- Red Brigades
:"This article is about the Italian group. "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade."
The Red Brigades ("Brigate Rosse" in Italian, often abbreviated as the "BR") were a
communistterrorist group [Yonah Alexander, Dennis A. Pluchinsky. (1992) "Europe's Red Terrorists: The Fighting Communist Organizations". Routledge. ISBN 0714634883 p.194] located in Italyand active mainly during the "Years of Lead".
Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a
revolutionary state through armed struggleand to separate Italy from the Western alliance ( NATO). In 1978, the second groups of the BR, headed by Mario Moretti, kidnapped the former Christian Democrat Prime Minister Aldo Moroand murdered him 54 days later. The BR barely survived the end of the Cold Warfollowing a split in 1984 and the arrest or flight of the majority of its members. In the 1980s, the group was broken up by Italian investigators, with the aid of several leaders under arrest who assisted the authorities in capturing the other members. A majority of such leaders took advantage of a law that gave credits for renouncing the doctrine (" pentito" status) and contributing to the capture of members on the loose.
1970: the first BR generation
The Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by
Renato Curcio, a student at the University of Trento, his girlfriend Margherita Cagol ( Mara Cagol) and Alberto Franceschini. Franceschini described in his 2005 book how he met with Renato Curcio and Corrado Simioni, nicknamed "The Englishman" because of his eccentricity and "international connections". According to Franceschini (2005), the Piazza Fontana bombingof December 1969 was a leading cause explaining the formation of the BR.
While the Trento group around Curcio had its main roots in the Sociology Department of the Catholic University, the Reggio Emilia group (around Franceschini) included mostly members and former members of the Communist Youth movement (FGCI). In the beginning the Red Brigades were mainly active in
Reggio Emilia, and in large factories in Milan, (such as Sit-Siemens, Pirelli and Magneti Marelli) and in Turin(Fiat). Members sabotaged factory equipment and broke into factory offices and trade union headquarters. In 1972, they carried out their first kidnapping: a factory foreman who was held for some time but later released. See Giovanni Fasanellaand Alberto Franceschini (with an afterword by judge Rosario Priore, who investigated Aldo Moro's death), "Che cosa sono le BR" [http://www.miserabili.com/2004/06/23/franceschinifasanella_che_cosa.html] ( "BRIGADES ROUGES. L'Histoire secrète des Red Brigades racontée par leur fondateur, Alberto Franceschini. Entretien avec Giovanni Fasanella." Editions Panama, 2005 [http://www.lemonde.fr/web/article/0,1-0@2-3260,36-715503,0.html a review by] " Le Monde" and [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2005-10-07/2005-10-07-815509 another review by] " L'Humanite" ]
During this time the Red Brigades' tactics and agenda split from other extreme left political groups, such as
Lotta Continuaor Potere Operaio(which were closer to the Autonomistmovement). The Red Brigades now became far more violent and organised than their contemporaries and began receiving direct and indirect aid from the Czechoslovakian StB. In June 1974, the Red Brigades made its first lethal attack, against two members of the Italian neo-fascist party, " Movimento Sociale Italiano" (MSI). After this it abandoned its non-clandestine political activities among workers.
Nonetheless, the 1972 Peteano car-bomb attack, killing three policemen, was blamed for a long time on the BR, though it was later found that neo-fascist activist
Vincenzo Vinciguerrawas the true culprit. After this bombing, Vinciguerra escaped to Franquist Spainwhere he continued to organize terrorist attacks, in the frame of the strategy of tension. [ Ed Vulliamy, [http://www.cambridgeclarion.org/press_cuttings/vinciguerra.p2.etc_graun_5dec1990.html Secret agents, freemasons, fascists... and a top-level campaign of political 'destabilisation'] , " The Guardian", December 5, 1990 ]
1974 arrest of BR founders and Corrado Simioni's "superclan"
In September 1974, Red Brigades founders Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini were arrested by General
Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, and sentenced to 18 years in prison. The arrest was made possible by "Frate Mitra," alias Silvano Girotto, a former monk who had infiltrated the BR for the Italian security services. [ [http://www.robertobartali.it/english.htm Brigate Rosse and Moro Kidnappig: secrets and lies] en icon ] Curcio was freed from prison by an armed commando of the Red Brigades, led by his wife Mara Cagol, but was rearrested some time later.
