Reinhold Messner


Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner

Reinhold Messner in October 2009
Born September 17, 1944 (1944-09-17) (age 67)
Brixen, Italy
Occupation Mountaineer
Website
www.reinhold-messner.de

Reinhold Messner (born September 17, 1944) is an Italian mountaineer and explorer from Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history."[1] He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen and for being the first climber to ascend all fourteen "eight-thousanders" (peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level). He is the author of at least 63 books (in German, 1970–2006), many of which have been translated into other languages.

Contents

Biography

Born in Brixen (Bressanone), Italy, Messner is a native speaker of German and also fluent in Italian.[2] He grew up in Villnöß and spent his early years climbing in the Alps and fell in love with the Dolomites. His father, Josef Messner, was a teacher. He was also very strict and sometimes severe with Reinhold. Josef led Reinhold to his first summit at the age of five. Reinhold had eight brothers and one sister: he later climbed with his brother Günther and made Arctic crossings with his brother Hubert.

When Reinhold was 13, he began climbing with his brother Günther, age 11. By the time Reinhold and Günther were in their early twenties, they were among Europe's best climbers.[3]

Since the 1960s, and inspired by Hermann Buhl, he was one of the first and most enthusiastic supporters of alpine style mountaineering in the Himalayas, which consisted of climbing with very light equipment and a minimum of external help. Messner considered the usual expedition style ("siege tactics") disrespectful towards nature and mountains.

His first major Himalayan climb in 1970, the unclimbed Rupal face of Nanga Parbat, turned out to be a tragic success. Both he and his brother Günther Messner reached the summit, but Günther died two days later on the descent of the Diamir face. Reinhold lost six toes, which had become badly frostbitten during the climb and required amputation.[3] Reinhold has been severely criticized for persisting on this climb with an insufficiently experienced Günther.[4] The 2010 movie Nanga Parbat by Joseph Vilsmaier is based on his account of the events.[5]

While Messner and Peter Habeler were noted for fast ascents in the Alps of the Eiger North Wall, standard route (10 hours) and Les Droites (8 hours), his 1975 Gasherbrum I first ascent of a new route took three days. This was unheard of at the time.

In the 1970s, Messner championed the cause for ascending Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen, saying that he would do it "by fair means" or not at all.[6] In 1978, he reached the summit of Everest with Habeler.[6] This was the first time anyone had been that high without bottled oxygen and Messner and Habeler proved what certain doctors, specialists, and mountaineers thought impossible. He repeated the feat, without Habeler, from the Tibetan side in 1980, during the monsoon season. This was Everest's first solo summit.

In 1978, he made a solo ascent of the Diamir face of Nanga Parbat. In 1986, Messner became the first to complete all fourteen eight-thousanders (peaks over 8,000 metres above sea level).[7] Messner has crossed Antarctica on skis, together with fellow explorer Arved Fuchs. He has written over 60 books [8] about his experiences, a quarter of which have been translated. He was featured in the 1984 film The Dark Glow of the Mountains by Werner Herzog.

Messner today carries on a diversified business related to his mountaineering skills. From 1999 to 2004, he held political office as a Member of the European Parliament for the Italian Green Party (Federazione dei Verdi). He was also among the founders of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the protection of mountains worldwide.

In 2004 he completed a 2,000-kilometre (1,200 mi) expedition through the Gobi desert. He now mainly devotes himself to the Messner Mountain Museum, of which he is the founder.

Expeditions

To 1970

Up to 1970 Reinhold Messner had made a name for himself mainly through his achievements in the Alps. Between 1950 and 1964 he led over 500 ascents, most of them in the Dolomites. In 1965, he climbed a new direttissima route on the north face of the Ortler. A year later, he climbed the Walker pillar on the Grandes Jorasses and conquered the Rocchetta Alta di Bosconero. In 1967 he made the first ascent of the northeast face of the Agnér and the first winter ascents of the Agnér north face and Furchetta north face. In 1968 he achieved further firsts: the Heiligkreuzkofel middle pillar and the direct south face of the Marmolata. In the following year, Messner joined an Andes expedition, during which he succeeded, together with Peter Habeler, in making the first ascent of the Yerupaja east face up to the summit ridge and, a few days later, the first ascent of the 6,121 metre-high Yerupaja Chico [9] He also made the first solo ascent of the Droites north face, the Philip intersection on the Civetta and the south face of Marmolata di Rocca. As a result of his achievements, Messner won the reputation of being one of the best climbers in Europe. So, in 1970, he was invited to join a major Himalayan expedition. In the light of his later successes, the year 1970 can be regarded as one of the turning points in Messner's life.

