- Robert I of Scotland
Infobox_Monarch | name = Robert I
King of Scots
reign = 1306–1329
coronation = 1306
predecessor = John
successor = David II
heir = John the Bruce
consort = i)
Isabella of Mar
Elizabeth de Burgh
Marjorie Brucewith Isabella, David, John, Matilda and Margaret with Elizabeth and several illegitimate children
royal house = Bruce
royal anthem =
Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale
Marjorie, Countess of Carrick
date of birth = birth date|1274|7|11
place of birth = probably
Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire
date of death = death date and age|1329|6|7|1274|7|11
place of death = Cardross
place of burial=
Kingof Scots ( 11 July, 1274– 7 June, 1329) usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: "Roibert a Briuis"; modern Scottish Gaelic: "Raibeart Bruis"; Norman French: "Robert de Brus" or "Robert de Bruys"; ) was King of the Scotsfrom 1306 until his death in 1329.
Although his paternal ancestors were of
Scoto-Norman heritage(originating in Brieux, Normandy) [ [http://www.caithness.org/history/familyhistory/gordonjohnsongenealogy/historyinsurname.htm “Robert the Bruce's family was Norman, and can be traced back to Brieux in Orne, France”.] ] , his maternalancestors were Scottish- Gaels. He became one of Scotland's greatest kings, as well as one of the most famous warriors of his generation, eventually leading Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independenceagainst the Kingdom of England. He claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I of Scotland.
His body is buried in
Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart is buried in Melrose Abbey. His heart was to be taken on crusadeeventually to the Holy Land, but only reached Moorish Granada, where it acted as a talisman for the Scottish contingent at the Battle of Teba.
Background and early life
Robert was the first child of
Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale(d. 1304) and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, (d. 1292) [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=wHZcIRMhSEMC&pg=PA733&dq=bruce+and+Broadoak&sig=_1iJsPKVqilBVmDkwuV2Afapp7o Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families By Douglas Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham] ] daughter of Niall, Earl of Carrick. His mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Gaelic Earldom of Carrick, and through his father a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne. Although his date of birth is definitely known, [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=9YCVFdVvZK8C&pg=PA18&dq=writtle+and+bruce&sig=Tjk9iqKCTZFFkV-ul4w1DUHTMEo#PPA18,M1 King Robert the Bruce By A. F. Murison] ] his place of birth is less certain, but it was probably Turnberry Castlein Ayrshire. [Turnberry Castle is the most likely candidate for his birthplace, as it was the seat of the Earls of Carrick, where his parents were probably living. Lochmabenhas a claim, as it was the historic seat of the Bruce family, but is not supported by any medieval source. However, the Treaty of Northampton implies that it was in Scotland, the claim that it was Writtle in Essex is only supported by one very dubious medieval source and is now discounted.]
Very little is known of his youth. He could have been sent to be fostered with a local family, as was the custom. It can be presumed that Bruce was raised speaking all the languages of his lineage and nation and was almost certainly fluent in Gaelic and
Norman French, with literacy in Latin. Robert's first appearance in history is on a witness list of a charter issued by Alasdair MacDomhnaill, Lord of Islay. His name appears in the company of the Bishop of Argyll, the vicar of Arran, a Kintyreclerk, his father and a host of Gaelic notaries from Carrick.
He saw the outcome of the '
Great Cause' in 1292, which gave the Crown of Scotland to his distant relative, John Balliol, as unjust. As he saw it, it prevented his branch of the family from taking their place on the Scottish throne. Soon afterwards, his grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale—the unsuccessful claimant—resigned his lordship to Robert de Brus, Bruce's father. Robert de Brus had already resigned the Earldom of Carrick to Robert Bruce, his son, on the day of his wife's death in 1292, thus making Robert Bruce the Earl of Carrick. Both father and son sided with Edward I against Balliol.
In April 1294, the younger Bruce had permission to visit
Irelandfor a year and a half, and, as a further mark of King Edward's favour, he received a respite for all the debts owed by him to the English Exchequer.