The Red Brigades then operated some high-profile political kidnappings (e.g., Genoa judge Mario Sossi) as well as kidnapping industrialists (e.g., Vallarino Gancia) in order to obtain ransom money, which was their main source of financing.
According to Franceschini, the death of publisher
Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, on March 15th, 1972, who blew himself up accidentally while trying to dynamite electricity power installations near Milan, had left them like "orphans”, and sparked the more violent nature of the BRs' acts after 1972. Curcio and Franceschini were released under the 1987 law on "dissociation". Franceschini also admitted the Red Brigades' involvement in the bombing of the US Embassy in Athens Greece, which Corrado Simioniorganized. Simioni also set up a secret group inside the Red Brigades, a sort of " superclan". Franceschini alleged that Simioni was working on behalf of NATO's Operation Gladioin a false flagoperation, citing Simioni's insistent proposal to assassinate Junio Valerio Borghesein November 1970 or another unattended request to murder two NATO agents. Mario Morettithen took the head of the BR, and organized Aldo Moro's March 1978 kidnap. Moretti was suspected of being a spyby Franceschini and Curcio. [ [http://archivio.corriere.it/archiveDocumentServlet.jsp?url=/documenti_globnet/corsera/2004/05/co_9_040504059.xml «Curcio mi disse: sono certo che Moretti è una spia»] , " Corriere della Sera", May 4, 2004 it icon ]
Expansion and radicalization of the BR
After 1974, the Red Brigades expanded into
Rome, Genoa, and Venice, and began to kidnap prominent individuals. Its 1975 manifesto stated that its goal was a "concentrated strike against the heart of the State, because the state is an imperialist collection of multinational corporations". The "SIM" (Stato Imperialista delle Multinazionali) became the target of its violent tirades, expressed in classical Marxist-Leninist jargon, which were however incomprehensible to most of the public, and often derided for their pretentious but vacuous wording.
In 1975, the Italian police discovered the farmhouse where industrialist Vallarino Gancia was kept prisoner by the Brigades (Cascina Spiotta). In the ensuing gunfight, two police officers were killed, as was Mara Cagol, Curcio's wife. That following April, the Red Brigades announced that they had set up a Communist Combatant Party to "guide the working class." Terrorist activities, especially against
Carabinieriand magistrates, increased considerably, in order to terrorize juries and cause mistrials in cases against imprisoned leaders of the organization. Also, since arrested members of the Brigades refused to be defended by lawyers, lawyers designated by the Courts to defend them ("difensori d' ufficio") were also targeted and killed.
Aldo Moro's Murder, 1978
In 1978, the Second BR, headed by
Mario Moretti, kidnapped and murdered Christian Democrat Aldo Moro, who was the key figure in negotiations aimed at extending the Government's parliamentary majority, by attaining a Historic Compromise"("compromesso storico")" between the Italian Communist Partyand the " Democrazia Cristiana". A team of Red Brigades members, using stolen " Alitalia" plane company uniforms, ambushed Moro, killed five of Moro’s bodyguards and took him captive.
Moro's captivity was used by the Brigades in order to try to obtain some kind of recognition by the Italian Government, as an "insurgency" movement. However, the Government refused to negotiate with Moro's captors, while the various Italian political forces took either a hard line ("linea della fermezza") or a more pragmatic approach ("linea del negoziato"). From his captivity, Moro sent desperate letters to his family, to his political friends, to the Pope, pleading for a negotiated outcome.
After holding Moro for 56 days, the Brigades realized that the Government would not negotiate and, fearful of being discovered, decided to kill their prisoner. They placed him in a car and told him to cover himself with a blanket. Mario Moretti then shot him ten times in the chest. Moro's body was left in the trunk of a car in Via Caetani, a site midway between the Christian Democratic Party and the Communist Party headquarters, as a last symbolic challenge to the police, who were keeping the entire nation, and Rome in particular, under strict surveillance. Moretti wrote in "Brigate Rosse: una storia italiana" that the murder of Moro was the ultimate expression of Marxist-Leninist revolutionary action. Original founder Alberto Franceschini wrote that those imprisoned members did not understand why Moro had been chosen as a target.
Aldo Moro's assassination caused a strong reaction against the Brigades by the Italian law enforcement and security forces. The murder of a popular political figure also drew condemnation from Italian left-wing radicals and even the imprisoned ex-leaders of the Brigades. The Brigades lost much of their (small) social following.