Climbs of the eight-thousanders after 1970

Reinhold Messner was the first man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world and without supplemental oxygen. His climbs were also all amongst the first 20 ascents for each mountain individually. Specifically, these are:

Location of the eight-thousanders.
Year Peak (height in metres) Remarks
1970 Nanga Parbat (8,125)
1972 Manaslu (8,163)
1975 Hidden Peak (Gasherbrum I) (8,080)
1978 Mount Everest (8,848), Nanga Parbat (8,125) First ascent of Everest without supplementary oxygen.

Nanga Parbat: first solo ascent of 8000er from basecamp

1979 K2 (8611)
1980 Mount Everest (8,848) First to ascend alone and without supplementary oxygen - during the monsoon
1981 Shishapangma (8,027)
1982 Kangchenjunga (8,586), Gasherbrum II (8,034), Broad Peak (8,051) Also failed summit attempt on Cho Oyu during winter
1983 Cho Oyu (8188)
1984 Hidden Peak (Gasherbrum I) (8,080), Gasherbrum II (8,034) At one time without returning to basecamp
1985 Annapurna (8,091), Dhaulagiri (8,167)
1986 Makalu (8,485), Lhotse (8,516)

Nanga Parbat

Rupal face of Nanga Parbat

Reinhold Messner took a total of five expeditions to Nanga Parbat. In 1970 and 1978 he reached the summit; in 1971, 1973 and 1977, he did not. In 1971 he was primarily looking for his brother.

Rupal Face 1970

In May and June 1970 Reinhold Messner took part in the Nanga Parbat South Face expedition led by Karl Herrligkoffer, the objective of which was to climb the as yet unclimbed Rupal Face, the highest rock face in the world. His brother, Günther, was also a member of the team. On the morning of 27 June, Reinhold Messner was of the view that the weather would deteriorate rapidly, and set off alone from the last high-altitude camp. Surprisingly his brother climbed after him and caught up to him before the summit. By late afternoon, both had reached the summit of the mountain and had to pitch an emergency bivouac shelter without tent, sleeping bags and stoves because darkness was closing in. The events that followed have been the subject of years of legal actions and disputes between former expedition members, and have still not been finally resolved. What is known is that Reinhold Messner descended the Diamir Face, thereby achieving the first crossing of Nanga Parbat (and second crossing of an eight-thousander after Mount Everest in 1963). He arrived in the valley six days later with severe frostbite, but survived. His brother, Günther, however died on the Diamir Face - according to Reinhold Messner on the same descent, during which they became further and further separated from each other. As a result, the time, place and exact cause of death is unknown. Messner claimed his brother had been swept away by an avalanche.

In the early years immediately after the expedition there were disputes and lawsuits between Reinhold Messner and the expedition leader, Karl-Maria Herrligkoffer. After a quarter-century of peace, the dispute flared up again in October 2001, when Reinhold Messner raised surprising allegations against the other members of the team for failing to come to their aid. The rest of the team consistently maintained that Reinhold Messner had told them of his idea for crossing the mountain before setting off for the summit. Messner himself asserts, however, that he made a spontaneous decision to descend the Diamir Face together with his brother for reasons of safety. A number of new books (Max von Kienlin, Hans Saler, Ralf-Peter Märtin, Reinhold Messner) stoked the dispute (with assumptions and personal attacks) and led to further court proceedings.