In 1295, Robert married his first wife,
Isabella of Mar(d. before 1302) the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar(d. after July 1297) by his wife Helen (b. 1246 d. after Feb 1295).
Some sources claim that Helen was the daughter of the Welsh ruler
Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales, Llywelyn 'The Great' (1173–1240) and his spouse Joan, Lady of Wales, an illegitimate child of King John of England. However, as both Llywelyn and Joan were dead by 1246, that theory would most likely be incorrect. However, there are suggestions that Helen may have in fact been the daughter of Llywelyn's son Dafydd ap Llywelynand his Norman wife Isabella de Braose, of the south Wales dynasty of Marcher Lords.
Beginning of the Wars of Independence
In August 1296, Bruce and his father swore
fealtyto Edward I of Englandat Berwick-upon-Tweed, but in breach of this oath, which had been renewed at Carlisle, the younger Robert supported the Scottish revolt against King Edward in the following year. Urgent letters were sent ordering Bruce to support Edward's commander, John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey, (to whom Bruce was related), in the summer of 1297; but instead of complying, Bruce continued to support the revolt against Edward. On 7 July, Bruce and his friends made terms with Edward by a treaty called the Capitulation of Irvine. The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will, and were pardoned for their recent violence in return for swearing allegiance to King Edward. The Bishop of Glasgow, James the Steward, and Sir Alexander Lindsay became sureties for Bruce until he delivered his infant daughter Marjorie as a hostage.
Shortly after the
Battle of Stirling Bridge, Bruce again defected to the Scots; Annandale was wasted and he burned the English-held castle of Ayr. Yet, when King Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, Annandaleand Carrick were excepted from the Lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers; Bruce was seen as a waverer whose allegiance could be acquired.
William Wallaceresigned as Guardian of Scotlandafter the Battle of Falkirk, he was succeeded by Robert Bruce and John Comyn as joint Guardians, but they could not see past their personal differences. As a nephew and supporter of John Balliol, and as someone with a rightful claim to the Scottish throne, Comyn was Bruce's enemy. In 1299, William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, was appointed as a third, neutral Guardian to try and maintain order between Bruce and Comyn. The following year, Bruce finally resigned as joint Guardian and was replaced by Sir Gilbert, 1st Lord de Umfraville(d. before 13 October 1307), Earl of Angus (in right of his mother, Maud, Countess of Angus).
In May 1301, Umfraville, Comyn and Lamberton also resigned as joint Guardians and were replaced by Sir
John de Soulesas sole Guardian. Soules was appointed largely because he was part of neither the Bruce nor the Comyn camps and was a patriot. He was an active Guardian and made renewed efforts to have King John returned to the Scottish throne.
In July, King Edward I launched his sixth campaign into Scotland. Though he captured
Bothwelland Turnberry Castle, he did little to damage the Scots' fighting ability and, in January 1302, agreed to a nine-month truce. It was around this time that Robert the Bruce submitted to Edward, along with other nobles, even though he had been on the side of the patriots until then.
There were rumours that Balliol would return to regain the Scottish throne. Soules, who had probably been appointed by King John, supported his return, as did most other nobles, but the return of John as king would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.
However, though recently pledged to support King Edward, it is interesting to note that Robert the Bruce sent a letter to the monks at
Melrose Abbeyin March 1302 which effectively weakened his usefulness to the English king. Apologising for having called the monks' tenants to service in his army when there had been no national call-up, Bruce pledged that, henceforth, he would "never again" require the monks to serve unless it was to "the common army of the whole realm", for national defence. Bruce also married his second wife that year, Elizabeth de Burgh(d. 26 October, 1327), the daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster, (d. 1326). By Elizabeth he had four children: David II, John (died in childhood), Matilda (who married Thomas Isaac and died at Aberdeen 20 July, 1353), and Margaret (who married William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherlandin 1345).
