List of Spanish words of Germanic origin


List of Spanish words of Germanic origin

This is an initial list of many Spanish words that come from Germanic languages. It is further divided into words that come from Visigothic, Frankish, Langobardic, Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Swedish, English, and finally, words which come from Germanic with the specific source unknown. Some of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other languages. Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Spanish words from a different language. Some words contain non-Germanic elements (see "béisbol" in the Middle English section). Any form with an asterisk (*) is unattested and therefore hypothetical.

List

A

*abandonar; abandono= "to abandon" ; "abandon"
*atacar= "to attack"
*abordar= "to board (as in ship)"

B

*bala= "bullet"
*balcón= "balcony"
*bandera= "flag"
*bandolero= "bandit"
*banquete= "banquet"
*barón= "baron"
*bebé= "baby"
*biftec, bistec= "steak"
*bigote= "moustache" (from German "Bei Gott", "By God")
*bisonte= "bison"
*blanco; blanca= "white"
*bloque; bloquear= "block; to block"
*bordar="to embroider"
*bote= "boat"
*bramar= "to , "
*brecha= ", "
*brindis= "toast(with drinks)"
*brida
*brío= "spirit", "" (Celtic???)
*brisa= "breeze" (Old Spanish "briza" from East Frisian "brisen", to blow fresh and strong)
*brocha= "broach"
*brotar= "to sprout"
*buganvill(i)a, bugambilia= "bougainvillea"
*bulevar= "boulevard"
*buque= "ship, vessel"
*burgués= "bourgeoisie", "member of the middle class"
*busca; buscar = "to search"

C

*cancán= "can-can dance"
*carpa "carp"
*chocar "to crash, collide"
*cinc "zinc"
*club "club, association"
*cobalto "cobalt"
*comarca "region"
*correa= "strap, belt, leash"

D

*dalia= dahlia (named for Swedish 18th century botanist Anders Dahl)
*danés= "a Dane, a citizen of the Kingdom of Denmark"
*danza; danzar= "dance; to dance"
*dardo= "a dart"
*debut
*dique= "a dikewall"
*dólar= "a dollar"

E

*equipar=To Pack

F

*feudal
*feudo
*filibustero
*film
*filtro; filtrar
*flotar; flota; flotilla
*folclore (from English "Folklore")
*fornido
*forraje
*forrar
*frambuesa
*franco (candid)
*franco (money)
*franqueo
*frasco
*fresco
*frotar
*fútbol, futbol

G

*gabardin
*gaita
*gaje
*galán
*galante
*galardón
*galope
*ganado
*ganar = "win"
*ganso; gansa
*garaje = "garage"
*garantía
*garbo
*gardenia
*garrote
*gavilán
*grabar (to grab/to record)
*gripe, gripa (flu)
*gris (grey)
*grosella
*grupo (group)
*guadaña
*guagua (bus)
*guante (glove)
*guarida
*guardia
*guarcanión
*guarnición
*guerra=war
*guerrilla
*gueto
*guía= "a guide"
*guiar
*guillotina
*guión
*guirnalda
*guisa
*guisar
*guzman=last name= guts/man= goodman

H

*hacha
*halar, jalar
*heraldo
* hola

I

*instalar

J

*jabón (soap)
*jardin (garden)

K

L

*lastre
*lata
*lieja= "liege"
*lista
*listón
*lote
*lotería
*luna de miel (calque)

M

*maleta
*Malta
*maniquí
*maquillaje
*marcar
*march
*marchar
*mariscal
*marqués
*marquesina
*marta
*mascota
*masón
*mástil

N

*nórdico
*normando
*norte

O

*oeste= "west"
*orgullo = pride

P

*palco
*paquete
*placa

Q

R

*raza= "race (lineage)" from Italian "raza" of Gmc origin, akin to OHG "rīga", line; OE "ræw", row
*rascacielos (calque)
*raspar
*rata
*raton
*refrescar
*reno
*retaguardia
*rico
*rifa
*rifle
*riqueza
*robar
*robo
*rocín
*ron
*ropa
*rorcual
*rueca
*rufián
*rumba
*ruso

*sajón=saxon
*sala
*salón
*saxofón
*sopa=soup
*sud- /sur=south
*sueco
*suizo

T

*tacha
*tachuela
*taco
*tacón
*talar
*tampón
*tapa=top
*tapar
*tapia
*tapón,
*tarjeta
*teta
*teutón
*toalla
*toldo
*tope
*torio
*trampa
*tranvia (calque)
*tregua
*trepar
*trombón
*trompa
*trompeta
*trompo
*tropa
*trotar
*tungsteno
*tupé

