Bethoron (also transliterated Beth-Horon) was the name for two adjacent towns, Bethoron Elyon ("Upper Bethoron"), and Bethoron Tahton ("Lower Bethoron"), named for the Egypto-
Canaanite deity"Horon" mentioned in Ugaritic literature and other texts.cite web|title=Bethoron (Bayt Ur)|author=Eugenio Alliata|publisher=Studium Biblicum Franciscanum|date=2000-12-19|accessdate=2007-09-12|url=http://18.104.22.168/www1/ofm/mad/discussion/062discuss.html] cite journal|title=The Egypt-Canaanite God Haurôn|author=William Albright|journal=Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research|volume=No. 84|date=December 1941|pages=7–12|url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-097X(194112)84%3C7%3ATEDH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1] cite journal|title=The Canaanite God Horon|author=John Gray|journal=Journal of Near Eastern Studies|volume=Vol. 8, No. 1|date=January 1949|pages=27–34|accessdate=2007-09-12|url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2968(194901)8%3A1%3C27%3ATCGH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1 ] Strategically located on the Gibeon- Aijalonroad, the towns guarded the important "ascent of Beth-Horon." Both towns are mentioned in the Old Testament: Upper Bethoron in "Joshua" sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=Joshua|chapter=16|verse=5|nobook= and Lower Bethoron in sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=Joshua|chapter=16|verse=3|nobook=. According to "1 Chronicles" sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=1 Chronicles|chapter=7|verse=24|nobook=, Lower Bethoron was built by Sheerah, the daughter of Beriah, son of Ephraim. Eusebius' "Onomasticon" also mentions the 'twin villages' and St. Jeromedescribes them as 'little hamlets' which it seems they have always been.
Palestinian Muslimvillages of "Beit Ur al-Foqa"Alternate English transliterations use "Bayt" for "Beit", "Ur" for "Ur", "el" for "al" and "Fauqa", "Fawka" for, "Foqa", and in any combination thereof.] ( _ar. بيت عور الفوقة, "Upper house of straw") and " Beit Ur al-Tahta"Alternate English transliterations for "al-Tahta" include "et-Tahta", "el-Tahta", and "at-Tahta".] ( _ar. بيت عور التحتى, "Lower house of straw") preserve part of the original Canaanite name for the towns, and have been identified as the sites of Upper and Lower Bethoron. Archaeological finds indicate that the Lower town was established before the Upper one; potsherds from the Late Bronze Ageonward were discovered at Lower Beit Ur, whereas those in Upper Beit Ur date only from the Iron Ageonward.
Israeli settlementnamed Beit Horon( _he. בית חורון) was founded in 1977on a site adjacent to the two towns.
Egyptian sources (Muller, "As. und Europa", etc.) it appears that Bethoron was one of the places conquered by Shishakof Egypt from Rehoboam.
The borderline between Benjamin and Ephraim passed alongside the two Bethorons ("Joshua" 16:5; 21:22) who belonged to the latter tribe and therefore, later on, to the Northern Kingdom.
Solomon"built Beth-horon the upper, and Beth-horon the nether, fortified cities, with walls, gates, and bars" ("2 Chronicles" 8:5; "1 Kings" 9:17). One or both of the towns was a city of Levites (Josh. 21:22; I Chron. 6:53).
Again, many centuries later, Bacchides repaired Beth-horon, "with high walls, with gates and with bars and in them he set a
garrison, that they might work malice upon ("vex") Israel" ("1 Macc." 9:50,51), and at another time the Jews fortified it against Holofernes("Judith" 4:4,5).
Pass of the Bethorons
When ("Joshua" 10:10)
Joshuadiscomfited the kings of the Amorites "he slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them by the way of the 'Ascent of Beth-horon.'" When the Philistinesopposed King Saulat Michmashthey sent a company of their men to hold "the way of Beth-horon."