In 1303, Edward invaded again, reaching
Edinburgh, before marching to Perth. John Comyn, who was by now Guardian, could not hope to defeat King Edward's forces. Edward stayed in Perth until July, then proceeded via Dundee, Brechinand Montrose, to Aberdeen, where he arrived in August. From there, he marched through Morayto Badenoch, before re-tracing his path back south to Dunfermline. With the country now under submission, all the leading Scots, except for William Wallace, surrendered to Edward in February 1304. Terms of submission were negotiated by John Comyn.
The laws and liberties of Scotland were to be as they had been in the days of Alexander III, and any that needed alteration would be with the advice of King Edward and the advice and assent of the Scots nobles.
11 June 1304, with both of them having witnessed the heroic efforts of their countrymen during King Edward's siege of Stirling Castle, Bruce and William Lamberton made a pact that bound them, each to the other, in “friendship and alliance against all men.” If one should break the secret pact, he would forfeit to the other the sum of ten thousand pounds. The pact is often interpreted as a sign of their deep patriotism despite both having already surrendered to the English.
With Scotland defenceless, Edward set about absorbing her into England. Homage was again obtained from the nobles and the burghs, and a parliament was held to elect those who would meet later in the year with the English parliament to establish rules for the governance of Scotland. For all the apparent participation by Scots in the government, however, the English held the real power. The
Earl of Richmond, Edward's nephew, was to head up the subordinate government of Scotland.
While all this took place,
William Wallacewas finally captured near Glasgowand executed on August 23 1305.
Coronation as King of Scots
In September 1305, Edward ordered Robert Bruce to put his castle at Kildrummy, "in the keeping of such a man as he himself will be willing to answer for," suggesting that King Edward suspected Robert was not entirely trustworthy and may have been plotting behind his back, however an identical phrase appears in an agreement between Edward and his lieutenant and life-long friend
Aymer de Valence. Bruce, as Earl of Carrickand now 7th Lord of Annandale, held huge estates and property in Scotland and a barony and some minor properties in England and had a claim to the Scottish throne. He also had a large family to protect. If he claimed the throne, he would throw the country into yet another series of wars, and if he failed, he would be sacrificing everyone and everything he knew.
Bruce, like all his family, had a complete belief in his right to the throne. However his actions of supporting alternately the English and Scottish armies had led to a great deal of distrust towards Bruce among the “Community of the Realm of Scotland”. His ambition was further thwarted by the person of John Comyn. Comyn had been much more resolute in his opposition to the English, he was the most powerful noble in Scotland and was related to many more powerful nobles both within Scotland and England. He also had a powerful claim to the Scottish throne through both his descent from the ancient Celtic monarchy and through his being the nephew of
John Balliol. To neutralise this threat, Bruce invited him to a meeting under truce in Dumfries on 10 February 1306.
Bruce attacked Comyn before the high altar of the church of the Greyfriars monastery and fled. On being told that Comyn had survived the attack and was being treated, two of Bruce's supporters,
Roger de Kirkpatrickand John Lindsay, went back into the church and finished Comyn off. Bruce was excommunicated for this crime, which eventually led to the excommunication first of the barons who supported him and then the entire country. [ The History ChannelMay 17, 2006] Realising that the 'die had been cast' and he had no alternative except to become king or a fugitive, Bruce asserted his claim to the Scottish crown. He was crowned King of Scots as Robert I at Scone, near Perth on 25 March, by Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, (alleged by the English to be his mistress) who claimed the right of her family, the Macduff Earl of Fife, to place the Scottish king on his throne. Though now king, Bruce did not yet have a kingdom, and his efforts to obtain it were unsuccessful until after the death of King Edward I.
From Scone to Bannockburn
In June 1306, he was defeated at the
Battle of Methvenand in August, he was surprised in Strathfillan, where he had taken refuge. The ladies of his family were sent to Kildrummy in January 1307. Bruce, almost without a follower, fled to Rathlin Islandoff the northern coast of Ireland.
