- Enfield, New Hampshire
official_name = Enfield, New Hampshire
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in
Grafton County, New Hampshire
settlement_type = Town
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Grafton
Board of Selectmen
leader_name = Curtis Payne, Chairman
Rebecca Stewart, Donald Crate
established_title = Incorporated
established_date = 1761
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_km2 = 111.6
area_total_sq_mi = 43.1
area_land_km2 = 104.2
area_land_sq_mi = 40.2
area_water_km2 = 7.4
area_water_sq_mi = 2.8
area_water_percent = 6.61
population_as_of = 2000
population_total = 4618
population_density_km2 = 44.3
population_density_sq_mi = 114.7
timezone = Eastern
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = Eastern
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 43 |latm = 38 |lats = 30 |latNS = N
longd = 72 |longm = 08 |longs = 43 |longEW = W
elevation_m = 237
elevation_ft = 778
website = [http://www.enfield.nh.us/ www.enfield.nh.us]
postal_code = 03748
area_code = 603
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 33-24340
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0873590
Enfield is a town in Grafton County,
New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,618 at the 2000 census. Enfield includes the villages of Enfield, Enfield Center, Upper Shaker Village, Lower Shaker Village and Lockehaven.
The primary settlement in town, where over 36% of the population resides, is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as the Enfield
census-designated place(CDP) and includes the main village of Enfield, centered around U.S. Route 4and the inlet of the Mascoma Riverinto Mascoma Lake.
The town was incorporated in 1761 by Colonial Governor
Benning Wentworth. First named "Enfield" by settlers from Enfield, Connecticut, the town was renamed "Relhan" in 1766 to honor Dr. Anthony Relhan(ca. 1715-1776). The doctor was a promoter of sea-bathing as a curative, making Brighton, England, a fashionable resort. Following the American Revolution, the New Hampshire town was renamed "Enfield" in 1784.
The first European settlers in town were Jonathan Paddleford and family who arrived, after the successful conclusion of the
French and Indian War, between 1765 and 1772. [cite web | title=New Hampshire Search Roots|work=History of Enfield, Grafton County, New Hampshire | url=http://www.nh.searchroots.com/documents/grafton/History_Enfield_NH.txt | accessdate=2007-01-02]
On the southwest shore of
Mascoma Lakeis Enfield Shaker Village, once a utopian religiouscommunity of Shakers, renowned for simple and functional architectureand furniture. Established in 1793 and called "Chosen Vale", the village was subdivided into several "Families", with men and women leading pious, celibate and industrious lives. Although the genders shared dormitories, like Enfield's "Great Stone Dwelling" built between 1837-1841, the sexes used separate doors and stairways. They practiced ecstatic singing and dancing, an expression of their worship, which earned them the appellation: "Shaking Quakers", or "Shakers".
Several trades operated at the village, from
agricultureand packaging of seeds, to manufactureof brooms, brushes, spinning-wheels and furniture. To speed delivery of products to the railroadacross Mascoma Lake, in 1849 the community erected "Shaker Bridge".
The Shaker movement crested in the 1840s, with 19 "societies" scattered from
Maineto Kentuckyand west to Indiana. But growing employment opportunities created by the Industrial Revolution, as near as the mill townof Lebanon, enticed away potential and practicing church members. Others grew disaffected with celibacy, self-abnegation, and communalownership of property. Indeed, Mary Marshall Dyer, once a member of the Enfield church, became an outspoken Anti-Shaker. Eventually the village would close and, in 1927, be sold to the La Salette Brotherhood of Montreal, a Catholic order noted for its Christmasdisplay. In 1986, Enfield Shaker Village was established as a museum.
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of convert|43.1|sqmi|km2, of which convert|40.2|sqmi|km2|abbr=on is land and convert|2.8|sqmi|km2|abbr=on is water, comprising 6.61% of the town. Enfield is drained by the Mascoma River. Mascoma Lake, in the west, represents Enfield's lowest elevation at convert|751|ft|m above sea level. The highest elevation is over convert|2100|ft|m|abbr=on at the summit of Prospect Hill, overlooking Halfmile Pond. Crystal Lake is in the east. Enfield lies fully within the Connecticut Riverwatershed.cite book |title=Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers |url=http://nh.water.usgs.gov/Publications/nh.intro.html |last=Foster |first=Debra H. |coauthors=Batorfalvy, Tatianna N.; and Medalie, Laura |publisher=U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey |year=1995]
The village area of the town, defined as a
census-designated place(CDP), has a total area of convert|2.3|sqmi|km2, of which convert|0.1|sqmi|km2|abbr=on (2.55%) is water.
As of the
censusof 2000, there were 4,618 people, 1,975 households, and 1,291 families residing in the town. The population densitywas 114.7 people per square mile (44.3/km²). There were 2,372 housing units at an average density of 22.8 persons/km² (58.9 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 97.94% White, 0.15% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.89% from two or more races. 0.74% of the population were Hispanicor Latinoof any race.
There were 1,975 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 34.6% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.78.
In the town the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $47,990, and the median income for a family was $53,631. Males had a median income of $33,139 versus $27,177 for females. The
per capita incomefor the town was $23,054. 5.0% of the population and 3.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.3% are under the age of 18 and 5.6% are 65 or older.
As of the
censusof 2000, there were 1,698 people, 757 households, and 449 families residing in the central settlement, or CDP. The population densitywas 742.9 people per square mile (286.3/km²). There were 792 housing units at an average density of 133.5 persons/km² (346.5 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 97.76% White, 0.18% African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.06% Asian, 0.18% from other races, and 0.71% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanicor Latinoof any race.
There were 757 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.4% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 40.6% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.79.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.
The median income for a household is $35,595, and the median income for a family was $46,198. Males had a median income of $36,000 versus $28,365 for females. The
per capita incomefor the town was $19,963. 7.2% of the population and 6.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 5.8% are under the age of 18 and 8.2% are 65 or older.
Sites of interest
* [http://www.shakermuseum.org/ Enfield Shaker Museum]
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/shaker/enh.htm Shaker Historic Trail, Enfield]
* Lockhaven Schoolhouse Museum
* [http://www.enfield.nh.us Town website]
* [http://www.nh.gov/nhes/elmi/htmlprofiles/enfield.html New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile]
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