Superplasticity


Superplasticity

In materials science, superplasticity is a state in which solid crystalline material is deformed well beyond its usual breaking point, usually over about 200% during tensile deformation. Such a state is usually achieved at high homologous temperature, typically half the absolute melting point. Examples of superplastic materials are some fine-grained metals and ceramics. Other non-crystalline materials (amorphous) such as silica glass ("molten glass") and polymers also deform similarly, but are not called superplastic, because they are not crystalline; rather, their deformation is often described as Newtonian flow. Superplastically deformed material gets thinner in a very uniform manner, rather than forming a 'neck' (a local narrowing) which leads to fracture. Also, the formation of internal cavities, which is another cause of early fracture, is inhibited.

In metals and ceramics, requirements for it being superplastic include a fine grain size (~<20 micrometres) and a fine dispersion of thermally stable particles which act to pin the grain boundaries and maintain the fine grain structure at the high temperatures required for superplastic deformation. Those materials which meet these parameters must still have a strain rate sensitivity (a measurement of the way the stress on a material reacts to changes in strain rate) of >0.3 to be considered superplastic.

The mechanisms of superplasticity in metals are still under debate - many believe it relies on atomic diffusion and the sliding of grains past each other. Also, when metals are cycled around their phase transformation, internal stresses are produced and superplastic-like behavior develops.Recently hight-temperature superplastic behaviour has also been observed in iron aluminides with coarse grain structures. It is claimed that this due to recovery and dynamic recrystallization. [Garima Sharma, R. Kishore, M. Sundararaman, R.V. Ramanujan, Superplastic deformation studies in Fe-28Al-3Cr intermetallic alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A Volume 419, Issues 1-2, , 15 March 2006, Pages 144-147. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TXD-4J616J6-2/2/7bb158f6902408cb7525586a7024f955] ]

Superplasticity is used to form complex objects, by the application of gas pressure or with a tool, and often with the help of dies. Aluminum and titanium parts are often superplastically formed for aerospace applications.

More recently, superplasticity has been used to form parts for automotive applications. For application in the automotive industry, aluminum alloys are formed at a faster rate (compared to aerospace applications) to support high volume production.

References

"Evaluation and Prediction of Material Response During Superplastic Forming at Various Strain Rates", Sumit Agarwal, PhD Dissertation (Brown University, USA), 2006.


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  • Superplasticity — Superplasticity. См. Сверхпластичность. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • superplasticity — [so͞o΄pərplas tis′ə tē] n. the phenomenon, exhibited by certain metals and alloys usually at high temperatures, of stretching to extreme lengths without breaking superplastic [so͞o′pər plas΄tik] adj., n. * * * …   Universalium

  • superplasticity — [so͞o΄pərplas tis′ə tē] n. the phenomenon, exhibited by certain metals and alloys usually at high temperatures, of stretching to extreme lengths without breaking superplastic [so͞o′pər plas΄tik] adj., n …   English World dictionary

  • superplasticity — noun see superplastic …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • superplasticity — noun the deformation of a solid beyond its normal breaking point …   Wiktionary

  • superplasticity — Смотри Сверхпластичность …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии

  • superplasticity — su·per·plasticity …   English syllables

  • superplasticity — noun see superplastic * * * superplasticˈity noun • • • Main Entry: ↑superplastic …   Useful english dictionary

  • superplastic — superplasticity /sooh peuhr plas tis i tee/, n. /sooh peuhr plas tik/, adj. (of some metals and alloys) having the capacity to undergo extreme deformation at high temperatures. [1945 50; SUPER + PLASTIC; cf. Russ sverkhplastíchnost (1945)… …   Universalium

  • Сверхпластичность — Superplasticity Сверхпластичность. Спо собность некоторых металлов (чаще алюминия и сплавов на основе титана) очень сильно деформироваться при растяжении при повышенных температурах и контролируемой скорости деформации. (Источник: «Металлы и… …   Словарь металлургических терминов