Edward I marched north again in the spring. On his way, he granted the Scottish estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers and published a bill excommunicating Bruce. Bruce's queen, Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie, and his sister Mary were captured in a sanctuary at
Tain, while his brother Niall was executed. But, on 7 July, King Edward I died, leaving Bruce opposed by his feeble son, Edward II, and the odds turned in Bruce's favour.
Bruce and his followers returned to the Scottish mainland in February in two groups. One, led by Bruce and his brother Edward landed at
Turnberry Castleand began a guerrilla war in southwest Scotland. The other, led by his brothers Thomas and Alexander, landed slightly further south in Loch Ryan; but they were soon captured and executed. In April, Bruce won a small victory over the English at the Battle of Glen Trool, before defeating Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembrokeat the Battle of Loudoun Hill. Leaving his brother Edward in command in Galloway, he travelled north, capturing Inverlochy and Urquhart Castles, burning Inverness Castleand Nairnto the ground, then unsuccessfully threatening Elgin.
Transferring operations to Aberdeenshire in late 1307, he threatened Banff before falling seriously ill, probably owing to the hardships of the lengthy campaign. Recovering, leaving
John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchanunsubdued at his rear, Bruce returned west to take Balvenie and Duffus Castles, then Tarradale Castle on the Black Isle. Looping back via the hinterlands of Inverness and a second failed attempt to take Elgin, Bruce finally achieved his landmark defeat of Comyn at the Battle of Inverurie in May 1308, then overran Buchan and slaughtered the English garrison at Aberdeen.
He then crossed to
Argylland defeated another body of his enemies at the Battle of Pass of Branderand took Dunstaffnage Castle, the last major stronghold of the Comyns. [cite book | last = Barrow | first = Geoffrey Wallis Stuart | authorlink = G._W._S._Barrow | title = Robert Bruce : and the community of the realm of Scotland | publisher = Edinburgh University Press | edition = 4th edition | year = 2005 | isbn = 0748620222 . (Retrieved from Google Books)]
In March 1309, he held his first Parliament at
St. Andrews, and by August, he controlled all of Scotland north of the River Tay. The following year, the clergy of Scotland recognised Bruce as king at a general council. The support given to him by the church in spite of his excommunication was of great political importance.
The next three years saw the capture and reduction of one English-held castle or outpost after another:
Linlithgowin 1310, Dumbartonin 1311, and Perth, by Bruce himself, in January 1312. Bruce also made raids into northern England and, landing at Ramsey in the Isle of Man, then laid siege to Castle Rushenin Castletown capturing it on 21 June 1313to deny the island's strategic importance to the English. In the spring of 1314, Edward Brucelaid siege to Stirling Castle, whose governor, Philip de Mowbray, agreed to capitulate if not relieved before 24 June 1314. In March 1314, Sir James Douglascaptured Roxburgh, and Randolph captured Edinburgh Castle. In May, Bruce again raided England and subdued the Isle of Man.
The eight years of exhausting but deliberate refusal to meet the English on even ground have caused many to consider Bruce as one of the great guerrilla leaders of any age. This represented a transformation for one raised as a feudal knight. Bruce secured Scottish
independencefrom England militarily — if not diplomatically — at the Battle of Bannockburnin 1314.
Freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England. Bruce also drove back a subsequent English expedition north of the border and launched raids into
Bruce and Ireland
Buoyed by his military successes, Bruce's forces also invaded
Irelandin 1315, to free the country from English rule, and to open a second front in the continuing wars with England. The Irish even crowned Edward Bruce as High King of Irelandin 1316. Robert later went there with another army to assist his brother.
To go with the invasion, Bruce popularised an ideological vision of a "Pan-Gaelic Greater Scotia" with his lineage ruling over both Ireland and Scotland. This propaganda campaign was aided by two factors. The first was his marriage alliance from 1302 with the de Burgh family of the
Earldom of Ulsterin Ireland; second, Bruce himself on his mother's side of Carrick, was descended from Gaelic royalty - in Scotland. Thus, lineally and geopolitically, Bruce attempted to support his anticipated notion of a pan-Gaelic alliance between Scottish-Irish Gaelic populations, under his kingship.
