- Transport in Sheffield
Sheffield, Englandis developed around the city's unusual topography and medieval street plan. Once an isolated town, the transport infrastructure changed dramatically in the 19th and 20th centuries. The city now has road and rail links with the rest of the country, and road, bus and trams for local transportation.
National and international travel
Sheffield is linked into the national motorway network via the M1 and M18 motorways. The M1 skirts the north-east of the city, linking Sheffield with
Londonto the south and Leedsto the north; the M18 branches from the M1 close to Sheffield, linking the city with Doncaster, Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield Airportand the Humberports. The Sheffield Parkwayconnects the city centre with the motorways.
The topography of Sheffield makes it unsuitable for a large rail system. The
Midland Main Lineis the major railway through Sheffield, running in approximately a south-west to north-easterly direction. Other routes passing through the city include the Cross Country Route, the Penistone Line, the Dearne Valley Line, the Hope Valley Line, and the Hallam Line. The major station serving the city, Sheffield Station, is on the south-eastern edge of the city centre. There is another major rail station at Meadowhall and four smaller suburban stations at Chapeltown, Darnall, Dore and Woodhouse. Passenger rail services through Sheffield are provided by East Midlands Trains, Cross Country, TransPennine Express, and Northern Rail. [ [http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/system/galleries/download/print_maps/Nat_Rail_Passenger_Operators_2005.pdf UK rail network map] (PDF) showing which train companies operate on each route. Provided by [http://www.nationalrail.co.uk National Rail Enquiries] (URL accessed 28 December 2005)]
The closest international airport to Sheffield is
Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, which is located 18 miles from the city centre. The Airport opened on April 28 2005with the first flight to Palma de Mallorca. It replaced Sheffield City Airport, which opened in 1997 but is now closed to commercial airliners. Manchester Airport, Leeds Bradford International Airportand East Midlands Airportall lie within a one hour's drive of the city. London St Pancrasstation, the terminus of the Midland Main Line will become the home to EurostarInternational services in November 2007.
Being at the confluence of several natural waterways, the development of a canal system marked an important evolution in the city's transport network, initially for commercial use and, more recently, for leisure activities. The
Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation(S&SY) is a system of navigable inland waterways ( canalsand canalised rivers) in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, England.
Chiefly based on the River Don, it runs for a length of 43 miles (69 km) and has 29 locks. It connects Sheffield,
Rotherham, and Doncasterwith the River Trentat Keadbyand (via the New Junction Canal) the Aire and Calder Navigation.
The A57 and A61 roads are the major trunk roads through Sheffield. These run east-west and north-south, respectively, crossing in the city centre. Other major roads generally radiate spoke-like from the city centre. An inner
ring road, mostly constructed in the 1970s and extended to form a complete ring in 2007-2008, allows traffic to avoid the city centre, and an outer "ring road" runs around the eastern edge of the city. The . Public transport is provided by tramways and buses. The Tramway system, known as the " Sheffield Supertram" is operated by Stagecoach Sheffieldunder the brand "Stagecoach Supertram". It was constructed in the early 1990s, with the first section opening in 1994, and consists of three spokes that run from the city centre out to Hillsborough, Halfway, and Meadowhall. [ [http://www.supertram.net/about.htm Stagecoach Supertram:About Us] (URL accessed 28 December 2005)]
A sizeable bus infrastructure operates from a main hub at
Sheffield Interchange. Other bus stations lie at Meadowhall and Hillsborough. A flurry of new operators were created after deregulation in the 1980s. The majority of these gradually amalgamated, leaving First South Yorkshire (formerly Mainline and "First" Mainline) owned by First Groupto operate most of the city's buses up until December 2005, when Stagecoach took over Yorkshire Traction(which had previously taken over Yorkshire Terrier, creating Stagecoach Sheffield). Stagecoach In Yorkshire, Stagecoach In Chesterfield, Stagecoach In Mansfield, TM Travel, Veolia Transport (Operating for Travel South Yorkshire), Sheffield Community Transport (SCT), Hulleys of Baslow, Powell's Co, K&H Doyle also operating bus routes in the city. A city centre Free Bus service also runs every 7 minutes operated by TM Travel, known as the FreeBee.
For cycling, although hilly, Sheffield is compact and has few major trunk roads running through it. It is on the
Trans-Pennine Trail, a National Cycle Networkroute running from Southportin the north-west to Hornseain the East Riding, and has a developing Strategic Cycle Network within the city. Sheffield is close to the Peak District National Park, an area of outstanding natural beauty popular with both on- and off-road cyclists.
