- Manx people
Total population The Isle of Man currently has a population of 80,058 in 2006, of which 47.6% native-born Regions with significant populations Languages Religion Related ethnic groups
The Manx (Manx: Manninee) are an ethnic group coming from the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea in northern Europe. They are often described as a Celtic people, though they have had a mixed background including Norse and English influences.
Make-up of Isle of Man population
According to the 2006 interim census, the Isle of Man is home to 80,058 people, of whom 26,218 reside in the island's capital Douglas. Most of the population is born in the British Isles, with 47.6% born in the Isle of Man, 37.2% born in England, 3.4% in Scotland, 2.1% in Northern Ireland, 2.1% in the Republic of Ireland, 1.2% in Wales and 0.3% born in the Channel Islands, with 6.1% of people being born elsewhere in the world.
Manx people living in the UK were commonly grouped by the 2001 census under "White British". As well as major immigration from England, the Isle of Man has had many Irish residents, and to a lesser degree, Scottish and Welsh people. The extremely high proportion of foreigners to natives has removed or corrupted some local culture and vernacular speech.
Manx people have traditionally had three vernaculars:
- Manx, a Gaelic language.
- English language
- Anglo-Manx, the distinctive indigenous English dialect of the Manx, now little-used.
- British English, the usual form of English used in the Isle of Man, especially for formal purposes.
Both English and Manx are official languages in the Tynwald.
History and politics
The Isle of Man is often labelled as one of the six Celtic nations, though it has had a mixed cultural background and has been under Norse, Scottish and English control for much of the past thousand years.
The earliest traces of people in the Isle of Man date to around 8000 BC, during the Mesolithic Period, also known as the Middle Stone Age. Small, nomadic family groups lived in campsites, hunting wild game, fishing the rivers and coastal waters and gathering plant foods.
The Neolithic period was marked by important economic and social changes. By 4000 BC, people once reliant upon the uncultivated natural resources of the land and sea had adopted cereal growing and stock rearing, using imported species of grain and animals. Large scale clearance of natural woodland provided fields for crops and animal fodder.
During the Iron Age, Celtic influences began to arrive on the island. Based on inscriptions, inhabitants appear to have been using a Brythonic language; however, at some point, possibly c. 700 AD, it is assumed that Irish invasion or immigration formed the basis of a new culture, after which the Manx came to speak Gaelic. This language has developed in isolation since, though remains closely related to Irish, and Scottish Gaelic.
The Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was created by Godred Crovan in 1079. The Norse had a major impact on the island, leaving behind Norse placenames, and influencing its distinctive political system, Tynwald (from Old Norse, Þingvóllr), which is one of the oldest parliamentary democracies in the world.
In 1266, as dictated in the Treaty of Perth, Norway's King Magnus VI ceded the isles to Scotland. For more than a century the Isle of Man, during the Anglo-Scottish wars, passed between Scotland and England. During this troubled period the Island was captured by the Scottish army of Robert the Bruce in 1313. Later in the 14th century, when England once more seized the Island, the Lordship - indeed kingship - was given to the Montacute family, Earls of Salisbury.
In 1405 the Lordship was granted to Sir John Stanley, whose descendants (later the Earls of Derby) ruled the Isle of Man for over 300 years. The lordship passed through a female line to the Dukes of Athol in 1736, and was eventually purchased by the British Crown in 1765.
The 20th century saw a revival of interest in Manx music, dance, and the Manx language, though the last native (first language) speaker of Manx died in the 1970s. In the middle part of the twentieth century, the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera visited, and became so distressed at the lack of support for Manx that he immediately had two recording vans sent over to record the language before it disappeared completely.
As the century progressed, the Manx tourist economy declined, both because of the effects of the two world wars and later as tourists began to take advantage of cheaper air travel to take European package holidays. The Manx government responded to this situation in the 1960s by changing the island's economy to make it a finance centre. While this has had beneficial effects on the Manx economy, it has had its detractors, who have pointed to negative aspects such as money laundering. The economic changes gave a short-lived impetus to Manx nationalism in the 1970 & 1980's, spawning Mec Vannin, a nationalist party, as well as the now defunct Manx National Party and Fo Halloo (literally 'Underground'), which mounted a direct-action campaign of spray-painting and house-burning. Nationalist politics has since declined and many former candidates are now in mainstream politics.