This pass ascends from the plain of
Ajalon(now Yalo) and climbs in about 3/4 hr. to Beit Ur al Tahta (1,210 ft.); it then ascends along the ridge, with valleys lying to north and south, and reaches Beit Ur al-Foqa (2,022 ft.), and pursuing the same ridge arrives in another 4 1/2 miles at the plateau to the north of al-Jib (Gibeon). At intervals along this historic route, traces of the ancient Roman paving are visible. The great highroad into the heart of the land from the earliest times, along this route came Canaanites, Israelites, Philistines, Egyptians, Syrians, Romans, Saracens and Crusaders. Since the days of Joshua ("Joshua" 10:10) it has frequently been the scene of a rout. Here the Syrian general Seron was defeated by Judas Maccabeus("1 Macc." 3:13-24) at the Battle of Beth Horon, and six years later Nicanor, retreating from Jerusalem, was defeated and slain and the nearby Adasa. ("1 Macc." 7:39; Josephus, "Ant." XII, x, 5). Along this pass in 66AD the Roman general Cestius Galluswas driven in headlong flight before the Jews.
A 1915 reference to the road by the
Palestine Exploration Fund(III, 86, Sh XVII) noted that the changed direction of the highroad to Jerusalem had left the route "forsaken" and "almost forgotten". The modern Highway 443 follows part of the ancient road.
*Masterman, E. W. G. (1915). [http://studylight.org/enc/isb/view.cgi?number=T1415 BETH-HORON] . "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". Eds. Orr, James, M.A., D.D. Retrieved
December 9, 2005.
*Report by Yuval Peleg for the
Israeli Antiquities Authorityon [http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.asp?id=63&mag_id=108 the discovery of a burial cave in Beit 'Ur al-Tahta]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
BETHORON — civitas Cananitica, quae ductâ sorte tribui Ephraim contigit. Ios. c. 16. v. 3. Levitis concessa. Ios. c. 21. v. 22. Est et superioris simul et inferioris Bethoron, passim in scripturis, mentio. Vide Ios. c. 16. v. 3 et 5. c. 18. v. 13. 14.… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Biblical Geography — Biblical Geography † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Biblical Geography With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater or less extent, does not contain mention of, or allusions to, the… … Catholic encyclopedia
Beit Ur al-Tahta — Infobox Palestinian Authority muni name=Beit Ur al Tahta imgsize= caption= arname=بيت عور التحت meaning= Lower house of straw founded= type=munc typefrom= altOffSp= altUnoSp=Bayt Ur at Tahta governorate=rb latd=31|latm=53|lats=41.91|latNS=N longd … Wikipedia
Beit Ur al-Fauqa — Infobox Palestinian Authority muni name= Beit Ur al Fauqa imgsize=250 caption= arname=بيت عور الفوقا meaning= Upper house of straw founded= type=munc typefrom= altOffSp= Bayt ’Ur al Fauqa altUnoSp=Beit ’Ur al Foqa governorate=rb… … Wikipedia
Judea — • It designates the part of Palestine adjacent to Jerusalem and inhabited by the Jewish community after their return from captivity Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Judea Judea … Catholic encyclopedia
The Machabees — The Machabees † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Machabees (Gr. Hoi Makkabaioi; Lat. Machabei; most probably from Aramaic maqqaba= hammer ). A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the… … Catholic encyclopedia
Route 443 (Israel) — Infobox Israel highway highway= 443 hebrew= מעלה בית חורון ( Ma ale Beit Horon ) meaning= Ascent of Bethoron length=28 direction=West East classification= Expressway start=Lod (Ginaton Junction) destinations= *Modi in Maccabim Re ut *Modi in… … Wikipedia
Beit-Horon — Beït Horon Beït Horon Géographie Altitude 550 m Massif … Wikipédia en Français
Beth-Horon — Beït Horon Beït Horon Géographie Altitude 550 m Massif … Wikipédia en Français
Beït-Horon — Géographie Altitude 550 m Longueur 12,5 km … Wikipédia en Français