In June 2005 after an unusual heat wave on the mountain, the body of his brother was recovered on the Diamir Face, which is consistent with Messner's account of events.[10][11]

In 2008/2009 the drama was turned into a film called Nanga Parbat by Joseph Vilsmaier based on the memories of Reinhold Messner and without participation from the other former members of the expedition. The film was due to be shown from mid-January 2010 in cinemas, but cannot be considered as a full account of the events.[12]

Because of frostbite, especially on his feet (six toes were amputated), Reinhold Messner was not able to climb quite as well on rock after the 1970 expedition. He therefore turned his attention to higher mountains, where there was much more ice.[13]

Solo climb in 1978

After three unsuccessful expeditions, Reinhold Messner reached the summit of Nanga Parbat again via the Diamir Face on 9 August 1978. This was the first solo ascent of any eight-thousander. He used new routes both for the ascent and the descent.

Manaslu

In 1972, Messner succeeded in climbing Manaslu on, what was then, the totally unknown south face of the mountain, of which there were not even any pictures. From the last high-altitude camp, he climbed with Frank Jäger, who turned back before reaching the summit. Shortly after Messner reached the summit, the weather changed and heavy fog and snow descended. Initially Messner became lost on the way down, but later found his way back to the camp, where Horst Fankhauser and Andi Schlick were waiting for him and Jäger. Jäger did not return, although his cries were heard from the camp. Orientation had become too difficult. Fankhauser and Schlick began to search for him that evening, but lost their way and sought shelter at first in a snow cave. Messner himself was no longer in a position to help the search. The following day, only Horst Fankhauser returned. Andi Schlick had left the snow cave during the night and become lost. So the expedition had to mourn the loss of two climbers. Messner was later criticised for having let Franz Jäger go back down the mountain alone.[13]

Gasherbrum I

The ascent of Gasherbrum I saw for the first time a mountaineering expedition succeeding in conquering an eight-thousander using alpine style climbing. Until that point, all fourteen 8000 meter peaks had been summitted using the expedition style, though Hermann Buhl had earlier advocated "West Alpine Style" (similar to "capsule" style, with a smaller group relying on minimal fixed ropes). Together with Peter Habeler, Messner succeeded in making the second ascent of Gasherbrum I on 10 August 1975, becoming the first man ever to climb three eight-thousanders.

Messner reached the summit again in 1984, this time together with Hans Kammerlander. This was achieved as part of a double ascent where, for the first time two eight-thousander peaks (Gasherbrum I and II) were climbed without returning to base camp. Again, this was done in alpine style, i.e. without the pre-location of stores. [13]

Mount Everest

Mount Everest. In front: Nuptse. Right: Lhotse

On 8 May 1978, Reinhold Messner stood with Peter Habeler on the summit of Mount Everest; the first men ever to climb Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen. Prior to this ascent it was disputed whether this was possible at all. Messner and Habeler were members of an expedition led by Wolfgang Nairz along the southeast ridge to the summit. Also on this expedition was Reinhard Karl, the first German to reach the summit (with oxygen).

Two years later, on 20 August 1980, Messner again stood atop the highest mountain in the world. This time, too, the ascent was made without supplementary oxygen. For this solo climb he chose the northeast ridge to the summit, where he crossed above the North Col in the North Face to the Norton Couloir and became the first man to climb through this steep gorge to the summit. Messner decided spontaneously during the ascent to use this route to bypass the exposed northeast ridge. Prior to this solo ascent he had not set up a camp on the mountain.[13]

K2

K2 seen from Concordia

For 1979, Messner was planning to climb K2 on a new direct route through the South Face, which he called the "Magic Line". Headed by Messner, the small expedition consisted of six climbers: Italians Alessandro Gogna, Friedl Mutschlechner and Renato Casarotto; the Austrian, Robert Schauer; and Germans Michl Dacher, journalist, Jochen Hölzgen, and doctor, Ursula Grether, who was injured during the approach and had to be carried to Askole by Messner and Mutschlechner. Because of avalanche danger on the original route and time lost on the approach they decided on climbing via the Abruzzi Spur. The route was equipped with fixed ropes and high-altitude camps, but no hauling equipment (Hochträger) or bottled oxygen was used. On 12 July, Messner and Dacher reached the summit; then the weather deteriorated and attempts by other members of the party failed.[14][15]