The 1990s and early 21st century have seen a greater recognition of indigenous Manx culture, such as the first Manx language primary school, though Manx culture still remains on the margins of popular culture for the majority of Manx residents.
Manx political parties
Manx politicians are usually independent candidates rather than party members. Political parties such as Liberal Vannin and the Manx Labour Party have been active in recent years. Mec Vannin and the now-defunct Manx National Party are examples of two nationalist parties which were active at one time in the island.
Work permits and immigration
Manx people, as British citizens, may travel and work freely in the United Kingdom. Passports issued on the Island are marked 'British Islands - Isle of Man', instead of 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland', and these passports are issued to all British citizens resident on the island.
Manx people without a family link or past residency in the UK are restricted from exercising the right to live and work in other EU countries.
Notable Manx and people of Manx descent
- Thomas Edward Brown, often considered the Manx national poet.
- Anthony Quayle, actor, of Manx ancestry.
- Illiam Dhone
- Mark Cavendish, professional road and track cyclist; winner of 20 stages of the Tour de France, a British record.
- William Abdullah Quilliam of Manx ancestry.
- Beckii Cruel.
- Dan Quayle, former Vice President of the United States.
- Nigel Kneale, TV & Film scriptwriter, notably the BBC Quatermass series
- Manx surnames, surnames originating on the Isle of Man.
Links to related articles Celtic nations and their cultures Nations Languages Peoples Culture Music Sport
Anguillans · Ascension Islanders · Bermudians · British Virgin Islanders · Caymanians · Chagossians (Îlois) · Channel Islanders · Cornish · English · Falkland Islanders · Gibraltarians · Hongkongers (BN(O)s) · Manx · Montserratians · Northern Irish · Orcadians · Pitcairn Islanders · Saint Helenians · Scots · Shetlanders · Tristan Islanders · Turks and Caicos Islanders · Welsh
British Isles PoliticsPolitical cooperation GeographyIsland groupsLists of islands of HistoryCurrent states and
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Manx People's Political Association — The Manx People s Political Association (MPPA) was a political party active in the Isle of Man. They first contested elections in the 1946 election to the House of Keys. They were formed as a conservative and anti socialist alternative to the… … Wikipedia
List of Manx people — Famous or notable people from the Isle of Man include:* Fletcher Christian, leader of the Mutiny on the Bounty * Sir Miles Walker (1940 ) politician * Lord Randolph Quirk * Sir Frank Kermode … Wikipedia
Manx language — Manx yn Ghaelg, yn Ghailck Pronunciation [əˈɣilk], [əˈɣilɡ] Spoken in Isle of Man Native speakers … Wikipedia
Manx — (/mangks/, IPA /ˈmæŋk … Wikipedia
Manx — I. adjective Etymology: alteration of Maniske, from Old Norse *manskr, from Mana Isle of Man Date: circa 1563 of, relating to, or characteristic of the Isle of Man, its people, or the Manx language II. noun Date: 1656 1. the Celtic language of… … New Collegiate Dictionary
Manx Independent — The Manx Independent is a tabloid weekly newspaper in the Isle of Man. It is published every Friday. It is owned by Isle of Man Newspapers, which is now part of Johnston Press. Its sister weekly newspapers are the Isle of Man Courier and the Isle … Wikipedia
Manx — adj. & n. adj. of or relating to the Isle of Man. n. 1 Language hist. the now extinct Celtic language formerly spoken in the Isle of Man. 2 (prec. by the; treated as pl.) the Manx people. Phrases and idioms: Manx cat a tailless cat. Etymology: ON … Useful english dictionary
Manx National Heritage — Founded 1951 Key people Martin Moore (Chairman) Focus Heritage Webs … Wikipedia
Manx Telecom — Limited Manx: Chellinsh Vannin Type Private Industry Telecommunications … Wikipedia
Manx Line — Industry Shipping Fate Merged with IOMSPCo Founded 1978 Defunct 1985 … Wikipedia