- Sufi metaphysics
Major ideas in Sufi metaphysics have surrounded the concept of Wahdat or "Unity". Two main
Sufiphilosophies prevail on this controversial topic. Wahdat-ul-Wujood literally means the unity of creation. As originally developed by Ibn Arabi, it does not, as sometimes believed, imply that God is present in everything, but rather that God's likeness can be observed in created things.Fact|date=October 2008 Wahdat-ul-Shuhud (Apparentism, or Unity of Witness), on the other hand, holds that God and his creation are entirely separate. Some Islamic reformers have claimed that the difference between the two philosophies differ only in semanticsand that the entire debate is merely a collection of "verbal controversies" which have come about because of ambiguous language. However, the concept of the relationship between God and the universe is still actively debated both among Sufis and between Sufis and non-Sufi Muslims.
Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wajud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the "Unity of Being" is a
Sufiphilosophy emphasizing that 'there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth (God)'. Or in other phrasing that the only truthwithin the universeis God, and that all things exist within God only. All of his creations emerge from "`adim" (عدم non-existence) to "wujood" (existence) out of his thought only. Hence the existence of God is the only truth (" Haqq"), and the concept of a separate created universe is a fallacy (" Batil"). Ibn Arabiis most often characterized in Islamic texts as the originator of the doctrine of wahdat al-wujud, however, this expression is not found in his works. Although he frequently makes statements that approximate it, it cannot be claimed that "Oneness of Being" is a sufficient description of his ontology, since he affirms the "manyness of reality" with equal vigor. Imaginal worlds, William Chiittick(1994), pg.15]
In his view, wujūd is the unknowable and inaccessible ground of everything that exists. God alone is true wujūd, while all things dwell in nonexistence, so also wujūd alone is nondelimited (mutlaq), while everything else is constrained, confined, and constricted. Wujūd is the absolute, infinite, nondelimited reality of God, while all others remain relative, finite, and delimited. Imaginal worlds, William Chiittick(1994), pg.53]
Since wujūd is nondelimited, it is totally different from everything else. Whatever exists and can be known or grasped is a delimitation and definition, a constriction of the unlimited, a finite object accessible to a finite subject. In the same way, wujūd's self-consciousness is nondelimited, while every other consciousness is constrained and confined. But we need to be careful in asserting wujūd's nondelimitation. This must not be understood to mean that wujūd is different and only different from every delimitation. The Shaykh is quick to point out that wujūd's nondelimitation demands that it be able to assume every delimitation. If wujūd could not become delimited, it would be limited by its own nondelimitation. Thus "He possesses nondelimitation in delimitation" Or , "God possesses nondelimited wujūd, but no delimitation prevents delimitation. Rather, He possesses all delimitations, so He is nondelimited delimitation, since no single delimitation rather than another rules over Him.... Hence nothing is to be attributed to Him in preference to anything else" . Wujūd must have the power of assuming every delimitation on pain of being limited by those delimitations that it cannot assume. At the same time, it transcends the forms by which it becomes delimited and remains untouched by their constraints.
Only He who possesses Being in Himself (wujûd dhâtî) and whose Being is His very essence (wujûduhu 'ayn dhâtihi), merits the name of Being. Only God can be like that. [http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/unityofbeing.html Souad Hakim - Unity of Being in Ibn 'Arabî ] ]
On the highest level, wujūd is the absolute and nondelimited reality of God, the "Necessary Being" (wājib al-wujūd) that cannot not exist. In this sense, wujūd designates the Essence of God or of the Real (dhāt al-haqq), the only reality that is real in every respect. On lower levels, wujūd is the underlying substance of "everything other than God" (mā siwā Allāh)—which is how
Ibn Arabiand others define the "cosmos" or "universe" (al-'ālam). Hence, in a secondary meaning, the term wujūd is used as shorthand to refer to the whole cosmos, to everything that exists. It can also be employed to refer to the existence of each and every thing that is found in the universe.
God's 'names' (asma') or 'attributes' (sifat), on the other hand, are the relationships which can be discerned between the Essence and the cosmos. They are known to God because he knows every object of knowledge, but they are not existent entities or ontological qualities, for this would imply plurality in the godhead. [ [http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H022 Ibn al-'Arabi, Muhyi al-Din (1164-1240) ] ]
For the creatures, Being is not part of their essence. So a creature does not own its being, that it can never be independent in itself . I this sense, the created does not deserve the attribution of Being. Only God is Being, and all the rest is in reality a possibility (imkân), a relative, possible non-existence.
Ibn 'Arabî used the term "effusion" (fayd) to denote the act of creation. His writings contain expressions which show different stages of creation, a distinction merely logical and not actual. The following gives details about his vision of creation in three stages: the Most Holy Effusion (al-fayd al-aqdas), the Holy Effusion (al-fayd al-muqaddas) and the Perpetual Effusion (al-fayd al-mustamirr).
