- Ananda Sutram
Ananda Sutram is the basic scripture of modern
Yogacomposed in Sanskrit by Shrii Shrii Anandamurti(1921-1990) in the year 1961. In the best traditions of sutra literature, the sutras (eighty-five in number), serve with breathtaking conciseness, as a framework for the entire Ananda Margaideology. Ananda Sutram means, in part, “aphorisms leading to ananda, divine bliss”. The sutra form has been valued over the centuries as a powerful tool for communicating a deep philosophy in a condensed, memorable way. The literal meaning of sutra is “thread”, implying that numerous jewels of thought can be strung on a single such thread.
Shrii Shrii Anandamurtihas in a few vivid strokes presented humanity with original concepts of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and macrohistory. He has set out for the first time a socio-economic approach conceived in the light of a theistic philosophy, blending subjective approach with objective adjustment, that offers the world a well-knit and progressive social system based on economic justice. A healthy society is described as a progressive utilization movement in which the basic necessities of all are met and the standard of living is progressively improved "for the good and well-being of all".
It consists of five chapters describing the universe, the mind, the spirit and the foundations of a healthy society.
Chapter 1: Brahma Cakra
1-1. "Shivashaktyátmakam Brahma":
Brahmais the composite of Shivaand Shakti
1-2. "Shaktih Sá Shivasya Shaktih":
Shakti(the Operative Principle) is the shakti (force) of Shiva.
1-3. "Tayoh siddhih saincare pratisaincare ca": Puruśa and Prakrti find their fulfilment in saincara (extroversial movement) and pratisaincara (introversial movement).
1-4. "Paramashivah Puruśottamah vishvasya kendram": Supreme Consciousness at the nucleus of the universe is known as Paramashiva or Puruśottama.
1-5. "Pravrttimukhii saincarah guńadháráyám": Saincara (in the Cosmic Cycle) is the gradual extroversial movement under the increasing influence of the guńas (binding principles).
1-6. "Nivrttimukhii pratisaincarah guńávakśayeńa": Pratisaincara (in the Cosmic Cycle) is the gradual introversial movement under the waning influence of the guńas.
1-7. "IAST|Drk Puruśah darshanaḿ Shaktishca": Puruśa is the substantiator, the ultimate witness; (the actional faculty of) Prakrti is the act of witnessing (and that which is witnessed).
1-8. "Guńabandhanena guńábhivyaktih": As the guńas increase their bondage, they express themselves fully in the emergence of the fundamental factors.
1-9. "Guńádhikye jad́asphot́ah bhútasámyábhávát": Due to excessive pressure of the guńas, proper balance among the bhútas (five fundamental factors) is lost and jad́asphot́a (explosion of matter) occurs.
1-10. "Guńaprabhávena bhútasaungharśádbalam": Due to the increasing influence of the guńas, clash occurs among the fundamental factors and bala (energy) is produced.
1-11. "Dehakendrikáńi parińámabhútáńi baláni práńáh": The resultant interial force forming the nucleus within the physical structure and maintaining its solidarity, is called práńáh (vital energy).
1-12. "Tiivrasaungharśeńa cúrńiibhútáni jad́áni cittáńumánasadhátuh vá": Due to excessive clash, some crude matter is pulverized, and cittáńu (ectoplasmic particles), or mind-stuff, is evolved.
1-13. "Vyaśt́idehe cittáńusamaváyena cittabodhah": Through the combination of ectoplasmic particles in the unit structure, the feeling of citta (objective mind) evolves.
1-14. "Cittát guńávakśaye rajoguńaprábalye aham": As the influence of the guńas wanes and rajoguńa becomes dominant, the aham (sense of doership) evolves out of the citta.
1-15. "Súkśmábhimukhinii gatirudaye ahamtattvánmahat":With further movement towards the subtle, the mahat evolves out of the ahamtattva.
1-16. "Cittádahamprábalye buddhih": When the aham is greater than the citta, the buddhi (intellect) evolves.
1-17. "Ahamtattva mahadprábalye bodhih": When the mahat is greater than the aham, the bodhi (intuition) evolves.
1-18. "Mahadahamvarjite anagrasare jiivadehe latágulme kevalamcittam": In undeveloped living organisms, creepers and shrubs where aham and mahat have not yet evolved, there is only citta.
1-19. "Mahadvarjite anagrasare jiivadehe latágulme cittayuktáham": In undeveloped organisms, creepers and shrubs where mahat has not yet evolved, there is aham as well as citta.
1-20. "Prágrasare jiive latágulme mánuśe mahadaham cittáni": In developed organisms, creepers and shrubs, as well as in humans, there is mahat, aham and citta.
1-21. "IAST|Bhúmávyápte Mahati ahaḿ cittayorprańáshe saguńásthitih savikalpasamádhih vá": When the aham and the citta merge into the Macrocosmic Mahat, the merger is called saguńásthiti or savikalpa samádhi.