U

*ufano

V

*vagón=wagon
*valquiria
*vals
*vanadio
*vandalismo
*varón
*venda
*vermut

W

*wagneriano

X

Y

*yate
*yelmo
*yodo

Z


=Dutch=

*babor= port side of a ship: from French "babord" "portside", from Dutch "bakboord" "left side of a ship", literally "back side of a ship" (from the fact that most ships were steered from the starboard side), from "bak" "back, behind", (from Germanic (*)"bakam") + boord "board, side of a ship", see borde below (in Germanic section). Also see estribor' "starboard" below in the Germanic section
*berbiquí= carpenter's brace: from regional French "veberquin" (French "vilebrequin"), from Dutch "wimmelken", from "wimmel" "auger, drill, carpenter's brace" + "-ken", a diminutive suffix, see maniquí below in Middle Dutch section.


=English=

* bar
* básquet= basketball
* béisbol= baseball: from Modern English, from base (from Old French "base", from Latin "basis" "base, pedestal", from Ancient Greek βασις "basis", from βαινειν "bainein" "to go, to come", from the IE root [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE179.html] ) + ball from Middle English "bal", (from either Old Norse "böllr" OR Old English (*)"beall" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/21/B0042100.html] ) both from Germanic (*)"ball-", from the IE root (*)"bhel-" "to swell" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE51.html] .
* bit
* boxear= to box: from Modern English, from Middle English "box" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/13/B0431300.html]
* byte
* chatear= chat (on the internet)
* cheque= cheque/check
* chequeo= checkup
* clic= click (on a mouse)
* cliquear= to click (mouse)
* club
* cómic= comic, ultimately Greek borrowing (adj.)
* escáner= scanner
* escanear= to scan
* eslógan= slogan
* estándar= standard
* fax
* flash
* fútbol= football
* gay= English, from French
* glamoroso= glamorous
* hall
* hockey
* interfaz= interface
* internet
* jersey= (pullover, sweater)
* módem= modem
* mouse (device)
* náilon= nylon
* píxel= pixel
* sandwich
* shampú or champú = shampoo
* shock
* software
* show
* test
* turista= tourist
* vagón= wagon
* yanqui= yankee
* yate= yacht

Frankish

*aguantar= to endure, bear, resist: from Italian "agguantare" "to retain, take hold of" (originally "to detain with gauntlets"), from a- + "guanto" "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)"want" (see guante below) + verbal suffix -are (suffix changed to -ar in Spanish).
*alojar= to lodge, to house, to provide hospitality: from Catalan "allotjar", from "llotja" from Old French "loge", see lonja below.
*bordar= to embroider: from Frankish (*)"bruzdon" (source of Old French "brouder, brosder" and French "broder"), from Germanic (*)"bruzd-" "point, needle", from the IE root (*)"bhrs-dh-", from (*)"bhrs-", from (*)"bhar-", "point, nail."
*destacar= to detach troops: from French "détachar" (influenced by Spanish "atacar"), from Old French "destachier" "to unattach", from "des-" "apart, away" + "atachier", a variation of "estachier", from "estaca", from Frankish "stakka", see estaca below in Germanic section.
*destacar= to stand out, to emphasize: from Italian "staccare" "to separate", from Old French "destacher, destachier", see destacar above.
*estandarte= a military standard: from Old French "estandart", probably from Frankish (*)"standhard" "standard that marks a meeting place", (implicit sense: "that which stands firmly"), from (*)"standan" "to stand", (from Germanic (*)"standan", from the IE root (*)"sta-" "to stand" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE494.html] ) + (*)"hard" "hard, firm", see ardid below in Germanic section.
*guante= glove, gauntlet: from Catalan "guant" "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)"want" "gauntlet." [http://www.bartleby.com/61/21/G0062100.html]
*lonja= market, building where merchants and sellers gather: from regional Catalan "llonja" (Modern Catalan "llotja"), from [Old French"logo" "dwelling, shelter", from Frankish (*)"laubja" "covering, enclosure", from Germanic (*)"laubja" "shelter" (implicit sense "roof made of bark"), from the IE root (*)"leup-" "to peel."

