- Scientology beliefs and practices
Scientology is, according to its own texts, "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, others and all of life." [cite web | url=http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg006.html | title=Introduction to Scientology | publisher=Church of Scientology | accessdate=2006-05-04] Scientology philosophy encompasses all aspects of life from the point of view of the spirit; including a spiritual rehabilitation philosophy and techniques, morals, ethics, detoxification, education and management. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/foreword/pagex-a.html web site: What is Scientology: foreword] ]
One of the major tenets of Scientology is a belief that each human is inhabited by alien spirits, what L Ron Hubbard dubbed, " The Space Opera". It is a basic belief of Scientology that a human being is actually an immortal spiritual being, termed a
thetan, that is presently trapped on planet Earth in a "meat body." The thetan has had innumerable past lives and it is accepted in Scientology that lives antedating the thetan's arrival on Earth lived in extraterrestrial cultures. Descriptions of space opera incidents are seen as true events by Scientologists. [http://en.allexperts.com/q/Scientology-1751/L-Ron-Hubbard-space.htm?zIr=1]
Prime among Scientology's beliefs is: "that man is a spiritual being whose existence spans more than one life and who is endowed with abilities well beyond those which he normally considers he possesses." [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/02/index.htm Web site: Bonafide Scientology - Doctrine of the Scientology Religion] ]
Scientology believes man to be basically good and that his experiences have led him into evil; that he errs because he seeks to solve his problems by considering only his own point of view; and that man can improve to the degree he preserves his spiritual integrity and remains honest and decent. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part01/Chp01/pg0003.html Web Site: What is Scientology - SCIENTOLOGY: ITS BACKGROUND AND ORIGINS] ]
According to the Church, the ultimate goal is: "a civilization without insanity, without criminals and without war, where the able can prosper and honest beings can have rights, and where man is free to rise to greater heights.” [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/page02.htm Web Site: Bona Fide Scientology - Introduction to the Scientology Religion pg 2] ]
The purpose of Scientology is "to know"; to achieve complete certainty of one's spiritual existence and one's relationship to the Supreme Being. [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/02/page01.htm Web Site: Bona Fide Scientology - doctrine of the Scientology Religion pg 2] ] In Scientology no one is asked to accept anything as belief or on faith; the tenets of Scientology are expected to be tested and seen to be either true or not by Scientology practitioners. "That which is true for you is what you have observed to be true." [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/index.html Web Site: Scientology.org - Introduction to Scientology]
Scientology says its practice provides exact and precise methods by which a person can achieve greater spiritual awareness. "Auditing" and "Training" are the primary practices of Scientology. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/Chp05/index.html Web Site: What is Scientology - THE PRACTICE OF SCIENTOLOGY] ]
The word "Scientology", according to Hubbard, comes from the Latin word "scio" that means "(I) know" and the Greek word "
logos" meaning "word" or "story." Scientology would thus mean "knowing words" or "knowing stories". [http://www.scientology.org/ Scientology Web Site] ] Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard, the word "scientology" predates his usage by several decades. An early use of the word was as a neologismin an 1871 book by the American anarchist Stephen Pearl Andrewspresenting "the newly discovered Science of the Universe". [cite book
title=The Primary Synopsis of Universology and Alwato: The New Scientific Universal Language
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=WpwsVIfv5CcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22The+Primary+Synopsis+of+Universology+and+Alwato%22&lr=&as_brr=0 At p. xiii, "Scientology" is defined as "the Science of the Scientismus, or of that Secondary Department of Being, or Stage of Evolution, in which Scientism, the Spirit or Principle of Science (or of that which is analogous with Science) preponderates". ( [http://books.google.com/books?id=WpwsVIfv5CcC&pg=PR13&vq=scientology&dq=%22The+Primary+Synopsis+of+Universology+and+Alwato%22&lr=&as_brr=0 Google Books link] )] Philologist
Allen Upwardused the word "scientology" in his 1901 book "The New Word" as a synonym for " pseudoscience," [Allen Upward: The New Word, pp 139, 149 & 156] and this is sometimes cited as the first coining of the word.cite book | last = Atack | first = Jon | authorlink = Jon Atack | year = 1990 | url = http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/atack/index.html | title = A Piece of Blue Sky | publisher = Carol Publishing Group | location = New York, NY|pages = 128|id = ISBN 0-8184-0499-X]
Scientology describes itself as the study and handling of the
spiritin relationship to itself, others, and all of life. Scientology philosophyencompasses all aspects of life from the point of view of the spirit; including morals, ethics, family relations, work, education, and organization.