1-22. "Átmani mahadprańáshe nirguńásthitih nirvikalpasamádhih vá": When the mahat merges into the Átman, it is called nirguńásthiti (state of objectlessness) or nirvikalpa samádhi (the trance of indeterminate absorption, or total suspension, of the mind)
1-23. "Tasyasthitih amánasikeśu": This state (of nirvikalpa samádhi) is beyond the mind.
1-24. "Abhávottaránandapratyayálambaniirvrttih tasya pramáńam": The lingering bliss which follows this state of vacuity is the proof of that state, the means of firm belief in that state.
1-25. "Bhávah bhávátiitayoh setuh Tárakabrahma": The bridge between Nirguńa Brahma and Saguńa Brahma is called Táraka (Liberating) Brahma.
Chapter 2: Dharma and The Nature of the Universe
2-1. "Anukúlavedaniiyam sukham": A congenial mental feeling is called happiness.
2-2. "Sukhánuraktih paramá jaeviivrttih": The attachment to happiness is the primary vrtti (propensity) of living beings.
2-3. "Sukhamanantamánandam": Infinite happiness is ánanda (bliss).
2-4. "Ánandam Brahma ityáhuh": This ánanda is called Brahma.
2-5. "Tasminnupalabdhe paramá trśńánivrttih": That (Brahma) having been attained, all thirst is permanently quenched.
2-6. "Brhadeśańáprańidhánam ca dharmah": To long for and run after the Great is dharma.
2-7. "Tasmád dharmah sadákáryah": Therefore dharma should always be practised.
2-8. "Viśaye puruśávabhásah jiivátmá": The reflection of Puruśa in a unit object is called the jiivátmá (unit soul).
2-9. "Átmani sattásamsthitih": Every entity is embedded finally in the Átman.
2-10. "Otahprotah yogábhyám samyuktah Puruśottamah": Puruśottama is linked to each entity individually and to all entities collectively.
2-11. "Mánasátiite anavastháyám jagadbiijam": The seed of the universe lies beyond the mind, in a state the mind cannot comprehend.
2-12. "Saguńát srśt́irutpattih": The creation originates from Saguńa Brahma.
2-13. "Puruśadehe jagadábhásah": The universe takes form within the Cognitive Body.
2-14. "Brahma Satyam jagadapi satyamápekśikam": Brahma is Absolute Truth; the universe is also truth, but relative.
2-15. "Puruśah akartá phalasákśiibhútah bhávakendrasthitah guńayantrákashca": Puruśa does no action (directly), but is the witnessing entity of actions and reactions; located at the nucleus of Saguńa Brahma, He is the controller of the guńas.
2-16. "Akartrii viśayasamyuktá Buddhih Mahadvá": The Buddhitattva, or Mahattattva, itself is not the doer, but remains associated with objects.
2-17. "Aham kartá pratyakśaphalabhoktá": The Aham is the doer, and directly enjoys or suffers the results of action.
2-18. "Karmaphalam cittam": The citta takes the form of the results of actions.
2-19. "Vikrtacittasya púrvávasthápráptirphalabhogah": The process through which the distorted citta regains its original state is the enjoyment or suffering of the results of actions.
2-20. "Na svargo na rasátalah": There is neither heaven nor hell.
2-21. "Bhúmácitte saincaradháráyám jad́ábhásah": In the flow of saiṋcara, matter takes form in the Cosmic citta.
2-22. "Bhútalakśańátmakam bhútabáhitam bhútasaungharśaspandanam tanmátram": Tanmátras (microscopic fractions of bhútas, or fundamental factors) represent the bhútas, are carried by the bhútas, and are created by vibrations from the clash within the bhútas.
2-23. "Bhútam tanmátreńa pariciiyate": The bhútas are recognized by their corresponding tanmátras.
2-24. "Dvárah nád́iirasah piit́hátmakáni indriyáńi": The indriyas (organs) are the composite of: the gateways of the organs, the nerves, the nerve fluid, and the appropriative piit́has (seats) of the organs (in the brain).
Chapter 3: Mind and Sadhana
3-1. "IAST|Paiṋcakośátmiká jaeviisattá kadaliipuśpavat": The living being is the composite of five kośas (layers of mind), like a plantain flower (with its petals).
3-2. "Saptalokátmakam Brahmamanah": The Cosmic Mind is the composite of seven lokas (layers, worlds).
3-3. "Kárańamanasi diirghanidrá marańam": Long sleep in the causal mind is death.
3-4. "Manovikrtih vipákápekśitá samskárah": A distortion of the mind-stuff waiting for expression (i.e., a reaction in potentiality) is known as a samskára.
3-5. "Videhiimánase na kartrtvam na sukháni na duhkháni": In the bodiless mind there is no doership, no feeling of pleasure or pain.
3-6. "Abhibhávanát cittáńusrśt́apretadarshanam": The sight of ghosts is created by the cittáńu (mind-stuff) in concentrated thought.
3-7. "Hitaeśańápreśito’pavargah": The requital of an action is guided by the (divine) longing for welfare.