History of SheffieldThe earliest known roads in the Sheffield area date from the Roman occupation of Britain between 43 and 410 AD. The Romans built a fort at Templeboroughc55. Two roads were built to this fort. Icknield Streetran south towards Derby, [cite book |last=Wood |first=Michael |authorlink=Michael Wood (historian) |title=In Search of England: Journeys into the English past |chapter=Tinsley Wood |year=2001 |publisher=Penguin Books Limited |location= |id=ISBN 0-520-23218-6 ] and another road ran south-west to Brough-on-Noe near Hope in Derbyshire. [cite book |last=Hunter |first=Joseph |authorlink=Joseph Hunter (antiquarian) |title=Hallamshire. The History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield in the County of York |year=1819 |publisher=Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mayor & Jones |location=London ()] Leader, "The Highways and Byways of Old Sheffield"] The exact course of these roads is unknown but both are likely to have passed within the modern boundaries Sheffield. [Possible courses for these roads are shown on a [http://www.romans-in-britain.org.uk/map_romans_roads_in_britain.htm map of Roman roads in Britain] ] In the centuries after the end of the Roman occupation the Sheffield area was at the border of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Northumbriaand Mercia. The village of Dore(literally a "Door") lay on an important route between these kingdoms. [Vickers, "Old Sheffield Town", pp. 64–68]
Norman Conquest of Englanda castle was established in the village of Sheffield c1150. Sheffield began to grow into a small town, the first bridge was built over the River Don ( Lady's Bridge) and the street pattern that would persist for centuries was laid out. Lady's Bridge may represent the main route out of Sheffield in this era, travellers followed the Wicker and then climbed Spital Hill to follow an ancient Dyke called the " Roman Ridge" to Mexborough. This may be the route into Sheffield described in Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe. A route to the south passing through Little Sheffield, Heeley, and Newfield Green, to Gleadless Moor existed by 1692, but was a difficult route to follow. There was also a route to the west that followed the old Roman Road toward Stanage Edge, however Sheffield remained relatively secluded, a fact which may have influenced the choice of Sheffield for the imprisonment of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1570. [Vickers, "Old Sheffield Town", pp. 11–13]
In the 18th century
turnpikeroads were built improving Sheffield's connections with the outside world. [Descriptions of the routes that the turnpike roads followed can be found in Leader, "The Highways and Byways of Old Sheffield".] A turnpike to Chesterfieldwas built in 1756 and another through Ringinglowto Chapel-en-le-Frithor Buxtonwas constructed in 1758. Roads were also built to Barnsley, Tickhill, Worksop, Intake and Penistone. The Baslowturnpike (Abbeydale Road) opened in 1805 [cite book |last=Harvey |first=Peter |title=Abbeydale and Millhouses |year=1996 |pages=p. 7 |publisher=The Charlford Publishing Company Limited |location= Stroud |id=ISBN 0-7524-0732-5 ] and Glossop Road opened in 1821. In 1776 a plate railway was laid at the Duke of Norfolk's Nunnery Colliery by his estate manager John Curr; this used L-shaped rails, and was one of the earliest cast-iron railways.
The opening of the
Sheffield Canalin 1819 [Olive, "Central Sheffield", p. 39] [Vickers, "Old Sheffield Town", p. 17] opened Sheffield to the large-scale transportation of freight. This was followed by the Sheffield and Rotherham Railwayin 1838, with Sheffield's first railway station opening at the Wicker. [Batty, "Rail Centres: Sheffield", pp. 12–15] The first main line railway station in Sheffield was opened in 1845 at Bridgehouses by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway. [Fox, "The Midland Line in Sheffield", p. 2] This line was extended to a new station, Sheffield Victoria Stationin 1851, and Wicker station was replaced by Sheffield Midland stationin 1870. A horse tramway opened from Lady's Bridge to Attercliffein 1873, this was later extended to Brightsideand Tinsley. Further horse tramway routes were constructed to Hillsborough, Heeley, and Nether Edge. [Twidale, "A Nostalgic Look At Sheffield Trams Since 1950", p. 11] [Wiseman, "Sheffield Trams in Colour Since 1950", p. 2] There was an unsuccessful trial of Steam trams in 1877 and 1878. Due to the narrow medieval roads the tramways were initially banned from the town centre. An improvement scheme was passed in 1875, this led to the first major alterations to the medieval street plan, Pinstone Street and Leopold Street were constructed by 1879 and Fargate was widened in the 1880s. The 1875 plan also called for the widening of High Street, but disputes with property owners delayed this until 1895. [Olive, "Central Sheffield", p. 9]
The S&SY Navigation company was formed in
1888with the intention of purchasing all of the waterways which were then owned by Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway. After seven years of negotiation, this was accomplished in 1895, and the navigation was formed by the amalgamation of the component waterways which included the " Stainforth and Keadby Canal", the " River Don Navigation", and the "Sheffield and Tinsley Canal".