According to the official website, in Scientology no one is asked to accept anything as belief or on
faith; emphasis is given to individual observation. Scientology holds as its most important tenet: "that which is true for you is what you have observed to be true".It is considered a high crime in Scientology for an Auditor to evaluate or invalidate for the preclear in any form or fashion. [ [http://www.scientology.org/html/opencms/cos/scientology/en_US/news-media/faq/pg009.html Auditors Code] ] Scientologists believe that an individual would discover for himself that Scientology works by personally applying its principles and observing or experiencing results. However, the alteration of any of the works, or techniques was declared by Hubbard as "Squirelling the tech" and considered by Scientology doctrine as a "high crime" [Keep Scientology Working, L. Ron Hubbard, 7 February 1965] . Individuals who are in an off shoot known as the Freezonewere litigated against for using and modifying the practices to suit them [Playing Dirty:The Secret War Against Beliefs, Omar V. Garrison, 1980] .
science fictionauthor L. Ron Hubbardis considered the sole source of Dianetics and Scientology. His work, recorded in 500,000 pages of writings, 6,500 reels of tape and 42 films, is carefully protected and guarded for posterity. [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientologysided062490,0,7493097.story?coll=la-home-headlines Church Scriptures Get High-Tech Protection] ]
It is believed in Scientology that Scientology will only work when it is applied in its pure form as Hubbard intended. [ [http://www.rtc.org/en_US/guarant/index.html RTC: THE GUARANTOR OF SCIENTOLOGY’S FUTURE] ] Any alteration to the application of these techniques is considered a high crime under Scientology law because it hinders Scientology's effectiveness. [ [Book: Introduction to Scientology Ethics - High Crimes] ] Restating or interpreting the source text in your own words is frowned upon and strongly disadvised. [Hubbard Communication Office, HCOB 15 February 1979, Reissued 12 April 1983. ]
However scientology and the organizations that promote it have remained highly controversial since their inception. Journalists, courts and the governing bodies of several countries have stated that the
Church of Scientologyis a cultand an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and abuses the trust of its members. An example is France, where the Church of Scientologyis being subjected to a lawsuit accusing them of with abuse of civil liberties, misleading publicity and attempted fraud [John Henley, France Puts Scientology Sect on Trial http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/feb/21/jonhenley Retrieved 28 September 2008] . Scientology officials argue that most negative press has been motivated by interest groups and that most of the controversy is past history. While the U.S. State Department has commented negatively in its annual "International Religious Freedom Report"s on countries that discriminate against Scientologists and their religious freedoms, it has also commented negatively on the efforts of Scientology officials to denigrate such governments themselves.
Texts and lectures
It is a body of beliefs and related techniques composed of 18 basic books, [ [http://bpi.goldenageofknowledge.net/package-contents.html Bridge Publications, The Basics] ] 15,000 pages of technical writing and over 3,000 lectures. [ [http://www.religioustolerance.org/scientol1.htm Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, About Scientology] ] There is no single, canonical Scientology text or book of texts comparable to the
Bibleor to the Koran. Rather, the study of Scientology is achieved through the chronological study of its basic books and lecture. [ [http://bpi.goldenageofknowledge.net/index.html Bridge Publications, The Basics: Introduction] ]
The Parts of Man
Scientologists believe that man is composed of three distinguishable parts: Mind, Body and Spirit. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0151.html The Parts of Man] ]
The spirit is defined in the Scientology Axiom #1 as a true static. A true static does not have mass, motion, wavelength, location in space or in time. But it can perceive and postulate. [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Append/01/page10.htm Scientology Axioms 1 to 10] ] The spirit is the true form of man and the spirit can exist exterior to and/or independent from a body. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0152.html The Thetan] ]
The spirit in Scientology is represented with the Greek letter 'Theta' (Θ) that means 'thought' [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg008.html The Parts of Man] ] or 'god'. An individual spiritual being in Scientology is called a Thetan: "The personality and beingness which actually is the individual and is aware of being aware and is ordinarily and normally the "person" and who the individual thinks he his.“
The mind in Scientology is described as a bank of mental image pictures. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg003.html How the mind works.] ] These pictures give the spirit experience and knowledge, and stores the thetan’s postulates.
Facsimile is the term used in Scientology to describe a mental image picture. A facsimile is an impression of motion and it contains all perspectives about an experience including pleasure and pain. [ [Book: Handbook for Preclears / Chapter 4: The Human mind / 2007 edition] ]
“A Heavy Facsimile is an experience, complete with all perceptions and emotions and thoughts and efforts, occupying a precise place in space and a moment in time.” [ [Book: Advance Procedures and Axioms / 2007 edition / page 56] ]
In Scientology, the mind is subdivided in two distinguishable sections: [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0146.html The Parts of the mind] ]
The Analytical Mind
According to Scientology, the analytical mind is that part of the mind which is "totally accessible to the spirit. It is the portion of the mind one is aware of using." [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/Html/Part14/Chp50/pg1018.html#analytical GLOSSARY OF SCIENTOLOGY & DIANETICS TERMS] ] This can be referred to as the conscious mind.
The Reactive mind
Scientologists believe that the Reactive mind is "that part of the mind which is not accessible to the spirit and it unknowingly affects the spirit; it is mostly composed of moments of pain and unconscious. It is said to operate on an irrational, stimulus-response basis." [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0147.html The Reactive Mind] ] This could be likened to the unconscious or subconscious mind.