Latin words in Spanish of Germanic origin

*bisonte (from L "bisont-","bison" from Gmc, akin to OHG "wisant", aurochs)
*feudal (from Latin "feodum, feudum" of Gmc origin, akin to OE "feoh", cattle, property)
*filtro; filtrar= "filter; to filter" from ML "filtrum" felt from Gmc, akin to OE "felt", felt
*instalar (from ML "installare" from "stallum" of Gmc origin, akin to OHG "stal", stall)
*jabon= "soap" from Latin "sapon-, sapo", soap from Gmc


=Langobardic=

*palco= a balcony, balcony of a theater: from Italian "palco", from Langobardic "palko" "scaffolding", from Germanic (*)"balkōn" "beam, crossbeam", see balcón below in Germanic section.

Middle Dutch

*baluarte= bulwark: from Old French "boloart" "bulwark, , converted to a boulevard", from Middle Dutch "bolwerc" "rampart",
*amarrar= to moor a boat, to tie, to fasten: from French "amarrer", "to moor", from Middle Dutch "aanmarren" "to fasten", from "aan" "on" (from Germanic (*)"ana", (*)"anō", from the IE root (*)"an-" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE16.html] ) + "marren" "to fasten, to moor a boat."
*maniquí= a mannequin, dummy, puppet: from French "mannequin", from (probably via Catalan "maniquí") Dutch "manneken, mannekijn" "little man", from Middle Dutch "mannekijn," from "man" "a man" (see alemán below in Germanic section) + the diminutive suffix "-ken, -kin, -kijn", from West Germanic (*)"-kin" (cf. Modern German "-chen")
*rumbo= direction, course, route, pomp, ostentation: from Old Spanish "rumbo" "each of the 32 points on a compass", from Middle Dutch "rume" "space, place, rhumb line, storeroom of a ship", from Germanic "rūmaz" "space, place", from the IE root (*)"reu-" "space, to open" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE434.html] .

Middle English

Middle High German

Middle Low German

Old English

*arlequín= harlequin: from Italian "arlecchino", from Old French "Herlequin" "mythic chief of a tribe", probably from Middle English "Herle king", from Old English "Herla cyning, Herla Kyning" literally King Herla, a king of Germanic mythology identified with Odin/Woden. "Cyning" "king" is from Germanic (*)"kunjan" "family" (hence, by extension royal family), from the IE root (*)"gen-" "to birth, regenerate" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE143.html] .
*bote= a small, uncovered boat: from Old French "bot", from Middle English "bot, boot", from Old English "bāt", from Germanic (*)"bait-", from the IE root (*)"bheid-" "to split" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE48.html] .
*este= east: from French "est", from Middle English "est", from Old English "ēast", from Germanic (*)"aust-", from the IE root (*)"awes-, aus" "to shine" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE29.html] .
*norte= north: from Old French "nord", from Old English "north", from Germanic (*)"north-", from the IE root (*)"nr-to" "north", from (*)"nr-" ", to the left" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE344.html]
*oeste= west: from Middle English "west", from Old English "west", from Germanic (*)"west-", from (*)"wes-to-", from (*)"wes-", from (*)"wespero-" "evening, dusk" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE582.html]
*sud-= south (combining form): from Old French "sud" "south", from Old English "sūth", from Germanic (*)"sunthaz", from the IE root (*)"sun-", "swen-", varaints of (*)"sāwel-" "sun" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/23/S0582300.html]
*sur= south: from French "sud", from Old English "sūth", see sud- above.

Old High German

*banca= bench: see banco= bench below
*banco= bench: from Old High German "banc" "bench, board"
*banco= bank: from French "banque" "bank", from Italian "banca" "bench, money changer's table", from Old High German "banc", see banco= bench above
*banqueta= backless bench, stool, sidewalk (Mexico): diminutive of banca, see banca above.

Old Norse

*bistec= steak, beefsteak: from English "beefsteak", from "beef" (ultimately from Latin "bōs, bovis" "cow", from the IE root (*)"gwou-" "ox, bull, cow" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE192.html] ) + "steak", from Middle English "steyke", from Old Norse "steik" "piece of meat cooked on a spit", from Germanic (*)"stik-", see estaca below in the Germanic section.


=Old Swedish=


=Visigothic=

*agasajar= to flatter: from agasajo (see agasajo below) + the verbal suffix -ar
*agasajo= entertainment, kind reception, friendliness, flattery: from a- + Old Spanish "gasajo" "reception" from Visigothic "gasalja" "companion, comrade", from "ga-" "with, together" (from the IE root (*)"kom" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE236.html] ) + "sal-" "room, lodging" (see sala below in the Germanic section).
*guardia= guard, bodyguard, protection: from Visiothic "wardja" "a guard", from Germanic "wardaz", from the IE root (*)"wor-to-", see guardar below in Germanic section.
*guardián= guardian: from Visgothic wardjan accusative of "wardja", see guardia above.
*atacar= to attack: Old Italian "attaccare" "to fasten, join, unite, attack (implicit sense: to join in a battle)", changed from (*)"estacar" (by influence of a-, common verbal prefix) "to fasten, join", from Visigothic "stakka" "a stick, stake", from Germanic (*)"stak-", see estaca in Germanic section.

