is unproductive (rivers, lakes or mountains).[5]

The land is almost entirely surrounded by Germany, which lies to the north, east and west of the canton. The canton of Schaffhausen is even divided by parts of Germany. There are three parts to the canton. The largest part includes the capital Schaffhausen. The small district of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies in the southwest of the canton, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. Furthermore, the German exclave town of Büsingen am Hochrhein lies along part of the southern border of the main section of the canton.

Most of the canton lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of this mountain is 912 m (2,992 ft). The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley. Short and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley.

The Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the canton of Schaffhausen and the canton of Zurich.

Municipalities

Municipalities in the Canton

There are 27 municipalities in the canton as of January 2009.[6]

Demographics

The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2009) is 75,657.[2] As of 2007, the population included 16,323 foreigners, or about 21.9% of the total population.[7] The German language and Protestant faith predominate. The majority of the population (as of 2000) is Protestant (50%) while a large minority is Roman Catholic (24%).[8]

Economy

Schaffhausen is a part of the Zürcher Wirtschaftsraum (Zurich economic region) and the canton's economy is well integrated with that of the wider region.

Well-regarded white Riesling wine is grown here as well as several other varieties.[9] The main industries, however, are the production of machinery and metal goods. There is also watch making and jewellery. Minor industrial branches are textiles, leather goods, glass, cement, paper and chemicals.[10] There is a brewery in the canton.

At Rheinau there is a hydro electrical power plant generating electricity for the canton and for export. Major electricity customers are the chemical industry in Rheinfelden and the aluminium plant at Neuhausen am Rheinfall. The city of Schaffhausen also uses much of the electricity produced at Rheinau.

Schaffhausen lies on the busy Milan-Zurich-Stuttgart rail line which is serviced by trains from both the Swiss SBB-CFF-FFS and German Deutsche Bahn national railway companies.[11]

References

  1. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Kantonsdaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  2. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office, MS Excel document – Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach Kantonen, Bezirken und Gemeinden (German) accessed 25 August 2010
  3. ^ a b "Schaffhausen (city)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. 1911. pp. 312. http://books.google.com/books?id=ajsEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA312. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  4. ^ Canton Schaffhausen website, Geography (German) accessed 18 April 2009
  5. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Arealstatistik – Kantonsdaten nach 15 Nutzungsarten" (Microsoft Excel). http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/02/03/blank/key/01/zustand_und_entwicklung__tabelle.html. Retrieved 2009-01-15. (German)
  6. ^ "Répertoire officiel des communes de Suisse". Statistique Suisse. 2009-01-01. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/fr/index/infothek/nomenklaturen/blank/blank/gem_liste/03.Document.90142.xls. Retrieved 10 July 2009. 
  7. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen" (Microsoft Excel). http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/01/02/blank/key/raeumliche_verteilung/kantone__gemeinden.html. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  8. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion" (Interactive Map). http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/01/05/blank/key/religionen.html. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  9. ^ Canton Schaffhausen website, Wine Production (German) accessed 18 April 2009
  10. ^ Canton Schaffhausen website- Economic Promotion accessed 18 April 2009
  11. ^ Canton Schaffhausen website, Economic Promotion-Geographic Location accessed 18 April 2009

External links


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