- Field capacity
Field capacity is the amount of
soil moistureor water contentheld in soilafter excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has materially decreased, which usually takes place within 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation in pervious soils of uniform structure and texture. The physical definition of field capacity (expressed symbolically as θfc) is the bulk water contentretained in soil at −33 J/kg (or −0.33 bar) of hydraulic heador suction pressure. The term originated from Israelson and West [cite journal |author=Israelson, O.W. and West, F.L. |year=1922 |title=Water holding capacity of irrigated soils |journal=Utah State Agricultural Experiment Station Bull |volume=183 |pages=1–24 ] and Frank Veihmeyer and Arthur Hendrickson [cite journal |author=Veihmeyer, F.J. and Hendrickson, A.H. |year=1931 |title=The moisture equivalent as a measure of the field capacity of soils |journal=Soil Science |volume=32 |pages=181–193 |doi=10.1097/00010694-193109000-00003 ] .
Veihmeyer and Hendrickson [cite journal |author=Veihmeyer, F.J. and Hendrickson, A.H. |year=1949 |title=The application of some basic concepts of soil moisture to orchard irrigation |journal=Proc. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. |volume=45 |pages=25–41 ] realised the limitation in this measurement and commented that it is "affected by so many factors that, precisely, it is not a constant" (for a particular soil), "yet it does serve as a practical measure of soil water-holding capacity". Field capacity improves on the earlier concept of
moisture equivalentby Lyman Briggs.Veihmeyer & Hendrickson proposed this concept as an attempt to improve water use efficiency for farmers in California during that time.
Field capacity is characterised by measuring
water contentafter wetting a soil profile, covering it (to prevent evaporation) and monitoring the change in soil moisturein the profile. Water contentwhen the rate of change is relatively small is indicative of when drainage ceases and is called "Field Capacity", it is also termed "drained upper limit" (DUL). Lorenzo A. Richardsand Weaver [cite journal |author=Richards, L.A. and Weaver, L.R. |year=1944 |title=Moisture retention by some irrigated soils as related to soil moisture tension |journal=Journal of Agricultural Research |volume=69 |pages=215–235 ] found that water content held at potential of −33 J/kg (or −0.33 bar) correlate closely with field capacity. Various potentials was also suggested from −1 J/kg for organic soils, −5 J/kg for soils in the UK, −10 J/kg for loamy soils, and −100 J/kg for heavy clay soils.
There are also critiques of this concept: field capacity is a static measurement, in a field it depends upon the initial water content and the depth of wetting before the commencement of redistribution and the rate of change in water content over time. These conditions are not unique for a given soil.
Available water capacity
Nonlimiting water range
Permanent wilting point
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