Shishapangma

During his stay in Tibet as part of his Everest solo attempt, Messner had the opportunity to explore Shishapangma. A year later, Messner, with Friedel Mutschlechner, Oswald Oelz and Gerd Baur, set base camp on the north side of the only eight-thousander which is entirely within Chinese territory. On 28 May Messner and Mutschlechner reached the summit in very bad weather; part of the climb involving ski mountaineering.[13][15][16]

Kangchenjunga

In 1982, Messner wanted to become the first climber ever to scale three eight-thousanders in one year. He was planning on climbing Kangchenjunga first, before tackling Gasherbrum II and the Broad Peak.

Messner had chosen a new variation of the route up the North Face. Because there was still a lot of snow at the time of the expedition, Messner and Mutschlechner made very slow progress. In addition, the sheer difficulty of the climb forced the two mountaineers to use fixed ropes. Finally, on 6 May, Messner, Mutschlechner and Ang Dorje stood on the summit. There, Mutschlechner suffered frostbite to his hands, and later to his feet as well. Whilst bivouacking during the descent, the tent tore away from Mutschlechner and Messner, and Messner also fell ill. He was suffering from an amoebic abscess in the liver, making him very weak. In the end he only made it back to base camp with Mutschlechner's help.[13]

Gasherbrum II

After his ascent of Kangchenjunga, Mutschlechner flew back to Europe because his frostbite had to be treated and Messner needed rest. So the three mountains could not be climbed as planned. Messner was cured of his amoebic abscess in the liver and then travelled to Gasherbrum II, but could not use the new routes as planned. In any case his climbing partners, Sher Khan and Nazir Sabir, would not have been strong enough. Nevertheless, all three reached the summit on 24 July in a storm. During the ascent Messner discovered the body of a previously missing Austrian mountaineer, whom he buried two years later at the G I - G II crossing.[13]

Broad Peak

Broad Peak was the third eight-thousander scaled by Messner in 1982. At the time, he was the only person with a permit to climb this mountain, but he came across Jerzy Kukuczka and Wojciech Kurtyka, who had permits to climb K2 but used its geographic proximity to climb Broad Peak illegally. In early descriptions of the ascent, Messner omitted to mention this encounter but he referred to it several years later. On 2 August Messner was reunited with Nazir Sabir and Khan again on the summit. The three mountaineers had decamped and made for Broad Peak immediately after their ascent of Gasherbrum II. The climb was carried out with a variation from the normal route at the start.[13]

Cho Oyu

In the winter of 1982/1983, Messner attempted the first winter ascent of Cho Oyu. He reached an altitude of about 7,500 metres, when great masses of snow forced him to turn back. This expedition was his first with Hans Kammerlander. A few months later, on 5 May, he reached the summit via a partially new route together with Kammerlander and Michl Dacher.[13]

Annapurna

In 1985, Messner topped out on Annapurna. Using a new route on the northwest face, he reached the summit with Kammerlander on 24 April. Also on the expedition were Reinhard Patscheider, Reinhard Schiestl and Swami Prem Darshano, who did not reach the top. Even during Messner and Kammerlander's ascent the weather was not good and they had to be assisted by the other three during the descent due to heavy snowfall.[13]

Dhaulagiri

Messner's attempt on the summit in 1977 fails on Dhaulagiri's South Face

Messner had already attempted Dhaulagiri in 1977 and 1984, but failed. In 1985 he finally made it. He climbed with Kammerlander up the normal route along the northeast ridge. After only 3 days of climbing they stood on the top in a heavy storm on 15 May.[13]

Makalu

Messner tried four times to climb Makalu. He failed in 1974 and 1981 on the South Face of the south-east ridge. In winter 1985/1986 he attempted the first winter ascent of Makalu via the normal route. Even this venture did not succeed.[13] Not until February 2009, was the Makalu successfully climbed in winter by Denis Urubko and Simone Moro.

