Hilandar


Hilandar
Hilandar
Хиландар

Monastery information
Full Name Хиландар
Order Serbian Orthodox Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church.svg
(Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople)
Established 1198
Dedicated to Three-handed Theotokos (Virgin Mary)
People
Founder(s) Saint Sava
Site
Location Mount Athos
Greece Greece

Hilandar Monastery (Greek: Μονή Χιλανδαρίου, Serbian: Манастир Хиландар, pronounced [xilǎndaːr]) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece. It was founded in 1198 by the first Serbian Archbishop Saint Sava and his father, Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja (who later became a monk there, taking the monastic name of "Simeon") of the medieval Serbian principality of Raška (Rascia). The Mother of God through her Icon of Three Hands (Trojeručica), is considered the abbess.[1]

Contents

History

The name "Hilandar" is derived from chelandion, a type of Byzantine transport ship, whose skipper was called a "helandaris". The ancient cell of Helandaris was donated by Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195-1203) "to the Serbs as an eternal gift..." and Stefan Nemanja establishes and endows the monastery in 1198 (before 13th february 1199).[2]

Hilandar Monastery during King Aleksandar Obrenović visit in 1896.

In 1426 Gjon Kastrioti from Albania and his three sons (one of them was Skanderbeg) donated the right to the proceeds from taxes collected from the two villages (Rostuša and Trebište in Macedonia) and from the church of Saint Mary, which was in one of them, to the Hilandar where his son Reposh retired and died in 25 July 1431: in his honor the Saint George tower of Hilandar was known as the Albanian tower (Serbian: Arbanaški pirg).[3][4]

Two medieval Bulgarian royal charters, the Virgino Charter and the Oryahov Charter, have been found in Hilandar's library. After the fall of Serbia and Bulgaria under Ottoman rule, the influx of Serbian monks decreased at the expense of Bulgarians, particularly from Macedonia. From the 17th to the 19th century, Hilandar was predominantly Bulgarian-populated: in his account of 1745, the Russian pilgrim Vasily Barsky writes that the monks of Hilandar were all Bulgarians.[5] Ilarion Makariopolski, Sophronius of Vratsa and Matey Preobrazhenski have all lived there, and it was in this monastery that Saint Paisius of Hilendar began his revolutionary Slavonic-Bulgarian History. The monastery was dominated by Bulgarians until 1902.[6]

A view of the Hilandar Monastery in 2006, after the Great Fire, and during first stages of the reconstruction process.

However, in 1913, Serbian presence in the Holy Mountain was quite big and the Protos was the Serbian representative of Hilandar.[7]

In the 1970s, the Greek government offered power grid installation to all of the monasteries on Mount Athos. The Holy Council of Mount Athos refused, and since then every monastery generates its own power, which is gained mostly from renewable energy sources. During the 1980s, electrification of the monastery of Hilandar took place, generating power mostly for lights and heating.

Great Fire

On March 4, 2004, there was a devastating fire at the Hilandar monastery, with approximately 50% of the walled complex destroyed in the blaze. The blaze damaged the northern half of the walled complex, including the bakery. The library and the monastery's many historic icons were saved or otherwise untouched by the fire.

Vast reconstruction efforts are underway, to return Hilandar to its former glory.

Sacred objects

Icon of the Theotokos, "The Three-handed" (Trojeručica).

Among the numerous relics and other holy objects treasured at the monastery is the Wonderworking Icon of the Theotokos "Of the Akathist", the feast day of which is celebrated on January 12. Since Mount Athos uses the traditional Julian Calendar, the day they name as January 12 currently falls on January 25 of the modern Gregorian Calendar.

A sculpture on a rock presenting Saint Symeon, the founder of Hilandar Monastery.

The monastery also possesses the Wonderworking Icon of the Theotokos "Of the Three Hands" (Greek: Tricherusa, Serbian: Тројеручицa), traditionally associated with a miraculous healing of St. John Damascene. Around the year 717, St. John became a monk at Mar Sabbas monastery outside of Jerusalem and gave the icon to the monastic community there. Later the icon was offered to St. Sava of Serbia, who gave it to the Hilandar. A copy of the icon was sent to Russia in 1661, from which time it has been highly venerated in the Russian Orthodox Church. This icon has two feast days: June 28 (July 11) and July 12 (July 25).

The library holds 181 Greek and 809 Slavic manuscripts, about 20 000 printed books (3 000 in Greek language).

