- Legio VI Ferrata
Legio VI "Ferrata" ("Ironclad") was a
Roman legion. Ferrata was not the only name that Legion VI was called, it was also known as "Fidelas Constans", meaning Loyal and Steady. Although it is unclear when this title was given but several sources indicate that it may have been in the 1st century AD.
The symbol for Legio VI Ferrata is the bull, like all legions raised by
Julius Caesar. It also carried the symbolic she-wolf with Romulus and Remus.
Cisalpine Gaulin 58 BCby Julius Caesar, the Sixth Legion served with him during his tenure as governor and was withdrawn to Spain in 49 BCwhere it earned the title “Hispaniensis”. (Caesar’s Gallic Wars)
Later seeing action at
Pharsalusin 48 BC, Julius Caesartook the 6th to Alexandriato settle the dispute in Egyptwith Cleopatra. Alexandriawas laid to siege and the 6th was almost wiped out losing almost two thirds of its entire manpower. Julius Caesareventually triumphed when reinforcements arrived. (The Alexandrian War, attributed to Caesar) Julius Caesartook his “Veteran Sixth Legion” with him to Syriaand Pontus. (The Alexandrian War, attributed to Caesar, 33).
“When Caesar reached
Pontushe gathered all his forces together in one spot. They were modest in number and experience of war, with the exception of the veteran Sixth Legion, which he had brought with him from Alexandria; but this had gone through such toil and danger and been so reduced in size, in part by the difficulties of the marches and voyages, and in part by the frequency of campaigning, that it contained less than a thousand men…” (The Alexandrian War, attributed to Caesar, 76)
Legionthen served in Pontusunder Caesar in 48 BCand 47 BC. This culminated in the battle of Zela(a town in Pontus) where victory was won by Legio VI.
“The origin of our victory lay in the bitter and intense hand-to-hand battle joined on the right wing, where the veteran Sixth
Legionwas stationed”. (The Alexandrian War, attributed to Caesar, 76)
“Caesar was quite overjoyed at such a victory, although he had been victorius in many battles. He had brought a major war to an astonishingly rapid end…He ordered the Sixth
Legionback to Italyto receive their rewards and honors…” (The Alexandrian War, attributed to Caesar, 77)
During Caesar’s African war against
Scipio, the Sixth Legiondeserted en masse from Scipioto reinforce Caesar and fought under him. (The African War, attributed to Caesar, 35 and 52) The legionwas disbanded in 45 BCafter Munda establishing a colony at Arelate ( Arles), but was re-formed by Lepidusthe following year (44 BC) and given over to Marcus Antoniusthe year after that. Following the defeat of the republican generals Cassiusand Brutusin successive battles at Philippiin 42 BCand the subsequent division of control between Antonyand Octavian, a colony was again formed from retired veterans at Beneventumin 41 BC(this is the colony which it is believed became Legio VI Victrix) and the remainder of Legio VI Ferrata was taken by Antonyto the East where it garrisoned Judea. (Life in Ancient Rome, Adkins and Adkins) Legio VI fought in the Parthian War in 36 BC. (Life in Ancient Rome, Adkins and Adkins)
Legio VI Victrixevidently saw action at Perusiain 41 BC, which presents us with a problem because the official Legio VI Ferrata was at that moment with Anthonyin the East. This is explained in Lawrence Keppie's excellent book The Making of the Roman Army - from Republic to Empire (pp.134);“ Octaviandid not hesitate to duplicate legionarynumerals already in use by Antony. The latter had serving with him legio V Alaudae, legio VI Ferrata and legio X Equestris. Soon we find Octavian's army boasting of a Legio V (the later Macedonica), legio VI (the later Victrix) and legio X (soon to be Fretensis). Of these, legio V and legio X, and less certainly legio VI, bore under the empire a bull-emblem which would normally indicate a foundation by Caesar; but the true Caesarian legions with these numerals (Alaudae, Ferrata and Equestris) were with Antony.”
It would seem, therefore, that
Octavianhad again used the veterans of Caesars Sixth Legion, this time from those left at Beneventum, to form the core of his own Sixth Legion used at Perusia. Both Legio VI’s (Ferrata and Victrix) fought at the Battle of Actium, after this event the Legio VI Ferrata was dispatched back to Judea and the next time we hear of the Legio VI Victrixwas in Spain.