In 1986 Messner returned and succeeded in reaching the top using the normal route with Kammerlander and Mutschlechner. Although they had turned back twice during this expedition, they made the summit on the third attempt on 26 September. During this expedition Messner witnessed the death of Marcel Rüedi, for whom the Makalu was his 9th eight-thousander. Rüedi was on the way back from the summit and was seen by Messner and the other climbers on the descent. Although he was making slow progress, he appeared to be safe. The tea for his reception had already boiled when Rüedi disappeared behind a snow ridge and did not reappear. He was found dead a short time later.[13]

Lhotse

Messner climbed his last eight-thousander, Lhotse, on 16 October 1986 together with Hans Kammerlander, using the normal route. Both climbers had to contend with a strong wind in the summit area. To reach the summit that year and before winter broke, they took a direct helicopter flight from the Makalu base camp to the Lhotse base camp.

Thus Messner became the first person to climb all eight-thousanders, before Jerzy Kukuczka. Since this ascent, Messner has never climbed another eight-thousander.[13] In 1989 Messner led a European expedition to the South Face of the mountain. The aim of the expedition was to forge a path up the as-yet unclimbed face. Messner himself did not want to climb any more. The expedition was unsuccessful.[17]

Other expeditions after 1970

Reinhold Messner
at the Bozen Bacon Festival, May 2004

The Messner Mountain Museum

In 2003 Messner started work on a project for a mountaineering museum.[19] On 11 June 2006 the Messner Mountain Museum (MMM) opened, a museum that unites the stories of the growth and decline of mountains, culture in the Himalayan region and the history of South Tyrol within one museum.

Plan view of the Messner Mountain Museum at Firmian

The MMM consists of the main museum at Sigmundskron Castle, which majors on the relationship between man and mountain, and four branches with different themes:

  • Juval Castle in the Burggrafenamt looks at mystical mountains, such as Mount Kailash or Ayers Rock and their religious significance.
  • The MMM on the Monte Rite (2181 metres high) is dedicated to the subject of rocks, particularly in the Dolomites. Here, the history of the formation of the Dolomites is explained. It is housed in an old fort.
  • The fourth MMM is located in Sulden on the Ortler. Here, everything revolves around the theme of ice. It deals with the history of mountaineering on ice and the great glaciers of the world. Next to the MMM is the "Yak und Yeti" inn.
  • The fifth MMM is still in development. It is due to be opened in the spring of 2011 at Bruneck Castle in the South Tyrol. In addition to the presentation of various hill tribes, such as Sherpas, Tibetans and Hunza, each year guest speakers from mountainous areas of the world will talk about their lives in the castle.[20]

In Media

References

  1. ^ Reinhold Messner: On top of the world at www.independent.co.uk. Accessed on 7 Oct 2010.
  2. ^ Extrem Europa, Live, Vienna, No. 3 (01/02/2008), p. 16
  3. ^ a b Alexander, Caroline (November, 2006). "Murdering the Impossible". National Geographic. http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0611/feature1/index.html. 
  4. ^ Rhoads, Christopher (December 11, 2003). "The controversy surrounding Reinhold Messner". The Wall Street Journal. http://www.backcountry.net/arch/pct/0312/msg00095.html. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  5. ^ Connolly, Kate (January 19, 2010). "Nanga Parbat film restarts row over Messner brothers' fatal climb". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jan/19/nanga-parbat-film-controversy. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b Krakauer 153
  7. ^ Krakauer 61
  8. ^ http://reinhold-messner.de/popup_1_1.html
  9. ^ Messner, Reinhold (1979). Aufbruch ins Abenteuer. Der berühmteste Alpinist der Welt erzählt. Bergisch Gladbach, p. 122 - 133.
  10. ^ http://outsideonline.com/outside/features/200601/reinhold-gunther-messner-1.htm
  11. ^ http://www.outdoorsmagic.com/outdoors-news/nanga-parbat-body-ends-messner-controversy/3451.html
  12. ^ Website for the cinema film, NANGA PARBAT
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Messner, Reinhold (2002). Überlebt – Alle 14 Achttausender mit Chronik BLV, Munich.
  14. ^ Messner, Reinhold/Gogna, Alessandro: K2 – Berg der Berge. BLV, Munich 1980.
  15. ^ a b Messner, Reinhold: Alle meine Gipfel. Herbig, Munich 1983.
  16. ^ Entry in AAJ Online
  17. ^ Kammerlander, Hans: Bergsüchtig. Piper, Munich 2001, 6th ed. (p.81ff)
  18. ^ History of 7 Summits project – who was first?
  19. ^ Thomas Kunze: Messners 15. Achttausender, Berliner Zeitung, 8 July 2006
  20. ^ Homepage des MMM