A crucial turning point was also the murder, in 1979, of Guido Rossa, a member of the PCI and a trade union organizer. Rossa had observed the distribution of BR propaganda and had reported those involved to the police; he was shot and killed by the Brigades, but this attack against a popular trade union organizer totally alienated the factory worker base to which the BR propaganda was primarily directed.
Also, Italian police made a large number of arrests in 1980: 12,000 far-left activists were detained while 300 fled to France and 200 to South America; a total of 600 people left Italy. [ fr icon [http://sebastien.schifres.free.fr/italie.htm On the Autonomist movement] , Mémoire de maîtrise (
Master's degree, now M1), , 2004 ] Most leaders arrested (including, e.g., Faranda, Franceschini, Moretti, Morucci) either retracted their doctrine ("dissociati"), or collaborated with investigators in the capture of other BR members (" collaboratori di giustizia"), obtaining important reductions in prison sentences.
The most well-known "collaboratore di giustizia" was Patrizio Peci, one of the leaders of the Turin "column". In revenge, the Brigades assassinated, in 1981, his brother Roberto. This murder also widely contributed to discredit the movement.
On April 7, 1979, the Marxist philosopher
Antonio Negriwas arrested along with the other persons associated with the Autonomist movement, including Oreste Scalzone. Padova's Public Prosecutor, Pietro Calogero, accused those involved in the Autonomia movement of being the political wing of the Red Brigades. Negri was charged with a number of offences including leadership of the Red Brigades, masterminding the kidnaping and murder of Aldo Moro and plotting to overthrow the government. At the time, Negri was a political science professor at the University of Padua, visiting lecturer at Paris' École Normale Supérieure. Thus, French philosophers Félix Guattariand Gilles Deleuzesigned in November 1977 "L'Appel des intellectuels français contre la répression en Italie" (The Call of French Intellectuals Against Repression in Italy) in protest against Negri's imprisonment and Italian anti-terrorism legislation. [ [http://www.bibliothequedusaulchoir.org/activites/Deleuze/Deleuze%20Bibliogr.pdf Revised bibliography of Deleuze] ] [ Gilles Deleuze, "Lettre ouverte aux juges de Negri", text n°20 in "Deux régimes de fous", Mille et une nuits, 2003 (transl. of "Lettera aperta ai giudici di Negri" published in " La Repubblica" on 10 May 1979); "Ce livre est littéralement une preuve d'innocence", text n°21 (op.cit.), originally published in " Le Matin de Paris" on 13 December 1979 ]
A year later, Negri was exonerated from Aldo Moro's kidnapping. No link was ever established between Negri and the Red Brigades and almost all of the charges against him (including 17 murders) were dropped within months of his arrest due to lack of evidence. Negri was however convicted of crimes of association and insurrection against the state (a charge that was later dropped) and, in 1984, sentenced to 30 years in jail. Two years later he was sentenced to an additional four and a half years on the basis that he was morally responsible for acts of violence committed by militants during the 1960s and 1970s largely due to his writing and association with far-left causes- and groups. French philosopher
Michel Foucaultlater commented, "Isn't he in jail simply for being an intellectual?" [ Michel Foucault, "Le philosophe masqué" (in "Dits et écrits," volume 4, Paris, Gallimard, 1994, p. 105)]
Aldo Moro's assassination continues to haunt today's Italy, and remains a significant event of the Cold War. In the 1980s-1990s, a Commission headed by senator
Giovanni Pellegrinoinvestigated acts of terrorism in Italy during the "years of lead," while various judicial investigations also took place, headed by Guido Salviniand others magistrates. [ [http://www.parlamento.it/bicam/terror/home.htm Italian Commission on Terrorism] headed by Giovanni Pellegrino]
The BR in the 1980s
Most of the BR were dismantled in the 1980s.
Kidnapping of Brigadier General Dozier
December 17, 1981, four members of the Red Brigades, posing as plumbers, invaded the Veronaapartment of US Army Brigadier General James L. Dozier, then NATODeputy Chief of Staff at Southern European land forces. The men kidnapped General Dozier and left his wife bound and chained in their apartment. [http://www.tkb.org/Incident.jsp?incID=3077] He was held for 42 days until January 28, 1982, when an Italian anti-terrorist team rescued him from an apartment in Padua. Dozier was the first American general to be kidnapped by terrorists and the first foreigner kidnapped by the Red Brigades.
