Regiomontanus


Regiomontanus

Infobox Scientist
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name = Regiomontanus



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caption = Regiomontanus
birth_date = June 6, 1436
birth_place = Unfinden
death_date = July 6, 1476
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nationality = German
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field = Mathematics
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doctoral_advisor = Georg von Peuerbach
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Johannes Müller von Königsberg (June 6, 1436 – July 6, 1476), known by his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus, was an important German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer.

He was born in the Franconian village of Unfinden near Königsberg, Bavaria, not in the more famous Königsberg in East Prussia.

Thus, he is also called Johannes Müller, der Königsberger (Johannes Müller of Königsberg). His full Latin name was "Joannes de Regio monte", which abbreviated to "Regiomontanus" (from the Latin for "Königsberg"—"King's Mountain").

Life

At eleven years of age, he became a student at the university in Leipzig, Saxony. Three years later he continued his studies at Alma Mater Rudolfina, the university in Vienna, Austria. There he became a pupil and friend of Georg von Peurbach. In 1457 he graduated with a degree of "magister artium" (Master of Arts) and held lectures in optics and ancient literature. He built astrolabes for Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Cardinal Bessarion, and in 1465 a portable sundial for Pope Paul II. His work with Peurbach brought him to the writings of Nicholas of Cusa (Cusanus), who held a heliocentric view. Regiomontanus, however, remained a geocentrist after Ptolemy. Following Peurbach's death, he continued the translation of Ptolemy's Almagest which Peurbach had begun at the initiative of Basilios Bessarion. From 1461 to 1465 Regiomontanus lived and worked at Cardinal Bessarion's house in Rome. He wrote "De Triangulis omnimodus" (1464) and "Epytoma in almagesti Ptolemei". "De Triangulis" (On Triangles) was one of the first textbooks presenting the current state of trigonometry and included lists of questions for review of individual chapters. In it he wrote:

:"You who wish to study great and wonderful things, who wonder about the movement of the stars, must read these theorems about triangles. Knowing these ideas will open the door to all of astronomy and to certain geometric problems."

In the "Epytoma" he critiqued the translation, pointing out inaccuracies. Later Nicolaus Copernicus would refer to this book as an influence on his own work. In 1467 Regiomontanus left Rome to work at the court of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. There he calculated extensive astronomical tables and built astronomical instruments.

In 1471 he moved to the Free City of Nuremberg, in Franconia, then one of the Empire's important seats of learning, publication, commerce and art. He associated with the humanist and merchant Bernhard Walther who sponsored the observatory and the printing press. Regiomontanus remains famous for having built at Nuremberg the first astronomical observatory in Germany. In 1472 he published the first printed astronomical textbook, the "Theoricae novae Planetarum" of his teacher Georg von Peurbach. Peurbach worked at the Observatory of Großwardein (Oradea) in Transylvania, the first in Europe, and established in his "Tabula Varadiensis" this Transylvanian town's observatory as lying on the prime meridian of Earth.

In 1475 he went to Rome to work with Pope Sixtus IV on calendar reform. On the way he could publish his "Ephemeris" in Venice. Regiomontanus died mysteriously in Rome, July 61476, a month after his fortieth birthday. Some say he died of plague, others by (more likely) assassination.

A prolific author, Regiomontanus was internationally famous already in his lifetime. Despite having completed only a quarter of what he had intended to write, he left a substantial body of work. Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara, the teacher of Nicolaus Copernicus, referred to Regiomontanus as having been his own teacher.

It is not true that he came to be called posthumously after the place of his birth, Königsberg/Bavaria (in Latin, "Regiomontanus"). In Regiomontanus' day it was common for scholars to Latinize their names when publishing.

He is known for having built one of the most famous automata, the wooden eagle of Regiomontanus, which flew from the city of Königsberg to meet the emperor, saluted him, and returned. He also built an iron fly of which it is said it flew out of Regiomontanus's hands at a feast, and taking a round, returned to him.

In 1561, Daniel Santbech compiled a collected edition of the works of Regiomontanus, "De triangulis planis et sphaericis libri quinque" (first published in 1533) and "Compositio tabularum sinum recto", as well as Santbech's own "Problematum astronomicorum et geometricorum sectiones septem". It was published in Basel by Henrich Petri and Petrus Perna.

Regiomontanus crater, on the Moon, is named after him.

Astrology

One biographer has claimed to have detected a decline in Regiomontanus' interest in astrology over his life, and came close to asserting that Regiomontanus had rejected it altogether. But more recent commentators have suggested that the occasional expression of skepticism about astrological prognostication reflected a disquiet about the procedural rigour of the art, not about its underlying principles. It seems plausible that, like some other astronomers, Regiomontanus concentrated his efforts on mathematical astronomy because he felt that astrology could not be placed on a sound footing until the celestial motions had been modeled accurately.

In his youth, Regiomontanus had cast horoscopes (natal charts) for famous patrons. His "Tabulae directionum", completed in Hungary, were designed for astrological use and contained a discussion of different ways of determining astrological houses. The calendars for 1475-1531 which he printed at Nuremberg contained only limited astrological information—a method of finding times for bloodletting according to the position of the moon; subsequent editors added material.

But perhaps the works most indicative of Regiomontanus' hopes for an empirically sound astrology were his almanacs or ephemerides, produced first in Vienna for his own benefit, and printed in Nuremberg for the years 1475-1506. Weather predictions and observations were juxtaposed by Regiomontanus in his manuscript almanacs, and the form of the printed text enabled scholars to enter their own weather observations in order to likewise check astrological predictions; extant copies reveal that several did so. Regiomontanus' "Ephemeris" would be used in 1504, by a Christopher Columbus stranded on Jamaica, to intimidate the natives into continuing to provision him and his crew from their scanty food stocks, when he successfully predicted a lunar eclipse for February 29, 1504. [Samuel Eliot Morison, "Christopher Columbus, Mariner", 1955, pp. 184–92.]