Germanic

*abanderado= standard-bearer, also standard-bearing (adjective): from a- + "bandera", (see bandera below) + -ado, from Latin "-atus", noun suffix derived the adjective suffix -"atus".
*abandonar= to abandon: from Old French "a bandon", from "a" + "bandon" "control" from "ban" "proclamation, jurisdiction, power", from Germanic (*)"banwan", (*)"bannan" "to proclaim, speak publicly" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/65/A0006500.html] [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE37.html]
*abordar= to board a ship, to approach, to undertake: from "a-" + "bordo" "side of a ship", variation of "borde", see borde below
*abotonar: to button: from a- + "botón" "button", see botón below
*abrasar= to burn, to parch: from a- + brasa "a coal, ember" (see brasa below) + the verbal suffix -ar
*aguardar= to wait, wait for: from a- + guardar, see guardar below.
*alemán= of Germany (adjective), the German language: from Late Latin "Alemanni", an ancient Germanic tribe, from Germanic (*)"alamanniz" (represented in Gothic "alamans"), from "ala-" "all" + "mannis", plural of "manna-"/"mannaz" "man" (Gothic "manna") from the IE root (*)"man-" "man" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE295.html]
*ardid= trick, scheme, ruse: from Old Spanish "ardid" "risky undertaking in war", from Catalan "ardit" (noun) "risky undertaking, strategy", from "ardit" (adjective) "daring, bold", from a Germanic source represented in Old High German "harti" "daring, bold" and "hart" "hard", both from the IE root (*)"kor-tu-" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE205.html] .
*arenque= herring: possibly via French "hareng", from Germanic (compare Old High German "hārinc").
*arpa= a harp: from French: "harpe", from Germanic (*)"harpōn-".
*arrimar= to approach: possibly from Old French "arrimer, arimer" "to arrange the cargo in the storeroom of a ship", from Germanic (*)"rūmaz" "room"
*atrapar= to trap, to ensnare: from French "attraper", from Old French "a-" + "trape" "trap", from Germanic (*)"trep-" (seen in the Old English "træppe") from the IE root (*)"dreb-", from (*)"der-" "to run."
*bala= a bullet: Italian "balla/palla", from Germanic (*)"ball-", see béisbol above in Old English section.
*balcón= a balcony: from Italian "balcone", from Old Italian "balcone" "scaffold", from Germanic (*)"balkōn" "beam, crossbeam", from the IE root (*)"bhelg-" "beam, board, plank."
*balón= a large ball: from Italian "ballone, pallone", balla (see bala above) + "-one", an augmentive suffix, related to and possibly the source of Spanish "-ón" (in balón). see here.
*banda= ribbon, band, sash: from Old French "bande" "knot, fastening", from Germanic '*band-', from the IE root (*)"bhondh-", from (*)"bhendh-" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE54.html]
*banda= band, troop, musical group: from Germanic '*bandwa-', "standard, signal", also "group" (from the use of a military standard by some groups] ), from the IE root (*)"bha-" "to shine" (implicit sense "signal that shines").
*bandera= banner: from Vulgar Latin (*)"bandaria" "banner", from Late Latin "bandum" "standard", from Germanic (*)"bandwa," see banda= group below
*bandido= bandit, gangster: from Italian "bandito" "bandit", from "bandire" "to band together", from Germanic '*"banwan, see abandonar"' above
*banquete= a banquet: rom Old French "banquet", diminutive of "banc" "bench, long seat", of Germanic origin, of the same family as the Old High German "banc", see banco= bench above in Old High German section.
*bisonte= Bison bison: from Latin "bisontem" (accusative of "bison") "wisent (Bison bonasus)", from Germanic (*)"wisand-, wisunt-" (Old High German "wisant, wisunt").
*blanco= white, white person, blank: from Vulgar Latin (*)"blancus", from Germanic (*)"blank-" "to shine", from the IE root [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE50.html] .
*bloque= a block, a bloc: from French "bloc", from Middle Dutch "blok" "trunk of a tree", from a Germanic source represented in the Old High German "bloh".
*bohemio= a bohemian, of Bohemia, vagabond, eccentric, Gitano, Gypsy: from "bohemio/Bohemia" (from the belief that the Gitanos came from Bohemia), from Latin "bohemus", from Boihaemum, literally "place of the Boi/Boii (from Celtic, see bohemio here) + Latin "-haemum" "home", from Germanic (*)"haima" "home", from the IE root (*)"koi-mo-", from (*)"koi-", variant of (*)"kei-" "bed, couch; beloved, dear" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE211.html] .