Selected bibliography (English translations)

  • Messner, Reinhold (1998). Free Spirit: A Climber's Life. Seattle, WA, USA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-573-5. 
  • Messner, Reinhold (1998). The Crystal Horizon: Everest - The First Solo Ascent. Seattle, WA, USA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-574-3. 
  • Messner, Reinhold (1999). All Fourteen 8,000ers. Seattle, WA, USA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-660-X. 
  • Messner, Reinhold (2000). My Quest for the Yeti: Confronting the Himalayas' Deepest Mystery. New York, NY, USA: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312203948. 
  • Messner, Reinhold (2001). The Big Walls: From the North Face of the Eiger to the South Face of Dhaulagiri. Seattle, WA, USA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-844-0. 
  • Messner, Reinhold; trans. by Tim Carruthers (2002). The Second Death of George Mallory: The Enigma and Spirit of Mount Everest. New York, NY, USA: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312270755. 
  • Messner, Reinhold (2003). The Naked Mountain. Seattle, WA, USA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-959-5. 

Sources

External links

Interviews

  • Gaia Symphony Documentary series (Japanese production).

See also


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Reinhold Messner — (2009) Reinhold Andreas Messner (* 17. September 1944 in Brixen) ist ein Extrembergsteiger, Abenteurer, Buch und Filmautor (u. a. über seine Expeditionen) aus Südtirol, Italien …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Reinhold Messner — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Reinhold Messner en octubre de 2009 Reinhold Messner (17 de septiembre de 1944, Villnöß Funes, Tirol del Sur) es un alpinista italiano de lengua alemana que se convirtió en …   Wikipedia Español

  • Reinhold Messner — (17 de septiembre de 1944, Villnöss Funes, Tirol Sur) es un alpinista italiano que se convirtió en la primera persona del mundo en escalar las 14 cumbres de más de 8.000 metros, entre otras hazañas. Messner fue la primera persona en ascender el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Reinhold Messner — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Messner. Reinhold Messner en 2009 Reinhold Messner, né le 17 septembre 1944 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • The Unauthorized Biography of Reinhold Messner — Studio album by Ben Folds Five Released …   Wikipedia

  • Reinhold Andreas Messner — Reinhold Messner auf dem Bozener Speckfest, Mai 2004 Reinhold Andreas Messner (* 17. September 1944 in Brixen) ist ein Extrembergsteiger, Abenteurer, Buch und Filmautor (u. a. über seine Expeditionen) und Politiker aus Südtirol …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Messner: Der Grenzgänger —   Kaum jemand wird so mit dem Alpinismus verbunden wie der Südtiroler Bergsteiger Reinhold Messner. Messner, der als erster Mensch alle 14 höchsten Berge der Erde bestieg, tat dies vor allem, um dadurch die Grenzen seiner eigenen… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Messner — is a surname. It is an occupational name of Austro Bavarian origin, in which dialect it means sacristan/sexton. People with the name Messner include: Carrie Messner (born 1977), American long distance runner Franz Josef Messner (1896 1945),… …   Wikipedia

  • Messner — steht für: Küster (Kirche), Beruf in der Kirche Messner bzw. Meßner ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Angelika Messner (* 1969), österreichische Librettistin, Dramaturgin und Regisseurin Claudia Messner (* 1962), österreichische… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Reinhold — oder Reinold ist ein männlicher Vorname, der auch als Familienname vorkommt. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Namenstag 3 Bekannte Namensträger 3.1 …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.