- North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement
The North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement, usually referred to as NARBA, is a treaty that took effect in March 1941 and set out the bandplan and interference rules for mediumwave AM broadcasting in North America. Although mostly replaced by other agreements in the 1980s, the basic bandplan of NARBA has remained to the present day. Among its major features were the extension of the broadcast band from its former limit of 1500 kHz to 1600 kHz, (now 1700 kHz) and the shift of most existing AM stations' frequencies to make room for additional clear-channel station allocations for Canada and Mexico.
The agreement eventually governed AM band use in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti. In accordance with the treaty, clear channel frequencies were set aside across the radio dial, at a rate of about one per 100 kHz, and the 1230, 1240, 1340, 1400, 1450, and 1490 channels were reserved mainly for local stations. The agreement also officially expanded the upper limit of the AM broadcast spectrum from 1500 kHz to 1600 kHz. It required that most existing AM stations change frequencies, resulting in a massive shuffling of radio station dial positions.
Although a 1933 conference on the subject failed, a 1937 North American Radio Conference in Havana agreed on the principles for frequency allocations. In late 1937, the Inter-American Radio Conference agreed to protect U.S. AM stations by eliminating Mexican border blasters. In mid-1938, the United States Senate ratified the Havana treaty and asks for it to take effect a year after the treaty is ratified by three of the four participating countries of Canada, Cuba, Mexico, and the U.S. At first, the Mexican Senate refused to ratify. Nevertheless, the U.S. and Canada completed a frequency agreement in 1939, based on the Havana Treaty, and Mexico ratified the NARBA treaty at the end of the year.
A three-year NARBA agreement in 1946 gave Cuba five U.S. clear channel allocations. A November 1950 NARBA agreement, signed by the Bahamas, Canada, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and the U.S., gave Cuba the right to use six, and Jamaica two, U.S. clear channel allocations.
Among the most significant changes were:
Notes 540 CBK unchanged 540 Canadian clear 550-680 all unchanged 550-680 690 all, except CFRB unchanged 690 Canadian clear CFRB 860 700-720 all unchanged 700-720 730 all, except CFPL unchanged 730 CFPL — 1570 — new Canadian clear 740 allocated to CBL which moved from 840 740-790 all up 10 750-790 — new Canadian clear 800 allocated to CKLW which moved from 1030 790-830 all up 20 810-850 840 CBL — 740 — new Canadian clear 860 allocated to CFRB 850-870 all up 20 870-890 — new Canadian clear 900 allocated to CHML (and CJBR) 880-970 all up 30 910-1000 980 KDKA up 40 1020 990 WBZ up 40 1030 1000 WHO up 40 1040 1010 KQW (now KCBS) 740 KQW did not move until 1947 1020 KYW up 40 1060 1030 CFCN (now CBR) down 20 1010 CKLW 800 1040 WTIC
up 40 1080 1050 all up 20 1070 CBA became a new Canadian clear on 1070 1060 WBAL up 30 1090 WJAG up 40 1110 this was later traded for 780 with KFAB 1070–1150 all up 30 1100–1180 1160 WOWO up 30 1190 WWVA up 10 1170 1170 WCAU (now WPHT) up 40 1210 1180 KEX up 10 1190 KOB (now KKOB) 770 WDGY (now KFAN) down 50 1130 WINS 1010 1190 WOAI up 10 1200 WSAZ 930 WATR 1320 1200–1450 all up 30 1230–1480 1460 KSTP
WJSV (now WWWT)
up 40 1500 1470 KGA
WMEX (now WWZN)
up 40 1510 1480 KOMA
WKBW (now WWKB)
up 40 1520 1490 KFBK
up 40 1530 1500 all down 10 1490 1510 CKCR (later CHYM) down 20 1490 1530 W1XBS to WBRY
(later WTBY, then WQQW; now dark)
up 60 1590 Since 1934 U.S. frequencies above 1500 had been
allocated only to four experimental stations that
broadcast with a signal 20 kHz wide for "high fidelity."
