Six Arts

Six Arts

Six Arts refer to the six practices in ancient Chinese culture. During the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC), students were required to master the "liù yì" (六艺) ("Six Arts", English). They are: Rites, Music, Archery, Charioteering, Calligraphy, and Mathematics. Men who excelled in these six arts were thought to have reached the state of perfection, a perfect gentleman. Six Arts have their roots in the Confucian philosophy.

Modern day interpretation of Six Arts

The requirement of students to master the six arts is the equivalent of the Western concept of the Rennaissance man. This tradition gave much vigor to the Chinese culture until the post Yuan dynasty. The emphasis on the six arts also bred Confucian gentlemen who knew more than just the four books and the analects. The requirement for a gentleman to know mathematics gave vigor to Chinese mathematics, astronomy, and science up to the Song dynasty. There were sporadic emergence of great mathematicians, astronomers, and scientists during the pre-Yuan era.

Examples of these were Zu Chongzhi (429-500) who lived in the North and South dynasty. Zu calculated the value of pi to six significant figures, the value of the Jupiter year to four significant figures, and the lunar year accurately, plus many more. Many of his feats were not repeated in the West until about a thousand years later.

Another scientist of note is Shen Kuo (1031-1095), a renaissance man who documented many scientific findings many years before the West. Other scientists of note are Liu Hui (3rd century), Yang Hui (1238-1298), Zhu Shijie (13th century).

This knowledge was however lost by the Ming and Qing dynasties in China. One can trace the disastrous lost of this knowledge to the rise of neo-Confucianism, as emphasized by Zhu Xi.Neo-confucianism underscored the importance of the four books and the analects over the other arts. Also, many books that were written in the pre-Yuan era were lost due to war and destruction.

By the Qing dynasty, the Chinese court was not able to manage the lunar calendar accurately, andthe calendar was going out of phase with nature. This was a great embarrassment to the Chinese court, as the adherenece to the lunar calendars by the vassal states was a recognition of the sovereignity of the Chinese court over them. The Qing emperors brought in Western jesuits to help fix the Chinese calendar, even though more than a thousand years ago, the knowledge existed in China.

See also

* Confucianism
* Neo-Confucianism
* Chinese culture

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Arts martiaux chinois — Pour les termes similaires, voir Kung fu (homonymie) et Wushu (terme). Démonstration d un art martial externe, le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arts and Culture Centre — The Arts and Culture Centres are a system of six arts centres in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, operated by the provincial government s Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation. Each has at least one stage for the performing… …   Wikipedia

  • Arts Engine — is unique in the independent media world for its array of activities, including full production of award winning documentaries, the annual creation of a widely recognized social issue film festival and creation and maintenance of a virtual… …   Wikipedia

  • Arts d'Islam — Arts de l Islam Histoire de l art Série Arts de l Islam Périodes Art omeyyade Art abbasside Art fatimide Iran autonome …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arts Martiaux Japonais — Yamabushi en armure, tenant une naginata et portant un tachi, fin du XIXe siècle. Les termes arts martiaux japonais désignent une grande variété d arts martiaux originaires du Japon. Ils traduisent au moins trois termes japonais couramment… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ARTS — ARTS, BÉAUX ARTS.     (Article dédié au roi de Prusse.)     SIRE,     La petite société d amateurs dont une partie travaille à ces rapsodies au mont Crapack, ne parlera point à votre majesté de l art de la guerre. C est un art héroïque, ou si l… …   Dictionnaire philosophique de Voltaire

  • Six-String Samurai — film poster Directed by Lance Mungia Produced by …   Wikipedia

  • Arts Midwest — Arts Midwest, headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota, is one of six not for profit regional arts organizations funded by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). Formed in 1985 through the merger of the Affiliated State Arts Agencies of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Six Moments Musicaux (Rachmaninoff) — Six Moments Musicaux (French for Six Musical Moments ; ru. Шесть Музыкальных Моментов, Shestʹ Muzykálʹnykh Moméntov ), Op. 16, is a set of solo piano pieces composed by the Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninoff between October and December,… …   Wikipedia

  • Arts Ritz Carlton Hotel Barcelona (Barcelona) — Arts Ritz Carlton Hotel Barcelona country: Spain, city: Barcelona (Olympic Port) Arts Ritz Carlton Hotel Barcelona Location Set on the shores of the Mediterranean and overlooking Port Olimpic, Arts Ritz Carlton Hotel Barcelona enjoys a… …   International hotels

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»