The monastery contains about 45 working monks.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hilandar – The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity
  2. ^ Tibor Zivkovic - Charters of the Serbian rulers related to Kosovo and Metochia. page 15
  3. ^ Slijepčević, Đoko M. (1983) (in Serbian). Srpsko-arbanaški odnosi kroz vekove sa posebnim osvrtom na novije vreme. Himelstir. p. 45. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZFRpAAAAMAAJ&q=%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%B8+%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B3&dq=%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%B8+%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B3&hl=en&ei=MZsVToOOAYih-QaghKUJ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ. Retrieved 7 July 2011. "Заједно са синовима Константином, Репошем и Ђурђем приложио је Иван Кастриот манастиру Хиландару село Радосуше са црквом св. Богородице и село Требиште....Због тога је и пирг св. Ђорђа прозван »арбанашки пирг». Репош је умро у манастиру Хиландару 25. јула 1431. године и ту је сахрањен. (Together with his sons Konstantin, Repoš and Đurađ, Ivan Kastriot donated village Radosuše with church of saint Mary and village Trebište to the monastery Hilandar... Therefore the tower of Saint George was named "Albanian tower". Repoš died in Hilandar on July 25, 1431 and he was buried there." 
  4. ^ Petković, Sreten (2008) [1989] (in Serbian) Hilandar Belgrade p. 21 ISBN 978-86-80879-78-9 "... a Ivan Kastriot sa sinovima iz Albanije otkupljuje jedan pirg od Hilandara da bi po potrebi tu mogao naći utočište. (... and Ivan Kastriot with his sons from Albania bought one tower of Hilandar to provide a shelter for them in case of need)." 
  5. ^ "Chilandari". Mount Athos. http://www.mountathos.gr/active.aspx?mode=en{cf4d1b6f-9cd3-48a9-83c9-5097706a1a15}View. Retrieved 2008-10-09. "In the 17th century the number of monks coming from Serbia dwindled, and the 18th was a period of decline, following a disastrous fire in 1722. At that time the Monastery was effectively manned by Bulgarian monks." 
  6. ^ "Хилендарски манастир" (in Bulgarian). Православието. http://www.pravoslavieto.com/manastiri/aton/hilendar/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  7. ^ Panagiotis Christou, "To Agion Oros", Patriarchal Institute of Patristic Studies, Epopteia ed., Athens, 1987 pp 313-314

External links

Coordinates: 40°20′46″N 24°07′08″E / 40.34611°N 24.11889°E / 40.34611; 24.11889


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hilandar — Hilàndār m <G Hilandára> DEFINICIJA pov. crkv. manastir na Svetoj Gori (Atos, Grčka), središte srednjovjekovne srpske književnosti i kulture; podigao ga Stefan Nemanja uz pomoć sina Rastka (zaređenog Save, kasnije proglašenog svetim) …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Hilandar — Kloster Hilandar Das Kloster Hilandar [xilandar] (serbisch Манастир Хиландар/Manastir Hilandar, gelegentlich auch Chilandar transkribiert; griechisch Μονή Χιλανδαρίου [mɔˈni çilanðaˈriu …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hilandar Research Library — The Hilandar Research Library is the research library of the Research Center for Medieval Slavic Studies at the Ohio State University. It contains the largest collection of medieval Slavic manuscripts on microform. It includes many Cyrillic and… …   Wikipedia

  • Hilandar Monastery —    Center of Serbian culture and spirituality on Mount Athos (q.v.), constructed in 1198 by Stefan Nemanja (q.v.), who retired there as the monk Symeon, shortly before his death in 1199. Its library is renowned for its hundreds of Greek and… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Kloster Hilandar — Das Kloster Hilandar [xilandar] (serbisch Манастир Хиландар/Manastir Hilandar, gelegentlich auch Chilandar transkribiert; griechisch Μονή Χιλανδαρίου [ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Monastère de Hilandar — Présentation Culte orthodoxe serbe Type Monastère Début de la construction …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monastere de Hilandar — Monastère de Hilandar Monastère de Hilandar Le monastère de Hilandar ou monastère de Chilandari (en serbe : Hilandar / Хиландар, en grec : Χιλανδαρίου) est un des vingt monastères orthodoxes du Mont Athos, et à ce titre, bien que de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monastère De Hilandar — Le monastère de Hilandar ou monastère de Chilandari (en serbe : Hilandar / Хиландар, en grec : Χιλανδαρίου) est un des vingt monastères orthodoxes du Mont Athos, et à ce titre, bien que de langue serbe, il relève de la juridiction du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monastère de hilandar — Le monastère de Hilandar ou monastère de Chilandari (en serbe : Hilandar / Хиландар, en grec : Χιλανδαρίου) est un des vingt monastères orthodoxes du Mont Athos, et à ce titre, bien que de langue serbe, il relève de la juridiction du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Païssi von Hilandar — Heiliger Païssi von Hilandar, Denkmal in Bansko Seite der Slawisch bulgarischen Geschichte …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.