Legio VI Ferrata was severely mauled at the
Battle of Actiumin 31 BCby the forces loyal to Caesar's nephew and heir, Octavian. Following the Battle of Actium, another colony of veterans seems to have been created at Byllis, probably together with soldiers from other legions, and the remainder of VI Ferrata was moved to Syria/ Judeawhere it was to remain.
9 BCto 73 ADthe VI Ferrata was garrisoned the area of Judea( Palestine). It was in this time frame (historians differ as to the exact year) that one Jesus Christwas tried before Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor of Judea. ( Tacitus, Seutonius, Epictitius, et al)
54 ADto 68 ADthe Legionserved under Gnaeus Domitius Corbuloat Artaxataand Tigranocertaagainst the Parthians. (The Roman Imperial Army, Webster)
69 ADthe Legionreturned to Judeaand fought in the Jewish Civil War. As the Jewish Civil War wound down, the sixth was placed under Mucianis and fought against Vitellius. Legion VI was largely responsible for Mucianis victory over the forces of Vitelliusduring the brief Roman Civil War. ( Tacitus, Hist III, pg 46) 106 ADthe legioncan be placed at Bostraunder A. Cornelius Palma. (Notes on Parthian Campaign of Trajan, JRS, p35) 138 ADthe legionis stationed in Palestine, but briefly sent to Africaduring the Reign of Antonius Pius. (The Roman Imperial Army, Webster) 150 ADthe legionwas again in Judea. (Life in Ancient Rome, Adkins & Adkins) 215 AD, the last reference found to Legio VI Ferrata places them still stationed in Palestine. (Life in Ancient Rome, Adkins & Adkins)
List of Roman legions
* [http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vi_ferrata.html livius.org account]
* [http://legvi.tripod.com/ Legion VI Ferrata, Charleston, SC Roman Re-enactment Group]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Legio VI Ferrata — Inscripción del acueducto de Cesarea, reparado por una vexillatio de la Legio VI Ferrata bajo Adriano … Wikipedia Español
Legio VI Ferrata — Die Legio VI Ferrata (deutsch „die Eiserne“) war eine äußerst traditionsreiche Legion der römischen Armee, die von 52 v. Chr. bis um 260 bestand. Wie fast alle caesarischen Legionen hatte auch die VI Ferrata einen Stier als Emblem. Manchmal wurde … Deutsch Wikipedia
Legio VI Ferrata — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Ferrata. Inscription réalisée par un détachement de la légion VI Ferrata et commémorant sans doute la réalisation d un bâtiment. (AE 1933, 158 ; aujourd hui au musée d … Wikipédia en Français
Legio VI Ferrata — … Википедия
Легион VI «Феррата» (Legio VI Ferrata) — Легион VI «Феррата» Legio VI Ferrata Тип: Легион Страна: Древний Рим Сформирован: 52 до н. э. Расформирован: 260 год Награды и титулы … Википедия
Ferrata — ist der Nachname von: Domenico Ferrata (1847–1914), italienischer Kardinalstaatssekretär Ercole Ferrata (1610–1686), italienischer Bildhauer Ferrata bezeichnet ferner: Legio VI Ferrata, Legion der römischen Armee ( Die Eiserne ) … Deutsch Wikipedia
LEGIO — (Tel Shalem), a Roman settlement which grew up around the camp of the Legio Sexta Ferrata (Ironsides), and established on the site of the Jewish village of Kefar Otnay after the Bar Kokhba War (132–35). The legion received the imperial (formerly… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Legio X Fretensis — Die Legio X Fretensis war eine Legion der römischen Armee, die 41/40 v. Chr. von Octavian, dem späteren Augustus, aufgestellt wurde, um in den Bürgerkriegen zu kämpfen, die den Untergang der römischen Republik begleiteten. Die Legion bestand… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Legio IIII Scythica — Die Legio IIII Scythica war eine Legion der römischen Armee, die von Marcus Antonius ausgehoben wurde. Die Legion war noch im 5. Jahrhundert in der Provinz Syria aktiv. Ihr Symbol war der Steinbock. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Geschichte der Legion 1 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Legio III Gallica — Die legio III Gallica war eine Legion der römischen Armee, die durch Gaius Iulius Caesar um 49 v. Chr. für den Bürgerkrieg gegen die Republikaner unter Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus aufgestellt wurde. Der Beinamen Gallica lässt vermuten, dass die… … Deutsch Wikipedia