The physical biological body of man; Scientology describes the body as a carbon-oxygen machine, the Thetan being the engineer of this machine. Scientology is not intended to be a replacement for medical treatment. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/news-media/faq/pg020.html Scientology.oef: Do Scientologists use medical doctors?] ] But Scientologists do use a procedure called an 'assist' to alleviate a present time discomfort and accelerate medical recovery. [ [http://www.scientologyhandbook.org/SH6_1.HTM Factors of Assists - Assists for Illnesses and Injuries, How can Scientology help me ] ]
The Genetic Entity
Scientologists believe that the "Genetic Entity" or "GE" can be described like the body's life force that is independent from the spirit. It was formerly known as the "somatic mind" in Dianetics. Scientologists believe that the GE regulates the heartbeat, keeps the body running and is responsible for the evolution of the body. [ [Book: Scientology: A history of Man / 2007 edition / pg 19] ] Scientists will dispute this claim, as it is a well known scientific fact that the heartbeat is regulated by a neural impulse originating in the brain, and that evolution is a reproductive process influenced by external survival factors.
The Scientology Axioms are a condensation of all Scientology data until 1954. [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Append/01/page09.htm The Scientology Axioms] ] Examples of these include:
*Axiom 1 Life is basically a static.
*Axiom 4 Space is a viewpoint of dimension.
*Axiom 21 Understanding is composed of affinity, reality and communication
The summation of all the Scientology ideas about the spirit and the physical universe until 23 April 1953. [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Append/01/page03.htm The Factors] ] Examples of these include:
*Before the beginning was a Cause...
*The first action of beingness is to assume a viewpoint.
The Logics are the basis of what Scientology describes as "empirical thinking." [ [http://www.scientology.org/wis/WISENG/34/34-log.htm The Logics] ] Examples of these include:
* Logic 4 A datum is a symbol of matter, energy, space or time, or any combination thereof, in any universe, or the matter, energy, space or time itself, or any combination thereof, in any universe.
*Logic 6 Absolutes are unobtainable.
*Logic 7 Gradient scales are necessary to the evaluation of problems and their data.
The Prelogics are divided in the Qs. In Scientology belief, the Qs are the highest echelon of knowledge from which all other knowledge is derived. Q simply means the most common datum that sums all other data. [ [http://www.scientology.org/wis/WISENG/34/34-prel.htm The Prelogics] ] Examples of these include:
*Q1 Self-determinism is the common denominator of all life impulses.
*Q2 Definition of self-determinism: the ability to locate in space and time, energy and matter, also the ability to create space and time in which to create and locate energy and matter
Scientology holds that man's survival depends upon more than just himself. Scientology belief says that the urge to survive can be divided into eight areas, known as "dynamics." These dynamics can be pictured as increasingly larger and wider-ranging areas. They are: [ [http://www.scientology.org/wis/WISENG/wis4-6/wis4_12.htm] Dead link|date=March 2008]
According to Scientology doctrine, these areas are used to understand one's life, and to improve one's solutions to life by bettering one's understanding of the different areas of life.
# Self: This dynamic represents one's effort or urge to survive as an individual. Says the Church, "This dynamic includes the individual plus his immediate possessions. It does not include other people."
# Sex. This was the original Second Dynamic as set by Hubbard. It had two divisions: (a) the sexual act, and (b) the family unit. An additional meaning of this dynamic was added to the definition later: "Creativity", which "also incidentally includes sex as a mechanism to compel future survival."
# Groups. "A group can be a community, friends, a company, a social lodge, a state, a nation, a race or in short, any group. It doesn’t matter what size this group is, it is seeking to survive as a group."
# Mankind. "Whereas the American nationality would be considered a third dynamic for Americans, all the nationalities of the world together would be considered the fourth dynamic."
# All living things. "This includes all living things whether animal or vegetable, anything directly and intimately motivated by life."
# The physical universe. "The physical universe has four components. These are matter, energy, space and time," which the Church commonly acronyms to MEST.
# Spirits. "The seventh dynamic is life source. This is separate from the physical universe and is the source of life itself."
# The supreme being, or Infinity. "The eighth dynamic is commonly supposed to be a Supreme Being or Creator. It is correctly defined as infinity. It actually embraces the allness of all."
Because Scientology teaches that furthering "survival" is the preferred spiritual path, a common phrase used within the organization is: "The greatest good for the greatest number of dynamics." The idea implies a balance among all areas.