Regiomontanus did not live to produce the special commentary to the ephemerides that he had promised would reveal the advantages the almanacs held for the multifarious activities of physicians, for human births and the telling of the future, for weather forecasting, for the inauguration of employment, and for a host of other activities, although this lack was again made good by subsequent editors. Nevertheless Regiomontanus' promise suggests that he either was as convinced of the validity and utility of astrology as his contemporaries, or was willing to set aside his misgivings for the sake of commercial success.

Criticism

Gerolamo Cardano noted that much of the material of Regiomontanus on spherical trigonometry was plagiarised from the twelfth-century work of the Jabir ibn Aflah [ [http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i8583.html Victor J. Katz-Princeton University Press] ]

Notes

Literature

* Irmela Bues, "Johannes Regiomontanus (1436-1476)". In: "Fränkische Lebensbilder" 11. Neustadt/Aisch 1984, S. 28 - 43
* Rudolf Mett: "Regiomontanus. Wegbereiter des neuen Weltbildes". Teubner / Vieweg, Stuttgart / Leipzig 1996, ISBN 3-8154-2510-7
* Helmuth Gericke: "Mathematik im Abendland: Von den römischen Feldmessern bis zu Descartes". Springer Verlag, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-540-51206-3
* Günther Harmann (Hrsg.): "Regiomontanus-Studien". (= Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, Bd. 364; Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Geschichte der Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften und Medizin, Heft 28-30), Wien 1980. ISBN 3-7001-0339-5
* Samuel Eliot Morison, "Christopher Columbus, Mariner", Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1955.

External links

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*Adam Mosley, [http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/regiomontanus.html Regiomontanus Biography] , web site at the Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge (1999).
*MacTutor Biography|id=Regiomontanus
* [http://www.univie.ac.at/hwastro Electronic facsimile-editions of the rare book collection at the Vienna Institute of Astronomy]
* [http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/regiocalen.html Regiomontanus and Calendar Reform]
* [http://www.polybiblio.com/marta/165.html Polybiblio: Regiomontanus, Johannes/Santbech, Daniel, ed. De Triangulis Planis et Sphaericis libri quinque. Basel Henrich Petri & Petrus Perna 1561]
* [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Regiomontanus.html Engl. Biographie bei MacTutor]
* [http://www.jnul.huji.ac.il/dl/books/html/bk1262728.htm Joannes Regiomontanus: "Calendarium"] , Venedig 1485, Digitalisat
* [http://naa.net/ain/personen/regiomontanus.asp Beitrag bei „Astronomie in Nürnberg“]
* [http://num-scd-ulp.u-strasbg.fr:8080/view/authors/Regiomontanus,_Johannes.html Digitalisierte Werke von Regiomontanus] - SICD der Universitäten von Strasbourg

Persondata
NAME = Regiomontanus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Johannes Müller von Königsberg or Joannes de Regio monte (Latin)
SHORT DESCRIPTION = German astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician
DATE OF BIRTH = June 6, 1436
PLACE OF BIRTH = Unfinden, Germany
DATE OF DEATH = July 6, 1476
PLACE OF DEATH = Rome, Italy


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Regiomontānus — Regiomontānus, Johann (eigentlich Müller, auch Molitor od. Kungsperg, Johannes Germanus u. Joh. Francus), geb. 6. Juni 1456 zu Königsberg in Franken, studirte seit 1448 in Leipzig, seit 1451 in Wien unter G. Peurbach Mathematik u. zog 1461 mit… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Regiomontānus — Regiomontānus, eigentlich Johannes Müller, Mathematiker und Astronom, geb. 6. Juni 1436 in Unsind bei Königsberg in Franken (daher sein Name: R. oder »Königisberger«, Meister Johannes Künigsberger), gest. 6. Juli 1476 in Rom, studierte unter… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Regiomontanus — Regiomontānus, eigentlich Joh. Müller, Mathematiker, geb. 6. Juni 1436 zu Königsberg in Franken, lehrte in Wien, ward 1475 Bischof von Regensburg und von Papst Sixtus IV. wegen der Kalenderreform nach Rom berufen, gest. das. 6. Juli 1476;… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Regiomontanus — d.h. der Königsberger, nannte sich der um Mathematik u. Astronomie hochverdiente Joh. Müller, geb. 1436 zu Unsind bei Königsberg in Sachsen Meiningen, welcher zu Leipzig und dann zu Wien bei dem berühmten Peurbach neben der Theologie Mathematik… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Regiomontanus — (Johann Müller, connu sous le nom lat. de) (1436 1476) astronome allemand. Il détermina le parcours des comètes …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • REGIOMONTANUS — celebris Astronomus, (cuius nomen Iohannes Mullerus fuit,) Regiomonte oriundus, in Franconia. Philosophiam Lipsiae didicit, dein Viennae, sub Georgio Purbachio, Mathematicis studiisincubuit, tanto cum successu, ut illi mortuo Professor… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Regiomontanus — Johannes Regiomontanus Camillus Johann(es) Müller aus Königsberg (* 6. Juni 1436 im unterfränkischen Königsberg; † 6. Juli 1476 in Rom), kurz Hans Müller, latinisiert Johannes Molitor(is), später Regiomontanus (Königsberger), war ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Regiomontanus — /ree jee oh mon tay neuhs, tah , rej ee /; Ger. /rdday gee oh mohn tah noos/, n. See Müller, Johann. * * * ▪ German mathematician Latin name of  Johannes Müller von Königsberg  born June 6, 1436, Königsberg, archbishopric of Mainz [Germany] died… …   Universalium


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