3-8. "Muktyákáunkśayá sadgurupráptih": Out of the intense desire for mukti (liberation), one attains one’s sadguru (perfect master).
3-9. "Brahmaeva gururekah náparah": Only Brahma is the guru, no one else.
3-10. "IAST|Vádhá sá yuśamáná shaktih sevyaḿ sthápayati lakśye": Obstacles are the helping forces that establish one in the goal.
3-11. "Prárthanárcaná mátraeva bhramamúlam": Prayer and ritualistic worship only become a source of confusion.
3-12. "Bhaktirbhagavadbhávaná na stutirnárcaná": Devotion is ideation on God, not flattery of God or ritualistic worship.
Chapter 4: Creation of the Universe and Kundalini
4-1. "Triguńátmiká srśt́imátrká asheśatrikońadhárá": The tri-attributional primordial force (progenitrix of creation) flows on in endless triangular forms.
4-2. "Tribhúje Sá svarúpaparińámátmiká": In the triangle of forces, the three attributes of Prakrti are locked in endless mutual transformation.
4-3. "Prathamá avyakte Sá Shivánii kendre ca Paramashivah": In the first stage (not yet a stage of actual manifestation), Prakrti is called Shivánii, and the witnessing Puruśa at the nucleus is called Paramashiva.
4-4. "Dvitiiyá sakale prathamodgame Bhaeravii Bhaeraváshritá": In the second phase, when the germ of evolution sprouts, Prakrti is called Bhaeravii, and the witnessing Puruśa is called Bhaerava.
4-5. "Sadrshaparińámena Bhavánii Sá Bhavadárá": In the vibrational world there is a sequence of similarity of curvatures (homogenesis). Here Prakrti is called Bhavánii and the witnessing Puruśa is called Bhava.
4-6. "IAST|Shambhúliuṋgát tasya vyaktih": The process of creation starts from IAST|Shambhúliuṋga.
4-7. "Sthúliibhavane nidritá sá kuńd́alinii": In the ultimate state of crudification, the paráshakti lying dormant at IAST|Svayambhúliuṋga is called the kuńd́alinii (“coiled serpentine”).
4-8. "Kuńd́alinii sá múliibhútá rńátmiká": The kuńd́alinii is the (force of) fundamental negativity.
Chapter 5: The Samaj Cakra and Socio-economic Theory
5-1. "Varńapradhánatá cakradháráyám": In the movement of the social cycle, one class is always dominant.
5-2. "Cakrakendre sadvipráh cakraniyantrakáh": Located in the nucleus of the social cycle, sadvipras control the social cycle.
5-3. "Shaktisampátena cakragativardhanam krántih": Accelerating the movement of the social cycle by the application of force is called “evolution”.
5-4. "Tiivrashaktisampátena gativardhanam viplavah": Accelerating the movement of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force is called “revolution”.
5-5. "Shaktisampátena vipariitadháráyám vikrántih": Reversing the movement of the social cycle by the application of force is called counter-evolution”.
5-6. "Tiivrashaktisampátena vipariitadháráyam prativiplavah": Reversing the movement of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force is called “counter-revolution”.
5-7. "Púrńávartanena parikrántih": A complete rotation of the social cycle is called “peripheric evolution”.
5-8. "IAST|Vaecitryaḿ prákrtadharmah samánam na bhaviśyati": Diversity, not identity, is the law of nature.
5-9. "Yugasya sarvanimnaprayojanam sarveśám vidheyam": The minimum requirements of an age should be guaranteed to all.
5-10. "IAST|Atiriktaḿ pradátavyam guńánupátena": The surplus wealth should be distributed among meritorious people according to the degree of their merit.
5-11. "Sarvanimnamánavardhanam samájajiivalakśańam": Increasing the minimum standard of living of the people is the indication of the vitality of society.
5-12. "Samájádeshena viná dhanasaincayah akartavyah": No individual should be allowed to accumulate any physical wealth without the clear permission or approval of the collective body.
5-13. "Sthúlasúkśmakárańeśu caramopayogah prakartavyah vicárasamarthitam vańt́anainca": There should be maximum utilization and rational distribution of all mundane, supramundane and spiritual potentialities of the universe.
5-14. "Vyaśt́isamaśt́isháriiramánasádhyátmikasambhávanáyám caramo’payogashca": There should be maximum utilization of the physical, metaphysical and spiritual potentialities of unit and collective bodies of human society.
5-15. "Sthúlasúkśma kárańo’payogáh susantulitáh vidheyáh": There should be a proper adjustment amongst these physical, metaphysical, mundane, supramundane and spiritual utilizations.
5-16. "Deshakálapátraeh upayogáh parivarttante te upayogáh pragatishiiláh bhaveyuh": The method of utilization should vary in accordance with changes in time, space and person, and the utilization should be of progressive nature.
Pragatishiila upayogatattvamidam sarvajanahitártham sarvajanasukhártham pracáritam. [This is the Progressive Utilization Theory, propounded for the happiness and all-round welfare of all.]
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