The ARC Triangle
The ARC triangle is a Scientology concept that teaches that Affinity + Reality + Communication = Understanding. The concepts of Affinity, Reality and Communication are interrelated in the sense that increasing one in Scientology belief increases the other two. This concept is better understood by comparing it to a triangle. By naming each corner of the triangle with the concepts of Affinity, Reality and Communication respectively you can see how raising the level of one corner also raises the level of the other two. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0159.html ARC Triangle] ] The ARC triangle is also the lower triangle represented in the Scientology symbol. [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/04/page16.htm Bonafine Scientology Website / SCIENTOLOGY SYMBOL] ]
Communication in Scientology is considered the most important element of the ARC triangle. [ [http://www.scientologyhandbook.org/SH3_3.HTM Scientology Handbook Website / Communication] ] Communication is the universal solvent, through communication greater states of affinity and reality can be achieved. All Scientology processes are based on the use of communication and the ARC triangle. The fundamental elements of communication are Cause, Distance and Effect. [ [http://www.scientologyhandbook.org/SH5_2.HTM Scientology Handbook Website / Factors of Communication] ]
Affinity is defined in Scientology as love or liking; but it is technically defined as “degree of liking.” [ [http://www.scientologyhandbook.org/SH3_1.HTM Scientology Handbook Website / Affinity] ]
The Tone scale
The tone scale is a chart representing the emotional state and behavior of man by assigning it a numerical value. The original tone scale found in the Dianetics book used the values from zero (0) to four (4). [ [http://hotline.dianetics.org/tscale/index.htm Dianetics Web Site] ] The number zero represented death and four represented Enthusiasm. Other values found in the chart are:: 3.5 Cheerfulness: 3.0 Conservatism: 2.5 Boredom: 2.0 Antagonism: 1.5 Anger: 1.0 Fear: 0.5 Grief: 0.05 Apathy
Later this scale was expanded to represent spiritual states that go beyond human manifestation. These states are represented with the values from negative forty (-40) to forty (40). Forty represents "Serenity of Beingness" and negative forty represents "Total Failure." [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0156.html What is Scientology Web site / The Tone Scale] ]
The KRC Triangle
Another important concept in Scientology is the "KRC triangle." The letters KRC stands for knowledge (K), responsibility (R), and control (C). This triangle, like the "ARC triangle,” is composed of three interrelated elements, and by raising or lowering the level of one part of the triangle, the other two parts respond in kind. For example, by raising your Knowledge of something and by taking more Responsibility for it, you can then be in better Control of it. This triangle is the upper triangle found in the Scientology symbol.
Differentiation, association, and identification
Differentiation, Association and Identification are the three Scientology concepts that explain how man processes data. These concepts form a scale of knowingness from full knowingness to unknowingness. "Differentiation is at the top of the Tone Scale and is a condition of the highest level of sanity and individuality" [Book: Scientology: 8-8008 / Chapter 12 / 2007 edition] ]
Association occurs when understanding is accomplished by association with other data.This is Logic and is considered a step down from Differentiation because never two apples are alike. A person that is in good shape knows what is right and knows what is wrong, he doesn't need to use logic to figure it out. A criminal always uses logic to justify a crime.
Identification is the mental process of the mad man where all data is the same."Insanity is the inability to associate or differentiate properly." "As logic reaches the lower part of the scale... identification is reached and thought could be expressed in terms of A=A=A=A."
The Bridge to Total Freedom is a metaphoric "bridge" one gradually crosses in their Scientology studies, and by which a person charts their progress towards higher goals. In fact, it exists as a literal chart showing the proper order of levels one must progress in
Scientologybefore reaching Clear and ultimately, Operating Thetan. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/bridge/pg005.html http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/bridge/pg005.html] ]
Among Scientologists, Hubbard's technical writings are referred to as "Standard Tech" or simply "The Tech." These writings (and taped lectures) include not only auditing procedures, but also materials governing training and the administration of Scientology facilities. As the developer of the Tech, Hubbard himself is referred to as "Source," and his statements are considered the sole and definitive source of the Tech.
"Standard Tech" describes the correct application of Hubbard's instructions, which is to say that they are "on Source," transmitted without any deviation from Hubbard's original intentions.
The Church of Scientology has issued versions of some of Hubbard's texts and recordings that contain alterations or omissions with respect to their original versions. These variant texts have been a subject of controversy, especially among Free Zone practitioners, who say that the current Church management is deviating from Standard Tech.
In July 2007, a massive re-release of all of Hubbard's basic books and tape recordings on Dianetics and Scientology was announced. The announcement was made in a speech given by David Miscavige and the Flag Land Base. In an almost three hour briefing he presented that many errors had been found in previous versions of the books, and that a large-scale project was undertaken to locate the original dictaphone recordings and annotated transcriptions of the books and restore each work to its original form, as intended by Hubbard.
Some of the controversy surrounding Scientology is a consequence of the doctrine of the immortal spirit in combination with the acceptance of past lives. Moreover, L. Ron Hubbard and the Church of Scientology both distinguish the concept of "past lives" as a different concept from that of "reincarnation". [http://www.ronthephilosopher.org/phlspher/page62.htm]
The common definition of reincarnation has been altered from its original meaning. The word has come to mean “to be born again in different life forms” whereas its actual definition is “to be born again into the flesh or into another body.” Scientology ascribes to this latter, original definition of reincarnation. ["Does Scientology believe in reincarnation or past lives?" Church of Scientology website. Retrieved 2 February 2008. [http://www.scientology.org/religion/catechism/pg011.html] ]
The extension is that if one is immortal, then one did not always have past lives in human form, only in historically documented cultures, or only on planet Earth. In fact, given a truly immortal being, and immense periods of time, unusual coincidences between events widely separated in time and space would easily attract more attention and notoriety than the commonplace and often boring lifetime of, for example, a serf or a peasant. A truly immortal being might not even be restricted to living his or her existence in a single universe.
Hubbard is documented to have written about past life memories that include a variety of lines of recall, including all stages of human evolution, genetic line recalls in other lines of development, including the clam (see
Scientology History of Man), lives on past planets as other life forms, and real and implanted memories from the alien spirits that Scientologists believe Xenutrapped on Earth 75 million years ago.