Mulinari's 1983 arrest
Abbé Pierre's death in January 2007, Italian magistrate Carlo Mastelloni recalled in the " Corriere della Sera" that the Abbé Pierre had "spontaneously testified" in the 1980s in support of a group of Italian activists who had fled to Paris and were involved with the Hyperion language school, directed by Vanni Mulinaris. Simone de Beauvoirhad also written a letter to Mastelloni, which has been kept in juridical archives. [ [http://archivio.corriere.it/archiveDocumentServlet.jsp?url=/documenti_globnet/corsera/2007/01/co_9_070123007.xml «Quel giorno in Tribunale con lui difese i terroristi rossi e l' Hyperion»] , " Corriere della Sera", January 23, 2007 it icon ] Some of those associated with the Hyperion School (which included Corrado Simioni, Vanni Mulinaris and Duccio Berio [http://archivio.corriere.it/archiveDocumentServlet.jsp?url=/documenti_globnet/corsera/2007/01/co_9_070123006.xml Abbé Pierre, il frate ribelle che scelse gli emarginati] , " Corriere della Sera", January 23, 2007 it icon ] ) were accused by the Italian authorities of being the "masterminds" of the BR, although they were all cleared afterwards.
After Vanni Mulinari's travel to
Udineand subsequent arrest by the Italian justice, the Abbé Pierre went to talk in 1983 with Italian President Sandro Pertinito plead Mulinari's cause. Mulinari had been imprisoned on a charge of assisting the BR. The Abbé had even observed eight days of a hunger strikefrom May 26, 1984 to June 3 in the Cathedral of Turin to protest the conditions suffered by "Brigadists" in Italian prisons and the imprisonment without trial of Vanni Mulinari, who was recognized as innocent some time afterwards. Mulinari's treatment was, according to the Abbé, a "violation of human rights". [ [http://www.lemonde.fr/web/article/0,1-0@2-3382,36-857943,0.html L'abbé Pierre, fondateur d'Emmaüs, est mort] , necrology in " Le Monde" of the Abbé Pierre, January 22, 2007 fr icon ] [ [http://www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/camt/fr/inventaires2000/2000050-2.html CAMT. Répertoire papiers Abbé Pierre/Emmaus] , on the website of the French " Archives Nationales" (National Archives) fr icon ] [ [http://www.liberation.fr/actualite/politiques/230519.FR.php D'inattendues amitiés brigadistes] , " Libération", January 24, 2007 fr icon ] " La Repubblica" specified that Italian justice has recognized the innocence of all people close to the Hyperion School. [ AFP news cable: "ROME, 23 jan 2007 (AFP) - L'Abbé Pierre et les Brigades rouges italiennes : un épisode méconnu" (23/01/2007 16:25), published on " La Croix's website [http://www.la-croix.com/afp.static/pages/070123152331.3hduui9h.htm here] fr icon ]
Red Brigades-PCC and Red Brigades-UCC 1984 split
In 1984, the Red Brigades had split into two factions: the majority faction of the "Communist Combatant Party" (Red Brigades-CCP) and the minority of the "Union of Combatant Communists" (Red Brigades-UCC). The same year, four imprisoned leaders, Curcio, Moretti, Iannelli and Bertolazzi, rejected the armed struggle as pointless.
In the mid-eighties, arrests increased in Italy. In February 1986, the Red Brigades-PCC killed the ex-mayor of Florence Lando Conti . In March 1987, Red Brigades-UCC killed General
Licio Giorgieriin Rome. On April 16 1988, in Forlì, Red Brigades-PCC killed Italian senator Roberto Ruffilli, an advisor of Italian Prime Minister Ciriaco de Mita. After that, the group activities all but ended after massive arrests of its leadership. The BR dissolved themselves in 1988. [ Paolo Perschichetti, De l’usage sélectif du passé, on [http://www.paroledonnee.info/ Parole donnée] fr icon ]
Flight to France
In 1985 some Italian members living in France returned to Italy. The same year, French president
François Mitterrandguaranteed immunity from extradition to BR members living in France who had made a break with their past, were not condemned for violent crimes and had started a new life, The Abbé Pierreallegedly convinced him to take this decision, according to the "Corriere della Sera". [http://archivio.corriere.it/archiveDocumentServlet.jsp?url=/documenti_globnet/corsera/2007/01/co_9_070123006.xml Abbé Pierre, il frate ribelle che scelse gli emarginati] , " Corriere della Sera", January 23, 2007 it icon ]
Bordeaux's appeal courtdecided that Sergio Tornaghicould not be extradited to Italy, on the grounds that Italian procedure would not let him be judged again, after a trial during his absence. In 2002, however, Paris extradited Paolo Persichetti, an ex-member of the Red Brigades who was teaching sociology at university, signaling for the first time a departure from the " Mitterrand doctrine". These extraditions in the 2000s overreached the sole case of the BR, with other, leftist activists exiled in France being researched by Italian justice. These have included Antonio Negri's voluntary return to Italy and surrender to the justice, Cesare Battisti, etc.
