The word conjuration (from Latin 'conjure', 'conjurare', to swear together) can be interpreted in several different ways: as an
invocationor evocation(the latter in the sense of binding by a vow); as an exorcism; or as an act of illusionism. The word is often used synonymously with "invocation", although the two are not synonyms. One who performs conjurations is called a conjurer or conjuror.
Texts and language
The text of the charms to be recited to conjure the spirit varies considerably from simple sentences to complex paragraphs with plenty of magic words. The language usually is that of the conjurer's, but since the
Middle Agesin Western tradition, Latinwas the most common (although many texts have been translated into other languages).
Objectives of conjuration
The conjuration of the
ghosts or souls of the dead for the purpose of divinationis called necromancy.
When it is said that a person is calling upon or conjuring misfortune or disease, it is due to the ancient belief that personified diseases and misfortune as evil deities, spirits or
demons that could enter a human or animal body; see demon possession.
The notion of the action of a conjuration is traditionally linked to the task of repelling negative spirits away, and protecting an individual, space or collectivity.However, it is also believed by many, particularly in Christian and
Islamic societies, that magic, and thus conjuration, is an inherently evil practice. According to these beliefs, conjurers summon demons or other evil spirits to cause harm to people or things, to obtain favors from them, or simply to enter servitude to such beings. The belief in similarly-minded conjurers also exists in belief systems in which magic is not inherently evil, although in these cultures these " black magicians" are not the rule and have opposition among more traditional magicians.
Conjuration in the Middle East
Conjurationis a very common mysticpractice in the Middle East, most commonly found in Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Iraq. Many practice it to settle personal grudges or for healing, personal enhancement, or foretelling the future. There are also those who will sell their services as conjurers to others. Islamstrongly forbids the use of conjuration, because it is seen as an unholy procedure, and therefore to perform it is to give an insult to God. It is also considered to, in the end, harm people more than help them: those who regularly contact demons are believed to go mad through overdosing on power, or being possessed (since demons are thought to be short-tempered beings, and given the opportunity might overpower and enslave the one who summoned them).
Conjuration is such a widespread phenomenon in these regions that special television shows and satellite channels have started broadcasting about it. People will phone in to these shows to ask the resident conjurers to aid them in some way -- by showing them how to make charms, for example, or how to conjure by themselves. Though it is obvious that what is going on is conjuration, the conjurers tend to portray themselves as men of religion to add an air of respectability.
Islam has strongly forbidden this new development, with many imams stating that it is more dangerous than going to a conjurer to get service, because it teaches people how to conjure, and by the time the
Dajjalarrives at the end of days people will not be able to differentiate between him and Isa (Jesus), as the Dajjal would impose himself as Isa and trick those who are weak in belief.
"Conjurer" or "conjuror" is still the term for what is today called an illusionist or magician by its practitioners. In the not too distant past, conjurors were suspected of using magic power to create their entertaining illusions and even cast spells. Thus they became "magicians" to the general public, who were superstitious, anxious, ill-informed and uncurious. The term is thus used in (and as the title of) a 2008 movie " [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0896533/ Conjurer] " to refer to dark spirits.
* Conjuration is used in many video games, mainly RPGs, where it is usually referred to as Summoning. A notable example is the
Final Fantasyfranchise which incorporates summoning of monsters to fight alongside the characters.
Warlockclass in World of Warcraftcan summon demonsand other players to aid them in combat. This was an extension of the original Warcraft RTSgame where the Orc Warlockunit could summon Spiders (Minor Summoning) and the Daemon (Major Summoning), while the Human Conjurer unit could summon Scorpions (Minor Summoning) and the Water Elemental (Major Summoning). In addition, the Necrolyte unit was capable of summoning Skeletons if there happened to be any corpses in the vicinity.
* The Conjurer class in the action-RPG title
Nox(Westwood Studios) can summon various animals and supernatural beings for use in combat. A Conjurer may also take control of these same creatures as they appear throughout the game.
MMORPG RuneScapehas a summoning skill where players can summon various animals called familiars to aid them in many aspects of the game. Most of the familiars have both a combat and non-combat use. Non-combat uses include healing, teleportation, remote banking of items, beasts of burden, etc. The non-combat function of the familiars is by far the most popular usage of the familiars outside of player vs. player games.
* In the PS2 RPG , the Protagonist summons demons called "Personas", using a tool shaped like a gun, shooting himself in the head.
* Conjuration is one of the skills you can build up on in the single player fantasy RPG , which is one of the several magical skills and gives you the ability to spawn creatures from other realms, as well as weapons and armour.
Savage 2the conjurer is a plant like unit in the beast horde using natural powers to build and repair buildings as well as assisting other units in battle.
MMORPG Age of Conanthe Demonologist class is capable of summoning and binding a demon to his/her service, while the necromancer is capable of summoning several undead minions (the exact number is dependent upon character level and feat specialization).
MMORPG Guild Warsthe Necromancer class is capable of summoning Undead creatures.
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conjuration — [ kɔ̃ʒyrasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1160 « serment »; lat. conjuratio 1 ♦ (fin XIIe) Rite, formule pour chasser les démons (⇒ adjuration, 2. charme, exorcisme), et par ext. Pratique magique pour combattre ou orienter les influences maléfiques. Il « voyait… … Encyclopédie Universelle
conjuration — CONJURATION. sub. fém. Conspiration, complot contre l État, contre le Prince. Horrible conjuration. Faire une conjuration. Tramer une conjuration. Découvrir une conjuration. Une conjuration formée. Il étoit de la conjuration. Tous ceux qui… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798
conjuration — Conjuration. s. f. v. Conspiration, complot pernicieux contre l Estat. Horrible conjuration. detestable conjuration. faire une conjuration. descouvrir la conjuration. c est une conjuration formée. il estoit de la conjuration. tous ceux qui… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
Conjuration (EP) — Conjuration EP by Behemoth Released September 14, 2003 … Wikipedia
Conjuration — Con ju*ra tion, n. [L. conjuratio, cf. F. conjuration.] 1. The act of calling or summoning by a sacred name, or in solemn manner; the act of binding by an oath; an earnest entreaty; adjuration. [1913 Webster] We charge you, in the name of God,… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
conjuration — Conjuration, Adiuratio, Coniuratio, Exorcismus. Souspeçonner aucun d avoir fait une conjuration et trahison, In suspicionem coniurationis vocare aliquem. Faire brigues et conjurations pour tuer quelqu un, Coitiones inire de nece alicuius, B.… … Thresor de la langue françoyse
Conjuration — Conjuration, eidliche Verbindung, Verschwörung; Conjurant, Verschwörer; conjuriren, verschwören … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
conjuration — late 14c., coniuracioun, conspiracy (now obs.), also a calling upon something supernatural, from O.Fr. conjuracion spell, incantation, formula used in exorcism, from L. conjurationem (nom. conjuratio) a swearing together, conspiracy, noun of… … Etymology dictionary
conjuration — [kän΄jə rā′shən] n. [ME conjuracioun < L conjuratio] 1. the act of conjuring; invocation 2. a magic spell; incantation 3. magic; sorcery 4. Archaic a solemn entreaty; adjuration … English World dictionary
Conjuration — Conspiration Une conspiration (synonyme : complot, conjuration) est une entente secrète entre plusieurs personnes, en vue de renverser un pouvoir établi, ou une organisation en vue d attenter à la vie d une personne d autorité. Sommaire 1… … Wikipédia en Français