Many Scientologists report recalling past lives through auditing. Scientology says that through auditing, ultimately anything that has happened to one was something the person somehow himself created or allowed and that they need to take responsibility to be free of its burden.
Critics call this belief a
pseudoscience, stating the theory seems to be tailored so it is not falsifiableby any observations of the real world. They point out that whatever reaction a person has can be ascribed to some previously unknown incident in one of the many past lives.
See also the general article on
ecret levels and writings
The church acknowledges that at the higher levels of initiation [http://file.sunshinepress.org:54445/scientology-ot-levels.pdf] ] ("OT levels"), teachings are imparted which may be considered "mystical" and potentially harmful to unprepared readers. These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels. The Church states that the secrets are about methods, techniques, skills, and the context which underlies them in order to accomplish a specific spiritual goal. They are not intended for those who would use them for purposes of personal entertainment, critical review, or other non-spiritual reasons.
The church states that if a person reads "distorted" versions of the higher level teachings one is likely to question one's own experience when "in session" adding time to the process in order to sort out the truth of the matter fully and thereby sabotaging the process. According to the church, it opposes the distribution of the "confidential" levels in order to protect them (and the Scientologists attaining them) from contamination by outside sources.
The "Hidden Truth" about what Scientologists believe to be the nature of the universe is taught to the most advanced Scientologists in a series of courses known as the Advanced Levels. These are the levels above "Clear" and their contents are held in strict confidence within Scientology. The Advanced Levels are also known as the eight Pre-OT (
Operating Thetan) levels. The highest level, OT VIII, is only disclosed at sea, on the Scientology cruise ship " Freewinds", and is said to be the first true OT level. It was released in the late 1980s.
Since being entered into evidence in several court cases beginning in the early 1980s, synopses and excerpts of these secret teachings have appeared in numerous publications [http://file.sunshinepress.org:54445/scientology-ot-levels.pdf] ] .
Scientologists argue that published accounts of the
Xenustory [http://file.sunshinepress.org:54445/scientology-ot-levels.pdf] ] and other teachings are pulled out of context for the purpose of ridiculing their religion. Journalists and critics counter that Xenu is part of a much wider Scientology belief in past lives on other planets, some of which has been public knowledge for decades. For instance, Hubbard's 1958 book "Have You Lived Before This Life?" documents past lives described by individual Scientologists during auditing sessions. These included memories of being "deceived into a love affair with a robotdecked out as a beautiful red-haired girl," being run over by a Martian bishopdriving a steamroller, being transformed into an intergalactic walrusthat perished after falling out of a flying saucer, and recalling life as "a very happy being who strayed to the planet Nostra 23,064,000,000 years ago."
Scientology and the Supreme Being
Scientology acknowledges the existence of a Supreme Being and describes the 8th Dynamic as the infinite or the God dynamic. [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg009.html What Is Scientology? > The Dynamics of Life accessed 2007-01-25] The Church of Scientology has no denominational structure.
Scientologists who are undergoing auditing during the pre-clear and OT levels are forbidden for the duration of such auditing from engaging in "other practices" that are designed to bring about mental or spiritual change.
The central practice of Scientology, and Dianetics preceding it, is an activity known as "auditing" (listening) which seeks to elevate an adherent to a State of "Clear", one of freedom from the influences of the reactive mind. The practice is one wherein a counselor called an "auditor" addresses a series of questions to a "preclear", observes and records the preclear's responses, and acknowledges them. An important element in all forms of auditing is to not suggest answers to the "preclear", and invalidate or degrade what the "preclear" says in response. It is of utmost importance the auditor create a truly safe and distraction free environment for the session.
This practice is one of the controversial aspects of Scientology as auditing sessions are permanently recorded in the form of hand written notes in "Preclear Folders". Practical concerns prohibit a stenographic approach to the notes, which must include a variety of technical details and observations.
In Scientology, "Ethics may be defined as the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics. It is a personal thing. When one is ethical, it is something he does himself by his own choice." [http://www.scientologyethics.org/scientology-ethics.htm] Hubbard further stated: "The logic of Scientology ethics is inarguable and based upon two key concepts: good and evil", and goes on to state that "nothing is completely good, and to build anew often requires a degree of destruction" and "to appreciate what Scientology ethics is all about, it must be understood that good can be considered to be a constructive survival action." [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/scientology-ethics.htm Scientology: Bettering Life with Scientology Ethics ] ]
At various times the Church of Scientology has dictated that its system of conditions, formulas and penalties for ethics violations should be applied even to those who are not Scientologists. The Church warns against what they term "antisocial personalities," which it publicly describes as meaning those "who possess characteristics and mental attitudes that cause them to violently oppose any betterment activity or group," including the Church itself. [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/page06.htm Scientology: Bettering Life with Scientology Ethics ] ] The Church's official position states, "The importance of detecting the antisocial personality becomes eminently clear when one considers his effect on the lives of those around him," and such a person is to be designated a "Potential Trouble Source." [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/page06.htm Scientology: Bettering Life with Scientology Ethics ] ] The Potential Trouble Source, or PTS, was directly linked with controversial policies advocating revenge against Scientology's enemies, including Fair Game and the concept of
Suppressive Persons. [(Hubbard, HCO Policy Letter of 23 December 1965) [http://www.planetkc.com/sloth/sci/sp_rules.html] ]
Assists are group of Scientology techniques which Scientologists believe can be used to alleviate injury, trauma or discomfort. These Assists are based on the belief that the spirit can solve the body’s difficulties. And they serve to put the spirit in communication with the body. [ [http://www.scientologyhandbook.org/SH6_1.HTM Scientology Handbook Website / Factors of Assists] ]
In the book "The Science of Survival", in the Chart of Human Evaluation Hubbard said that a man high in the chart has a strong interest in sex and the rearing of children. But Hubbard also compared sex to a numb emotion in comparison with the joy of creation. Hubbard described the sex emotion as a strong attention unit similar to a strong applause. Also he warned about the aberrative qualities of sex being mostly composed of the desire to savagely take advantage of another thetan and be an effect instead of cause.