The stations were converted to regular broadcasting
(and regular call signs) with the NARBA frequency
W9XBY to KITE
up 20 1550 1550 W2XR to WQXR
up 10 1560 W6XAI to KPMC
up 10 1560 — new Canadian clear 1570 allocated to CFPL (AM)
NARBA has been substantially superseded by the Regional Agreement for the Medium Frequency Broadcasting Service in Region 2 (which was signed in Rio de Janeiro in 1981 and took effect on 1 July 1983 at 08:00 UTC). The interference protection criteria in the Rio agreement are significantly different from NARBA, particularly in that the concept of clear-channel stations is eliminated. NARBA countries the Bahamas, Canada, Mexico, and the United States are also signatories of the Rio agreement. In that agreement, the Bahamas and Canada also declared their intent to denounce NARBA. However, NARBA still officially remains in effect between the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, and United States because those countries have not formally abrogated NARBA. The United States also has bilaterial agreements with Canada and with Mexico: the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada Relating to the AM Broadcasting Service in the Medium Frequency Band (1984) and the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States Relating to the AM Broadcasting Service in the Medium Frequency Band (1986).
- Canadian allocations changes under NARBA
- Clear-channel station — which includes a listing of present North American clear-channel stations
- Geneva Frequency Plan of 1975 — a similar agreement concerning the rest of the world
- More on clear, regional and local AM Channels in Canada Mexico and USA
- FCC information on AM station classes
- "Building the Broadcast Band" the development of the 520–1700 kHz Medium wave (AM) band
- "Behind the Clear-Channel Matter" history of clear-channel AM radio stations
- ^ a b Miller, Jeff (2010-05-01). "A Chronology of AM Radio Broadcasting 1900-1960". http://jeff560.tripod.com/chrono1.html. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- ^ a b c "Broadcasting Special Issue". Broadcasting. 1970-11-02. http://jeff560.tripod.com/70.html. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- ^ Regional Administrative MF Broadcasting Conference (Region 2), Rio de Janeiro, 1981. ISBN 92-61 01311-2. http://www.tzsawyer.com/pdf/rj81.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-11. Bahamas and Canada announce their intent to renounce NARBA in Final Protocol statement No. 4 on page 88.
- ^ 47 C.F.R. 73.1650. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- ^ a b "1997 Report on International Negotiations and Notifications Concerning Radio Services". Washington, D.C.: Federal Communications Commission (Planning & Negotiations Division, International Bureau). July 1997. http://www.fcc.gov/ib/sand/97report/. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
List of North American broadcast station classes — This is a list of broadcast station classes applicable in much of North America under international agreements between the United States, Canada and Mexico. Effective radiated power (ERP) and height above average terrain (HAAT) are listed unless… … Wikipedia
December 2010 North American blizzard — For other 2010 blizzards in North America, see North American blizzards of 2010. December 2010 North American blizzard Infrared satellite image of the storm on Monday, December 27, 2010 (Day 2) Storm type: Blizzard Formed: Decemb … Wikipedia
Radio Disney — Type Radio network Country … Wikipedia
Radio AAHS — (sometimes misspelled as Radio Oz ) was a radio network managed by the Children s Broadcasting Corporation. Its flagship station was WWTC AM 1280 in Minneapolis, which broadcast from the former First Federal Bank building at Highway 100 and… … Wikipedia
Radio Martí — is a radio and television broadcaster based in Miami, Florida, financed by the United States government (Broadcasting Board of Governors), which transmits Spanish radio broadcasts to Cuba. Its broadcasts can also be heard in the United… … Wikipedia
broadcasting — /brawd kas ting, kah sting/, n. 1. the act of transmitting speech, music, visual images, etc., as by radio or television. 2. radio or television as a business or profession: She s training for a career in broadcasting. [1920 25; BROADCAST + ING1] … Universalium
American Broadcasting Company — Pour les articles homonymes, voir ABC. Type Réseau de télévision Réseau de … Wikipédia en Français
American University in Cairo — The American University in Cairo الجامعة الأمريكية بالقاهرة Established 1919 Type Private President … Wikipedia
American Championship car racing — 1994 Indianapolis 500, a National Championship race Since 1916 there has been a recognized United States national automobile racing National Championship for drivers of professional level, single seat open wheel race cars. The championship has… … Wikipedia
North Charleston, South Carolina — North Charleston City City of North Charleston The new City Hall for the … Wikipedia