While leftists had mostly fled to France, many neofascist activists involved in the strategy of tension, such as
Vincenzo Vinciguerraor Stefano Delle Chiaie, fled to Spain; Delfo Zorzi, condemned for the " Piazza Fontana" bombing, was granted asylum and citizenship in Japan, while others fled to Argentina(in particular Augusto Canchi, wanted by Italian justice for his role in the 1980 Bologna massacre[ [http://www.telam.com.ar/vernota.php?tipo=N&idPub=48460&id=123482&dis=1&sec=1 Denuncian que Almirón también participó en la ultraderecha española] , " Telam" Argentine news agency, January 6, 2007 es icon ] ).
The issue of a general amnesty in Italy for these crimes is highly controversial and still source of dispute. Most political forces oppose it and, in particular, the [http://www.vittimeterrorismo.it/ associations of victims of terrorism and their family members] are adamantly against it.
New assassinations by new BR generation
A new group, with few links, if any, with the ancient BR, appeared in the late 1990s. The Red Brigades-PCC murdered in 1999 Massimo D'Antona, an advisor to the cabinet of Prime Minister
Massimo D'Alema. In March 19, 2002, the same gun was used to kill professor Marco Biagi, an economic advisor to Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. The Red Brigades-PCC again claimed responsibility. On 3 March 2003 two followers, Mario Galesi and Nadia Desdemona Lioce, started a firefight with a police patrol on a train at Castiglion Fiorentino station, near Arezzo. Galesi and Emanuele Petri (one of the policemen) were killed, Lioce was arrested. In October 23 2003, Italian police arrested six members of the Red Brigades in early-dawn raids in Florence, Sardinia, Rome and Pisain connection with the murder of Massimo D'Antona. On June 1st, 2005, four members of the Red Brigades-PCC were condemned to life-sentence in Bologna for the murder of Marco Biagi: Nadia Desdemona Lioce, Roberto Morandi, Marco Mezzasalma and Diana Blefari Melazi.
Several figures from the 1970s, including philosopher
Antonio Negriwho was wrongly accused of being the "mastermind" of the BR, have called for a new, honest analysis of the events which happened during the "years of lead" in Italy. Negri voluntarily returned to Italy in 1997, after living 14 years in France, and was imprisoned several times; his objective was to raise awareness on the situation of hundreds of radical left political activists who had been condemned to prison sentences and/or had fled to foreign countries. Negri was freed in the spring of 2003, having served the remainder of his sentence of 17 years.
On the other hand, BR founder Alberto Franceschini declared after his release from an 18-year prison term that "The BR continue to exist because we never proceeded to their funeral," calling for truth from every involved party in order to be able to turn the page. [ Giovanni Fasanella and Alberto Franceschini, "Che cosa sono le BR" (See [http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=924911 Paris, capitale des « années de plomb »] , review of the book in "
Le Monde", November 30, 2005 fr icon) ]
According to Clarence A. Martin, the BR were credited with 14,000 acts of violence in the first ten years of the group's existence.cite book | last = Martin | first = Clarence Augustus | authorlink = | coauthors = Gus Martin | date= 2003 | url = | title = Understanding Terrorism | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Sage Publications Inc | accessdate = | accessyear = ] However, according to
statisticsby the Ministry of Interior, 67,5% of the violences ("brawls, guerrillaactions, destruction of goods") committed in Italy from 1969 to 1980 are imputable to the far right, 26,5% to the far left, and 5,95% to others. Furthermore, 150 persons were killed in terrorist actions carried out by the far right, and 94 by far left terrorist actions. [ See Mauro Galleni, "Rapporto sul terrorismo", Rizzoli, Milan, 1981, quoted by Anne Schimel (Study and Research Center of the Institute of Political Studies), in " [http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/1998/04/SCHIMEL/10247 Justice "de plomb" en Italie] ("Lead" justice in Italy), " Le Monde diplomatique", March 1998] ]
Allegations of international contacts