In 1982 Hubbard authored "Pain and Sex", an official Scientology bulletin in which the biological act of sex and the body's ability to feel pain were announced to be "the invented tools of degradation" created by psychiatrists millions of years ago. According to Hubbard, "When sex enters the scene, a being fixates and loses power," and "Lovers are very seldom happy." [Hubbard, "Pain and Sex", HCOB, 26 August 1982]
Women are encouraged to be as silent as possible and avoid taking drugs during birth. They can only make sounds but must not utter any words, and neither must the birthing staff, unless absolutely necessary. Newborns are deemed especially vulnerable to induced engrams and trauma transmitted from their mother or acquired from their environment.
The Purification Rundown
The 'Purification Rundown, known as "The Purif" within Scientology, is a program of "
detoxification" developed by L. Ron Hubbard, involving the use of saunas, exercise, vitamins, and the drinking of oils. While it is heavily promoted as a health regimen within Scientology, and in Scientology's rehabilitation program Narconon, the procedure is viewed as dangerous by most medical professionals, as it calls for saunas and vitamins far in excess of what mainstream medicine considers safe levels.Fact|date=September 2007
The Purification Rundown is usually the first step for a Scientologist towards going "Clear." The program usually takes a few weeks, depending on the person's drug and toxin history. As well as spending time in saunas, Scientologists are required to do light jogging.
Auditors are required to become routinely expert in the use of their E-meters. A typical exercise in auditor training (from the Book of E-Meter Drills) is to be able to determine the number a silent person is thinking of. A sophisticated training simulator, able to recreate all manner of E-meter reactions, is now used in Scientology churches to assist in Auditor training. E-meters now include circuitry for feeding the various signals to special course training supervisors who can monitor the session of a student auditor, and via microphone can coach a student auditor to delivering a better auditing session without disturbing the person receiving auditing. Auditors are also required to become routinely expert in the use of the procedures that they will be using, so much so that they know the correct action to take under any circumstance that may occur in session. Auditors do not receive final certification until they have successfully completed an internship, and have demonstrated and proven ability in the skills they have been trained in. In this system, auditors do not deliver procedures in which they have not been certified. [ [http://www.scientology-asho.org/GoldenAgeofTech.htm The Golden Age of Tech] , American Saint Hill Organization.]
Auditors often practice their auditing with each other, as well as friends, or family. Church members pair up often to get their training, doing the same course at the same time, so that they can audit each other up through the various Scientology levels.
Scientologists hold that concepts related to Scientology are correctly grasped only when taken directly from the published works of Hubbard, be they books, audio recordings, or movies. Students of Scientology are taught to direct others to those original sources, rather than to convey any interpretation of the concepts in their own words. Verbally discussing Scientology processes is called "verbal tech," and this is believed to ultimately interfere with the proper understanding, and thus the effectiveness, of the Tech.
As a matter of policy, verbal tech is forbidden, whether between unsupervised scientologists (lest they discuss subjects for which they are not ready), or with outsiders, who should learn of Scientology through proper channels and with close supervision over which materials are disclosed in what order.
Scientology contends that the policy of forbidding "verbal tech" exists in order to keep the Tech pure and unadulterated, and to prevent students from passing on their misunderstandings to others. [ Hubbard, HCO PL 20 January 79, "Verbal tech makes the tech of administration, auditing tech and ethics tech unworkable." Also see Hubbard, "Modern Management Technology Defined" ISBN 0-88404-040-2 pg.546: "about the most ghastly thing to have around is verbal tech which means tech without reference to an HCOB." [HCOB is a Hubbard-authored "bulletin."] ] Hubbard's efforts to prevent future misunderstandings of this sort led to the development of the system known as "
"Truth itself must be approached on a gradient"
A key component of Scientology training and auditing is that one is learning about oneself and the universe and one's place in it on a gradient. While one can purchase thousands of pages of material and literally thousands of hours of audio lectures, some material is introductory material, and some is intended for the professional auditor. The church has published a best sequence of study, so that auditors develop their skills in a way meant to quickly ensure maximum skill and expertise.