Wahdat-ul-Wujood spread through the teachings of the
Sufis like Qunyawi, Jandi, Tilimsani, Qayshari, Jami etcSeyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present(2006), pg76 ] . This mystic sufiphilosophy found conducive soil in many parts of South Asiaas most of the saints and sages became dedicated disciples of Wahdat-ul-Wujood. It is also associated with the "Hamah Ust" (Persian meaning "He is the only one") philosophy in South Asia. Sachal Sarmastand Bulleh Shahtwo Sufi poets from Pakistan, were also ardent followers of Wahdat-ul-Wujood.
Today, some Sufi Orders, notably the
Bektashisect and the non-traditional sects of Universal Sufism, place much emphasis on the concept of wahdat-ul-wujood.
Pantheism, Panentheism, and Wahdat-ul-wujood
The English word
Pantheismmeans All is God [ pantheismderives from Greek: πάν ( 'pan' ) = all and θεός ( 'theos' ) = God] but the Arabic word wahdat ul-wujood emphasizes that there is just a single being in existence and this single being is God. However, wahdat ul-wujood maybe closer to panentheism, because it states that while the Universe is part of God or God's mind, God is still greater than his creation.
Tashkeek or gradation is closely associated with Sadrian interpretation of wahdat ul-wujood. According to this school, not only there is gradation of existents that stand in a vast hierarchical chain of being (maratib al-wujud) from floor (farsh) to divine throne (arsh), but the wujud of each existent "maahiya" is nothing but a grade of the single reality of wujud whose source is God, the absolute being (al-wujud al-mutlaq). What differentiates the wujud of different existents is nothing but wujud in different degrees of strength & weakness. The universe is nothing but different degrees of strengths & weaknesses of wujud, ranging from intense degree of wujud of arch-angelic realities, to the dim wujud of lowly dust from which adam was made. [Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present, pg 78]
Criticism of the concept
Some Muslims, including both Sufis and Salafis, have made comparisons between wahdat ul-wujood and
Pantheism, the concept that all is God. This criticism has come both from Salafis and from Sufis as well.Fact|date=September 2007
Some, however, will counter that the two concepts differ in that wahdat ul-wujood states that God and the universe aren't identical. [Tehqiq ul Haq fi Kalamat ul Haq a book by
Pir Meher Ali Shah] They hold that the real existence to be for God only and the universe to have no existence on its own or without God.
Salafis criticize the concept of wahdat ul-wujood on the grounds that it was a product of Arabinteraction with Hinduphilosophy, and is not a purely Islamic concept.Fact|date=September 2007 Others also cite similarities with Kabbalah.Fact|date=September 2007
Sufis, such as Ahmad Sirhindi"(Mujaddid Alif Sani)", have criticised wahdat ul-wujood. Ahmad Sirhindi wrote about the sayings that universe has no existence of its own and is a shadow of the existence of the necessary being. He also wrote that one should discern the existence of universe from the absolute and that the absolute does not exist because of existence but because of his essence. [Maktoobat Rabbaniyah ]
imilarity to other belief systems
It is also speculated that the concept of wahdat ul-wujood could be product of Arab interaction with Hindu mystics and literature, specifically in reference to the non-dualistic teachings of the
Upanishads, which preaches very similar concepts in regards to reality being an illusion and the only true existence being Brahman.
Wahdat-ul-Shuhud (or "wah-dat-ul-shuhud", "wahdat-ul-shuhud," or "wahdatul shuhud") has often been translated into English as Apparentism. In Arabic it literally means "unity of witness", "unity of perception" or "unity of appearance"..
Out of those who opposed the doctorine of wahdat al-wujood, there were those who substituted the pole of subject for the object, formulating the doctorine of Wahdat ul-shahood. This school was formulated by `Ala al-Dawlah Simnānī, was to attract many followers in India, including Ahmed Sirhindi who provided some of the most widely accepted formulated of this doctorine in the Indian sub-continent.
According to Ahmed Sirhindi's doctrine, any experience of unity between God and the created world is purely subjective and occurs only in the mind of the believer; it has no objective counterpart in the real world. The former position, Shaykh Ahmad felt, led to pantheism, which was contrary to the tenets of Sunnite Islam.Fact|date=September 2007 He held that God and creation are not identical; rather, the latter is a shadow or reflection of the Divines Name and Attributes when they are reflected in the mirrors of their opposite non-beings (a'dam al-mutaqabila).Fact|date=September 2007
Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardiand Abd-al-karim Jiliwere also proponents of apparentism.
hah Waliullah's view of Wahdat
Shah Waliullahmade the first attempt to reconcile the two (apparently) contradictory doctrines of wahdat al-wujud (unity of being) of Ibn Arabiand wahdat al-shuhud (unity in conscience) of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi.