*borde= border, edge: from Old French "bord" "side of a ship, border, edge", from Frankish (*)"bord" "table", from Germanic (*)"burd-".
*bosque= forest, woods: from Catalan of Provençal of Old French "bosc", from Germanic (*)"busk-" "brush, underbrush, thicket" (source of Old High German "busc").
*bosquejo= a sketch, outline, rough draft: from Spanish "bosquejar" "to sketch, to outline", probably from Catalan "bosquejar" from "bosc", see bosque above.
*bota= a boot: from or simply from the same source as French "botte" "boot", from Old French "bote" "boot", probably from the same source as Modern French "pied bot" "deformed foot" in which "bot" is from Germanic (*)"būtaz", from the IE root (*)"bhau-" "to strike", see botar below.
*botar= to throw, to bounce, to jump: from Old French "boter, bouter" "to open, to hit, to strike, to perforate", from Romance "bottare" "to strike, to push, to shove", from Germanic (*) buttan "to hit, to strike" from the IE root (*)"bhau-" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE45.html]
*bote+ a : see botar above
*botón= button: from Old French "boton, bouton" "button", from "boter, bouter" "to open, perforate", see botar above
*boya= a buoy: probably from Old French "boie", from Germanic, possibly from Old High German "bouhhan", from Germanic (*)"baukna-" "signal", from the IE root (*)"bha-" "to shine" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE36.html]
*brasa= a coal, ember: from Old French "brese" "a coal" (Modern French "braise"), probably from Germanic (*)"bres-, (*)bhres-", from the IE root (*)"bhreu-" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE69.html]
*dibujar= to draw, represent with lines: older Spanish meanings include "to represent, to paint, to sculpt, to do wood carving", probably from Old French "deboissier" "to sculpt in wood", from "de-" + "bois" "wood", from Germanic (*)"busk-", see bosque above.
*estaca= a stake: from Germanic (*)"stak-", from the IE root (*)"steg-" ", post pointed stick" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE498.html] .
*estribor= starboard side of a ship: from Old French "estribord" "starboard", (Modern French "tribord"), from a Germanic source (confer Old English "stēorbord"). From Germanic (*)"stiurjō" "to steer", + Germanic (*)burd-", see borde"' above
*grupo= group: rom Italian "gruppo", from a Germanic word represented by Old High German "kropf" "beak."
*guardar= to guard, watch over, keep, observe (a custom): from Germanic (*)"wardōn" "to look after, take care of", from the IE root (*)"wor-to-", "to watch", from (*)"wor-", (*)"wer-" "to see, watch, perceive" [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE572.html]
*oboe= an oboe: from French "hautbois" from "haut" (ultimately from Latin "altus" "high") + "bois" "wood", see bosque above.
*sala= a room: from Germanic "sal-" "room, house", from the IE root (*)"sol-" "hamlet, human settlement."
*salón= main room of a house (see sala above) + "-on", augmentive suffix.
*trampa= a trap: possibly from Germanic, from the same derivation as trampolín (see below) and atrapar (see above).
*trampolín= a trampoline: from Italian "trampolino" "trampoline" (implicit sense: game of agility on stilts), from "trampoli", plural of a Germanic word (*)"tramp-" (such as German "trampeln" and Old High German "trampen", both meaning "to tread, trample"), from the IE root (*)"dreb-", from (*)"der-" "to run."
*vanguardia= vanguard: from Old Spanish "avanguardia", from Catalan "avantguarda" from "avant" "before, advance", (from Latin "ab-" + "ante" "before") + "guarda" "guard", from Germanic "wardaz", see guardia above in Visigothic section.

ee also

*List of Portuguese words of Germanic origin
*Linguistic history of Spanish
*List of Spanish words of Arabic origin
*List of English words of Spanish origin

References

*"Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua española" by Guido Gómez de Silva (ISBN 968-16-2812-8)
*"The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language": Fourth Edition. 2000. [http://www.bartleby.com/61/]


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