This is revealed by a letter he sent to the Irish chiefs, where he calls the Scots and Irish collectively "nostra nacio" (our nation), stressing the common language, customs and heritage of the two peoples:
The diplomacy worked to a certain extent, at least in Ulster, where the Scots had some support. The Irish chief, Donal O'Neill, for instance, later justified his support for the Scots to
Pope John XXIIby saying "the Kings of Lesser Scotia all trace their blood to our "Greater Scotia" and retain to some degree our language and customs."
The Bruce campaign to Ireland was characterised by some initial military success. However, the Scots failed to win over the non-Ulster chiefs, or to make any other significant gains in the south of the island, where people couldn't see the difference between English and Scottish occupation. Eventually it was defeated when Edward Bruce was killed at the
Battle of Faughart. The Irish Annals of the period described the defeat of the Bruces by the English as one of the greatest things ever done for the Irish nation due to the fact it brought an end to the famine and pillaging brought on the Irish by both the Scots and the English. [The Annals of Connacht]
Robert Bruce's reign also witnessed some diplomatic achievements. The
Declaration of Arbroathof 1320 strengthened his position, particularly "vis-à-vis" the Papacy. Pope John XXIIeventually lifted Bruce's excommunication. In May 1328 King Edward III of Englandsigned the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, which recognised Scotland as an independent kingdom, and Bruce as its king.
Robert the Bruce died on
7 June, 1329, at the Manor of Cardross, near Dumbarton[The exact location is uncertain and it may not have been very near the modern village of Cardross, although it was probably in Cardross Parish. Barrow suggests that it was at present-day Mains of Cardross farm on the outskirts of Dumbarton, beside the River Leven. [http://www.castleduncan.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=2013] ] He had suffered for some years from what some contemporary accounts describe as an "unclean ailment"; the traditional view is that he died of leprosy, but this is now disputed [http://www.rcpsg.ac.uk/hdrg/April015.htm] with syphilis, psoriasis, motor neurone diseaseand a series of strokes all proposed as possible alternatives.
His body lies buried in
Dunfermline Abbey, but according to a death bed decree Sir James Douglas removed and carried his heart" 'against the enemies of the name of Christ' ", in Moorish Granada, Spain. The decree overrode an earlier written request, dated 13th May 1329 Cardross, that his heart be buried in the monastery at Melrose. Douglas was killed in an ambush whilst carrying out the decree. On realising his imminent death Douglas is said to have thrown the casket containing Bruce's heart ahead of him and shouted "Onward braveheart, Douglas shall follow thee or die." According to legend "(Fordun Annals)", the heart was later recovered by Sir William Keithand taken back to Scotland to be buried at Melrose Abbey, in Roxburghshire, following his earlier decree. In 1996, a casket, thought to contain the heart, was unearthed during construction work. [cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/earlychurch/trails_earlychurch_melroseabbey.shtml
Family and descendants
Robert Bruce had a large family in addition to his wife Elizabeth and his children. There were his brothers, Edward, Alexander, Thomas, and Neil, his sisters Christina, Isabel (Queen of
Norway), Margaret, Matilda, and Mary, and his nephews Donald II, Earl of Marand Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray.
In addition to his legitimate offspring, Robert Bruce had several illegitimate children by unknown mothers. His sons were Sir Robert (died
12 August 1332at the Battle of Dupplin Moor); Walter, of Odistoun on the Clyde, who predeceased his father; and Niall, of Carrick, (died 17 October, 1346at the Battle of Neville's Cross). His daughters were Elizabeth (married Walter Oliphant of Gask); Margaret (married Robert Glen), alive as of 29 February, 1364; and Christian of Carrick, who died after 1329, when she was in receipt of a pension.
Robert was succeeded by his only legitimate son, the infant David II.
Robert's only child by his first marriage,
Marjorie Bruce, married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland(1293–1326). She died on 2 March 1316, near Paisley, Renfrewshire, after being thrown from her horse while heavily pregnant, but the child survived. He was Robert II, who succeeded David II and founded the Stewart dynasty.