Shah Waliullah neatly resolved the conflict, calling these differences 'verbal controversies' which have come about because of ambiguous language. If we leave, he says, all the metaphors and similes used for the expression of ideas aside, the apparently opposite views of the two metaphysicians will agree. The positive result of Shah Wali Allah's reconciliatory efforts was twofold: it brought about harmony between the two opposing groups of metaphysicians, and it also legitimized the doctrine of wahdat al-wujud among the mutakallimun (theologians), who previously had not been ready to accept it.
In his books Lamahat and Sata'at, he discusses stages of being, the perceptive faculty, the relation of the abstract with the universe, the universal soul and the souls of man, after death, essence, miracles, the scope of man, the soul of the perfect, universal order, source of manifestation, and the transformation of mystics from quality to quality. He also demonstrated that the long-standing assumption that Sufi doctrine was divided between Apparentism and Unity of Being was a difference of expression alone, the latter doctrine being seen as merely a less-advanced stage of projection. [ [http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H045 Shah Wali Allah (Qutb al-Din Ahmad al-Rahim) (1703-62) ] ]
In his opinion this whole universe has also self (nafs) as an individual person has a self, which is called the Universal Soul (an-Nafs-ul-Kulliyah). The multiplicity of the whole universe has originated from it. When
Ibn Arabisays that everything is God, he thereby means the Universal Soul. This Universal Soul, or the Self-unfolding Being (al-Wujud-ul-Munbasait), subsists by itself. This existence pervades the whole universe, both the substance and the accident, and accepts the form of everything. It is both immanent and transcendental. Beyond this existence (al-Wujud-al-Munbasit : Universal Soul) towards the original existence (God) none has access to. In other words, man's progress ends with the Universal Soul or the Self-unfolding Being. He cannot move a step further. The Universal Sould and God are so intermingled that the former is often taken for the latter."
As for the question of the relation that this existencen (al-Wujud-ul-Munbasit) has with the essence of God itself. This relation is, however, known only in its reality (anniyyah : I-ness); its quality is unknown and can never be known. Thus when
Ibn Arabisays that the realities of the existing things are the names and the attributes of the Universal Soul (Self-unfolding Being) in the stage of knowledge (Fi Martabat-il-'Ilm, in the Divine Consciousness) or when Imam Rabbani asserts that the realities of existing objects are sheer nothingness on which the lights of the names and attributes of the Universal Soul (al-Wujud-ul-Munbasit) are reflected is exactly the same thing. The difference in their language is so little that it needs no consideration. [G. N. Jalbani, "The Teachings of Shah Waliyullah of Delhi", pg98]
*"God Speaks, The Theme and Purpose of Creation." Meher Baba, Dodd Meade, 1955. (second edition, p. 280)
*"Thaqīq al-haqq fi'l kalamat al-haqq" a book by Peer Mahr Ali Shah
* [http://www.ahya.org/tjonline/eng/03/3index.htm A Salafi refutation of the concept]
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi( 1153- 1191).
* [http://www.alahazratnetwork.org/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=369&keywords=wahdat Wahdatul Wajood Kiya Hai] by
Sayyed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi(In Urdu)
* [http://www.experiencefestival.com/wahdat-ul-wujood/articleindex Index of articles related to Wahdat-ul-Wujood]
* [http://www.gawaher.com/lofiversion/index.php/t30932.html What is Wahdat al-Wujood]
* [http://higher-criticism.blogspot.com/2007/05/wahdat-al-wujud-and-politics-of.html Wahdat-al-Wujud and the politics of polytheism]
* [http://www.maarefislam.org/doreholomvamaarefislam/booksindex/allahshenasi-arabic.htm Marefat Allah] by
Allame Tehrani(In Arabic)
* [http://www.maarefislam.com/doreholomvamaarefislam/booksindex/towhideelmivaeynni.htm Tawhid Elmi va Eini] by
Allameh Tabatabaeiand Allame Tehrani(In Persian)
* [http://www.isu.ac.ir/Publication/Meshkat-AL-Noor/Meshkat-AL-Noor_28-29/Meshkat-AL-Noor_28-2903.htm Wahdat Wujud] by
Ruhollah Khomeini(In Persian)
* [http://www.masud.co.uk/ISLAM/misc/nabulsi.htm Wahdat al-Wujood clarified]
* [http://truelife200vi.wordpress.com/2008/04/03/wahdat-al-wujood-simplified/ Wahdat ul-wujud & Wahdat ush-shahood simplified]
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