Critics cite this as the idea that a Scientologist must receive the "truth" (i.e. newer and higher levels of Scientology teaching) only when he or she has completed one level and is ready for the next step. Scientology's beliefs on learning include the concept of a "gradient": breaking down a complicated idea into smaller pieces so that someone who could not grasp the whole idea at once can learn it piece by piece. This is not unique to Scientology; what "is" unique is the assertion that data out of order can be harmful to the would-be learner. The degree of harm can range from the "nonoptimum physical reactions" of "feel [ing] squashed [...] feel [ing] bent, sort of spinny, sort of dead" ("Basic Study Manual") that come from proceeding past a "misunderstood", to the
pneumoniaby which (in Hubbard's words) "The [R6] implant is calculated to kill [...] anyone who attempts to solve it."
Under this doctrine, if a person studies appropriate means must be taken to ensure full understanding. It is argued that Scientologists must therefore suppress information that is "too advanced" for the information-seeker (for the latter's own good)Fact|date=August 2007. This explains some notable contradictions in what Scientology professes as its beliefs and practices, such as stating to the public that Scientology is compatible with all other religions when
OT III(see "Secret Writings" below) teaches that Godand the Devilare merely implants. The Scientologist would say that approaching information on a gradient keeps people from being confused, but the critic would say that it keeps people from being able to evaluate what Scientology is telling them in any context except the one Scientology has planned for them.
The idea of approaching the truth gradually is reflected in a quotation from L. Ron Hubbard that is frequently repeated by Scientologists when asked for an explanation of their beliefs: "What is true, is true for you." This statement can be seen as meaning that to a person, something is true only when that person experiences it for himself.
Patter drills are a drilling method used in courses in the Church of Scientology which were added to many Church courses in mid-1995, by David Miscavige. The action of these drills is, while seated facing a wall, to repeat a section of course material verbatim to the wall until it can be done without reference to the written material. The student's verbatim ability is then checked by a fellow student or a course supervisor. These drills have created some controversy, as there is no reference written by Scientology's founder, L. Ron Hubbard which authorizes them.
There are many holidays, commemorations and observances in the Church, notably L. Ron Hubbard's birthday in March; the Anniversary of the first publication of Dianetics in May; and a holiday honoring all auditors, called Auditor's Day, in September. Most official celebrations are scheduled on weekends as a convenience to parishioners. Scientologists also celebrate secular holidays such as New Year's Eve, and other local celebrations. For example, many exchange gifts at Christmas where this holiday is a popular tradition.
The Church describes marriage as simply "an essential component of a stable family life." [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/204/story_20431_1.html Scientology Weddings: Frequently Asked Questions] ] In 2005, a spokeswoman for the Church told the "New York Daily News" that the Church had "not taken an official position on gay marriage, and that members prefer not to talk about it."
The most publicised Scientology wedding took place between
Tom Cruiseand Katie Holmeson November 19, 2006.
The Church of Scientology also says that unauthorized distribution of information about Scientology practices will create a risk of improper application. This, the Scientology hierarchy says, is the reason it wants Hubbard's writings to be distributed only by persons they authorize. The
Religious Technology Centerhas prosecuted and harassed individual breakaway groups that have practiced Scientology outside the official Church without authorization. The act of applying Scientology in a form different from what was originally written by Hubbard is called "squirreling" within Scientology, and is considered a "high crime" within the Church of Scientology. [cite web | first = Robert W. | last = Welkos | coauthors = Sappell, Joel | title = When the Doctrine Leaves the Church | url = http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062990b,0,4204659.story | work = Los Angeles Times| date = 1990-06-29| accessdate = 2008-08-24 ]
However, Scientologists not affiliated with the official church say that the Church has itself introduced changes to Hubbard's Scientology, such as the "patter drills" introduced in 1995, and cite this as an indication that the Church is more worried about losing its position as the only source of 'true' Scientology than in keeping Scientology true to Hubbard.
Recent legal actions involving the Church of Scientology's relationship with ex-members (see
Scientology controversy) have caused the church to publish extensive legal documents that cover the relationship between the church and its parishioners. It has become standard practice within the church to require members to sign lengthy legal contracts and waivers before engaging in Scientology services. See Legal Waivers for more details.
November 12, 1952, Hubbard explained in lecture "Precision Knowledge: Necessity to know terminology and law” the need to have precise terminology that can't be confused with other words or definitions. He gave emphasis on avoidance of words that have many definitions and compared the language of Scientology with the language of Math and other precise doctrines.
Scientology and Dianetics place a heavy emphasis on understanding word definitions. Hubbard wrote a book entitled "
How to Use a Dictionary", in which he defined the methods of correcting "misunderstoods" (a Scientology term referring to a "misunderstood word or symbol"). It is believed in Scientology that complete understanding of a subject matter requires first complete understanding of the words of that subject matter. Hubbard also assembled the "Technical Dictionary" (ISBN 0-686-30803-4, ISBN 0-88404-037-2), a lexiconof hundreds of words, terms, and definitions that are used by Scientologists. Hubbard created his own definitions for many existing English words, such as "clear" and "static." He also coined many terms that are variants on standard English words, such as "enturbulate" and "havingness."