Bruce's descendants include all later Scottish monarchs (except
Edward Balliolwhose claim to be a Scottish monarch is debatable) and all British monarchs since the Union of the Crownsin 1603. A large number of families definitely are descended from him [ Lauder-Frost, Gregory, FSA Scot., "Some Descendants of Robert the Bruce", in "The Scottish Genealogist", vol. LI, No.2, June 2004: 49-58, ISSN 0300-337X ] but there is some controversy about some claims. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/21/johnmccain.uselections2008] John McCain, veteran war hero: yes. But a descendant of Robert the Bruce? Baloney]
According to legend, at some point while he was on the run during the winter of 1305-06, Bruce hid himself in a cave on
Rathlin Islandoff the north coast of Ireland, where he observed a spider spinning a web, trying to make a connection from one area of the cave's roof to another. Each time the spider failed, it simply started all over again until it succeeded. Inspired by this, Bruce returned to inflict a series of defeats on the English, thus winning him more supporters and eventual victory. The story serves to explain the maxim: "if at first you don't succeed, try try again." Other versions have Bruce in a small house watching the spider try to make its connection between two roof beams [http://www.longlongtimeago.com/llta_history_bruce.html] ; or, defeated for the seventh time by the English, watching the spider make its attempt seven times, succeeding on the eighth tryFact|date=November 2007.
But this legend appears for the first time in only a much later account, "Tales of a Grandfather" by
Sir Walter Scott, and may have originally been told about his companion-in-arms Sir James Douglas (the "Black Douglas"). The entire account may in fact be a version of a literary trope used in royal biographical writing. A similar story is told, for example, in Jewish sources about King David, and in Persian folklore about the Mongolian warlord Tamerlaneand an ant. [ [http://www.silkroaddestinations.com/uzbekistan.html#shz silkroaddestinations.com] - Uzbekistan, Shakhrisabz]
On March 21, 2008, Dr.
Bruce Durie, academic manager of genealogical studies at the University of Strathclyde, opined in the British daily newspaper The Guardian, "that despite his romantic reputation, Robert the Bruce was an absolute scoundrel". "The first thing he did after taking power was destroy Stirling castle and he was a self-serving, vainglorious opportunist who was determined to be king at any cost," Durie added. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/21/johnmccain.uselections2008] The Guardian, Friday 21 March 2008] .
Scholars of the period might, however, point out that Bruce only slighted Stirling castle to deny it to future English invaders, that he restored the independence of the country by expelling the Occupation government, and that he was a very successful monarch in very difficult circumstances.
The Bruce in fiction
*The revolt of Robert the Bruce is the topic of the book "The King's Swift Rider", written from the view of a young Scot in the revolt.
*In the 1995 film "
Braveheart", Robert the Bruce is portrayed, somewhat inaccurately, by Scottish actor Angus Macfadyen. Although the film showed him taking the field at Falkirk as part of the English army, he had never betrayed William Wallace(despite changing sides many times).
Nigel Tranterwrote a well-researched trilogy based on the life of Robert: "Robert the Bruce: The Steps to the Empty Throne"; "Robert the Bruce: The Path of the Hero King"; and "Robert the Bruce: The Price of the King's Peace." This has also been published in one volume as "The Bruce Trilogy".
*Chronicles of the reign of Robert the Bruce (or Robert de Brus) are published in a series titled "Rebel King, Hammer of the Scots" (2002); "Rebel King, The Har'ships" (2004); and "Rebel King, Bannok Burn" (2006). Two more volumes are planned. Historical fiction, but very close to Scottish history, this most comprehensive series on Robert's reign starts in January 1306 and will carry through Robert's death in 1329.
Robert The Bruce was portrayed in £1 banknote of
Clydesdale Bank, one of the three Scottish banks with right to issue banknotes, from 1981 to 1989. When Clydesdale Bank discontinued £1 banknotes, Robert The Bruce's portrait was moved into the bank's £20 banknote in 1990 and it has remained there to date.
