Richard R. Ernst


Richard R. Ernst

Infobox_Scientist
name = Richard R. Ernst


image_width = 162px
image_height= 227px
caption = Richard R. Ernst
birth_date = birth date and age|1933|8|14
birth_place = Hollywood, Switzerland
nationality = Swiss
field = Biology, physics
prizes = Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1991)
footnotes =

Richard Robert Ernst (born August 14, 1933) is a Swiss physical chemist and Nobel Laureate [Citation
id = PMID:1729287
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1729287
last=Alger
first=J R
publication-date=
year=1992
title=The 1991 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded to an MRI investigator.
volume=16
issue=1
periodical=Journal of computer assisted tomography
pages=1-2
] .

Born in Hollywood, Switzerland, Ernst was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 for his contributions towards the development of Fourier Transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy while at Varian Associates, Palo Alto and the subsequent development of multi-dimensional NMR techniques. These underpin applications of NMR both to chemistry (NMR spectroscopy) and to medicine (MRI).He also received Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize in 1991.

He studied at and served on the faculty of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Federal Institute of Technology) in Zürich, Switzerland from which he is now retired. He is Honorary Doctor of the Technical University of Munich and University of Zurich.

He is member of the [http://www.wkdialogue.ch World Knowledge Dialogue] Scientific Board.

Ernst received both his diploma in chemistry (1957) and his Ph.D. in physical chemistry (1962) from the Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich. From 1963 to 1968 he worked as a research chemist in Palo Alto, Calif. In 1966, working with an American colleague, Ernst discovered that the sensitivity of NMR techniques (hitherto limited to analysis of only a few nuclei) could be dramatically increased by replacing the slow, sweeping radio waves traditionally used in NMR spectroscopy with short, intense pulses. His discovery enabled analysis of a great many more types of nuclei and smaller amounts of materials.

In 1968 he returned to Switzerland to teach at his alma mater. He was made assistant professor in 1970 and full professor in 1976. His second major contribution to the field of NMR spectroscopy was a technique that enabled a high-resolution, “two-dimensional” study of larger molecules than had previously been accessible to NMR. With Ernst's refinements, scientists were able to determine the three-dimensional structure of organic and inorganic compounds and of biological macromolecules such as proteins; to study the interaction between biological molecules and other substances such as metal ions, water, and drugs; to identify chemical species; and to study the rates of chemical reactions.

Ernst also was credited with many inventions and held several patents in his field.

References

External links

* [http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/21 http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/21]
* [http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/21 Freeview video interview with Richard Ernst by the Vega Science Trust]
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1991/ernst-interview.html Interview with Professor Richard R. Ernst by Joanna Rose, science writer, 8 December 2001.]
* [http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1991/index.html The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991]
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1991/ernst-autobio.html Autobiography]
* [http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/horwitz/ The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize]


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