Ion Pacepa, Red Brigades primary support allegedly came from the Czechoslovak StB and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).cite book | last = Pacepa| first = Lt Ion Mihai | authorlink = | coauthors = | date= 1990 | url = | title = Red Horizons | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Regnery Publishing | accessdate = | accessyear = ] cite book | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | date= 2005 | url = | title = Terrorist Group Profiles | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School | accessdate = | accessyear = ] Soviet and Czechoslovakia small arms and explosives would have came from the Middle East via heroin traffickers along well established smuggling routes.cite book | last = Hofmann | first = Paul | authorlink = | coauthors = | date= 1991 | url = | title = That Fine Italian Hand | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Owl Books | accessdate = | accessyear = ] Logistic support and training were allegedly carried out directly by the Czechoslovak StB both in Prague and at remote PLO training camps in North Africa and Syria.cite book | last = Pacepa| first = Lt Ion Mihai | authorlink = | coauthors = | date= 1990 | url = | title = Red Horizons | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Regnery Publishing | accessdate = | accessyear = ] cite book | last = Luntz | first = James M | authorlink = | coauthors = Brenda J Luntz | date= 2004 | url = | title = Global Terrorism | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Routledge | accessdate = | accessyear = ]
According to the
Mitrokhin Archives, the Italian Communist Party lodged several complaints with the Soviet ambassador in Rome regarding Czechoslovak support of the Red Brigades, but the Soviets were either unwilling or unable to stop the StB. This was one of several contributing factors in ending the covert relationship that the Italian Communist Partyhad with the KGBculminating with a total break in 1979.cite book | last = Andrew | first = Christopher | authorlink = | coauthors = Vasili Mitrokhin | date= 2000 | url = | title = The Sword and the Shield: the Mitrokhin archive and the secret history of the KGB | format = | work = | pages = | publisher = Basic Books | accessdate = | accessyear = ]
On the other hand, Alberto Franceschini declared to the Commission on terrorism headed by senator
Giovanni Pellegrinothat some members of the group had been in contact with the MOSSAD. [ [http://www.rifondazione-cinecitta.org/mariomoretti.html Mario Moretti, l’Hyperion e la Cia] it icon ]
In October 2007, a former BR commander was arrested after committing a bank robbery while out-of-prison on good conduct terms. Cristoforo Piancone, who is serving a life sentence for six murders, managed to steal €170,000 from the bank Monte dei Paschi di Siena with an accomplice, on
October 1, 2007. [cite news | title = Released Red Brigader in Heist | url = http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2007-10-02_102120895.html | publisher = ANSA | date = 2007-10-02]
Joe Strummerof British punk band, The Clash, attracted some controversy after wearing a Brigate Rosse T-shirt on various occasions. The Brigate Rosse were largely unknown in Britain.
October 22 Group
*Giovanni Fasanella and Alberto Franceschini (with a postface from judge Rosario Priore, who investigated on Aldo Moro's death), "Che cosa sono le BR" [http://www.miserabili.com/2004/06/23/franceschinifasanella_che_cosa.html] ( "BRIGADES ROUGES. L'Histoire secrète des Red Brigades racontée par leur fondateur, Alberto Franceschini. Entretien avec Giovanni Fasanella." Editions Panama, 2005 [http://www.lemonde.fr/web/article/0,1-0@2-3260,36-715503,0.html a review by] "
Le Monde" and [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2005-10-07/2005-10-07-815509 another review by] " L'Humanite"
* [http://www.libreriauniversitaria.it/goto/author_Fasanella+Giovanni/shelf_BIT/Fasanella_Giovanni.html A Giovanni Fasanella's bibliography]
*Terrorist Group Profiles, Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School."
*Antonio Cerella, "Il ritorno della violenza - Le BR dal ventennio rosso al XXI secolo", Il Filo, Roma, 2007
* [http://www.brigaterosse.org/ Brigate Rosse - Fatti, Documenti e Personaggi] - archives and documentation
* [http://www.kersplebedeb.com/mystuff/italy/strike_one.html Strike One to Educate One Hundred: the rise of the Red Brigades in Italy in the 1960s and 1970s] - this page includes links to several scanned-in chapters of the book "Strike One to Educate One Hundred", a sympathetic appraisal of the Red Brigades. Lots of political context about both Italy and the Italian revolutionary left.
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