British Caledonian, named a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 (G-BHDI) after Robert the Bruce.
style=font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%;
boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
1= 1. Robert I of Scotland
2= 2. Robert de Brus
3= 3. Marjorie of Carrick
4= 4. Robert de Brus
Isabella of Gloucester and Hertford
6= 6. Níall of Carrick
8= 8. Robert de Brus
Isobel of Huntingdon
10= 10. Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and Gloucester
Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick
14= 14. Walter Steward of Dundonald
15= 15. Bethóc of Angus
16= 16. William de Brus
17= 17. Christina
18= 18. David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon
Maude of Chester
Richard de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford
Amice Fitz Robert
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke
Isabel de Clare
Gille Brigte, Lord of Galloway
Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland
29= 29. Alesta of Morggán
Gille Críst, Earl of Angus
Marjorie of Huntingdon
32= 32. Robert de Brus
Euphemia of Albemarle
Henry of Scotland
Ada de Warenne
Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester
39= 39. Bertrade de Montfort of Evreux
Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford
41= 41. Maud de St. Hilary
44= 44. John Marshal
45= 45. Sibyl of Salisbury
Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
Fergus of Galloway
Walter fitz Alan
57= 57. Eschyna de Londoniis
Gille Brigte, Earl of Angus
Henry of Scotland
Ada de Warenne
64= 64. Robert de Brus
65= 65. Agnes
66= 66. William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle & Yorkshire
67= 67. Cicely, Lady of Skipton
David I of Scotland
Maud of Huntingdon
Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester
77= 77. Maud of Gloucester
Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford
81= 81. Alice de Gernon
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke
93= 93. Isabel de Beaumont
95= 95. More O'Toole
103= 103. Ada or Adeline
David I of Scotland
Maud of Huntingdon
* Barrow, G.W.S., "Robert Bruce & the Community of the Realm of Scotland"
* Bartlett, Robert, "The Making of Europe, Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change: 950-1350"
* Bingham, Charlotte. "Robert the Bruce" (1998)
* Brown, Christian, "Robert the Bruce. A Life Chronicled"
* Dunbar, Bt., Sir Archibald H., "Scottish Kings 1005-1625", Edinburgh, 1899, pps: 126 -141, with copious original source materiéls.
* Loudoun, Darren. "Scotlands Brave" 2007.
* Macnamee, C., "The Wars of the Bruces"
* [http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/dnb/3754.html Oxford Dictionary of National Biography]
* Nicholson, R., "Scotland in the Later Middle Ages."
Geoffrey the Baker's: [http://www.archive.org/details/chronicongalfrid00bakeuoft Chronicon Galfridi le Baker de Swynebroke] , ed. Edward Maunde Thompson (Oxford, 1889)Adam Aird 2K8 mon the Airds
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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Robert Stewart — may refer to: * Members of the House of Stewart, rulers of Scotland ** Robert II of Scotland ** Robert III of Scotland ** Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany ** Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney ** Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre ** Robert Stewart … Wikipedia
Robert Kilgour — was the 39th bishop of the Diocese of Aberdeen of the Scottish Episcopal Church from 1778 to 1788. He was one of the three bishops to consecrate Samuel Seabury, an American Episcopal priest as a bishop in 1784. He was succeeded by Bishop… … Wikipedia
Robert I — may refer to: *Robert I of France (c. 865 ndash;923), King of France, 922 ndash;923, rebelled against Charles the Simple *Robert I of Poitiers (866 ndash;923), Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris (888), Marquis of Neustria, and King of West Franks … Wikipedia
Robert II. (Schottland) — Robert II. von Schottland (* 2. März 1316 in Paisley, Renfrewshire; † 19. April 1390 in Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire; eigentlich Robert Stewart) war von 1371 bis zu seinem Tode schottischer König. Vor seinem Amtsantritt im Alter von 55 Jahren war… … Deutsch Wikipedia