Critics of Scientology have accused Hubbard of "loading the language" and using Scientology terms to keep Scientologists from interacting with information sources outside of Scientology (see
cultfor additional information). [cite news | last = Branch | first = Craig | title = Applied Scientology In Public Schools? | publisher = The Watchman Expositor | date = 1997 | url = http://www.watchman.org/sci/appliedscientology.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-11 ] [cite book | last = Wakefield | first = Margery | title = Understanding Scientology | publisher = Coalition of Concerned Citizens | date = 1991 | url = http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/wakefield/us.html ]
Common Scientology terms include:
*"theta (Θ)" –
life force; spirit
thetan(Θn)" – you, as distinct from your mind or your body; a spiritual being similar to the "immortal soul" in Christianityor Jivain Hinduism
*"enturbulate" – to upset
*"entheta" – enturbulated theta
*"static" – a Thetan in its natural state, prior to having immersed itself in a
universeby assuming a point of view; cf. the Hindu concept of Atman in contrast to the dynamics. Compare also to the physics terms of a static (point of rest) and Dynamic (element in action or motion or change)
Suppressive Person)" – A person whose means of advance is through the opposition or "suppression" of others. The definition is asserted to include anyone who actively opposes Scientology.
Potential Trouble Source)" – a person who is under the influence of an SP and so may become a source of trouble to those around them. E.g. "Wanda is PTS to Jim" means that because she is in contact with Jim (a bad influence), Wanda is having trouble in her life that may spill over to threaten others.
*"reality" – The common reality around us, also the group agreement of what is true. As seen in the sentence "My sense of reality is that birds fly and fish swim"
*"(reactive) bank" – the sum of experiences (such as engrams, etc) whose main common component is pain and unconsciousness that influence a Thetan's thinking and behavior
*"Clear" (noun) – (after the "clear" key on
adding machines) a person whose reactive bank does not insert erroneous data into one's analytical thinking. Usually refers a person who is clear with regard to survival for Self.
*"clear" (verb) – To clarify one's understanding with regard to a particular concept or term or symbol, leading to conceptual understanding of the same. This permits the person to rephrase the term or concept in words other than the original, without loss of the clarity when communicating with someone not educated in the subject.
*"Fair Game" – A status formerly assigned to those whom the Church of Scientology "officially declared" to be SP. An October 1967 policy stated that anyone who had been declared "fair game" "may be deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist [and may] be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed." [HCOPL 18 October 67 Issue IV, "Penalties for Lower Conditions"] This was changed to a milder wording in July 1968. ["Enquiry into the Practice and Effects of Scientology"; Report by Sir John Foster, K.B.E., Q.C., M.P. Published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, December 1971, [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Cowen/audit/foster07.html Chapter 7] (also referred to as the
Foster Report)] The term "fair game" was abandoned altogether by the Church in October 1968. [HCOPL 21 October 68, "Cancellation of Fair Game"] However, the Church has retained an aggressive policy towards those it perceives as its enemies, [J. Gordon Melton, "The Church of Scientology", Signature Books, 2000, p. 36] and argued – unsuccessfully – as late as 1985 that retributive action against "enemies of Scientology" should be considered a Constitutionally-protected "core practice" of Scientology. [http://www.lermanet2.com/reference/wollersheim.htm (courtesy link) Wollersheim v. Church of Scientology of California, Court of Appeal of the State of California, civ.no.B023193, 18 July 1989]
*"psychiatrist" – the Scientology definition of a "psychiatrist" was officially declared by Hubbard to be "an anti-social enemy of the people" [http://www.carolineletkeman.org/refund/docs/ms-v2-410.html] .
* [http://www.auditing.org/ Description of Scientology Auditing]
* [http://www.whatisscientology.org What is Scientology]
* [http://www.e-meter.org.uk/page06.htm Official E-Meter Site]
* [http://www.realscientology.com/index.htm Past Lives]
* [http://www.volunteerministers.org Scientology Volunteer Ministers Corps]
* [http://www.aboutlronhubbard.org/ The founder of Scientology auditing]
* [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp06/pg0181_1.html Grade chart of Scientology courses, training and processing]
* [http://www.humanrights-germany.org/experts/eng/flinn01.pdf/ Frank K. Flinn, Ph.D.'s opinion of Scientology; marked as "Shocking Discrimination"]
* [http://dir.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Religion_and_Spirituality/Faiths_and_Practices/Scientology/Beliefs_and_Practices/ Scientology: Beliefs and Practices] links from
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2005/06/30/DI2005063001394.html/ An interview with Catholic Frank K. Flinn, Adjunct Professor of Religious Studies]
Operation Clambake: [http://www.xenu.net Main]
* [http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Secrets/ Secrets of Scientology]
*dmoz|Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Scientology/Free_Zone/E-Meter/|Free zone E-Meters
* [http://www.scientology-kills.org/ Scientology Kills]
* [http://www.scientology-lies.com/ Scientology Lies]
* [http://www.youfoundthecard.com/ Protest and Abuse Information]
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