20th century to the present
The first electric tram route ran from Nether Edge to Tinsley, opening in 1899. The electrification of the rest of the system followed soon after, and the last horse tram ran in 1902. In 1910 Sheffield tram routes covered a total of 39 miles, subsequent extensions would increase this to 48 miles by 1951. [Twidale, "A Nostalgic Look At Sheffield Trams Since 1950", p. 9] Tram routes started to be abandoned and be replaced by buses from 1952. When the last public service tram ran from Leopold Street to
Beauchiefon 8 October 1960[Wiseman, "Sheffield Trams in Colour Since 1950", p. 4] the occasion was marked with a parade of 15 trams (three of which are now preserved at the National Tramway Museumin Crich). The Beeching Axeled to the closure of the Great Central Railwayroute to London in 1966, followed by the Woodhead route to Manchester in 1970. [Batty, "Rail Centres: Sheffield", pp. 113–115] This left Victoria station obsolete; it closed on 5 January 1970and the station buildings were demolished in 1989, leaving the Wicker Archeson which it stood standing. Proposals for a new tram system first appeared in the 1970s. After much deliberation routes were selected and construction of the new system, named " Sheffield Supertram" started in 1991. The first line, running from Castle Square to Meadowhallopened on 21 March 1994.
South Yorkshire County Council (SYCC) was created in 1974, comprising several neighbouring metropolitan boroughs; Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster and Rotherham. The metropolitan county councils created at this time, were given the responsibility for the provision of public transport. In the case of the SYCC this was allocated to the new South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (SYPTE). SYPTE assumed control of the former local corporation bus fleets and also took on a coordinating role regarding the services provided by other bus operators and by
British Railin their region, in addition to becoming the highway authorityfor the area.
The metropolitan county councils, were abolished in 1986 but, despite the disappearance of the SYCC, the SYPTE remained, under the control of a Passenger Transport Authority (SYPTA) which included the four borough councils involved. By contrast, the functions of local
highway authoritypassed directly to each of the councils, and the Sheffield City Council (SCC) thus became the responsible for city's highways.
Deregulation of UK bus services in 1986 brought an end to the local authority's direct control of the provision of local bus services, in essence leaving the bus companies to decided where, when and how often to run services, and compete commercially with each other although SYPTE still maintains an advisory role and funds the running of some non-commercially viable routes that are considered socially essential.
*cite book |last=Batty |first=S. |title=Rail Centres: Sheffield |year=1984 |publisher=Ian Allan Limited |location=Shepperton, Surrey |id=ISBN 1-901945-21-9
*cite book |last=Fox |first=Peter |title=The Midland Line in Sheffield |year=1990 |publisher=Platform 5 Publishing Limited |location=Sheffield |id=ISBN 1-872524-16-8
*cite book |last=Leader |first=R.E. |title=The Highways and Byways of Old Sheffield |url= |year=1906 |publisher=A lecture delivered before the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society |location= |id= ( [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~mossvalley/mv2/rl/highways1.html transcription] )
*cite book |last=Olive |first=Martin |title=Images of England: Central Sheffield |year=1994 |publisher=Tempus Publishing Limited |location= Stroud |id=ISBN 0-7524-0011-8
*cite book |last=Twidale |first=Graham H.E. |title=A Nostalgic Look At Sheffield Trams Since 1950 |year=1995 |publisher=Silver Link Publishing, Limited |location=Peterborough |id=ISBN 1-85794-040-7
*cite book |last=Vickers |first=J. Edward MBE |title=Old Sheffield Town. An Historical Miscellany |edition=2nd |year=1999 |publisher=The Hallamshire Press Limited |location=Sheffield |id=ISBN 1-874718-44-X
*cite book |last=Wiseman |first=Richard |title=Sheffield Trams in Colour Since 1950 |year=1997 |publisher=Ian Allan Publishing |location=Shepperton, Surrey |id=ISBN 0-7110-2535-5
References and notes
* [http://www.pedalpushers.org.uk/ Pedal Pushers, The Sheffield Cycle Campaign]
* [http://www.sypte.co.uk/ South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive]
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