- Microbial intelligence
Microbial intelligence (popularly known as bacterial intelligence) is the intelligence shown by microorganisms. The concept encompasses complex adaptive behaviour shown by single cells, and altruistic and/or cooperative behavior in populations of like or unlike cells mediated by chemical signalling that induces physiological or behavioral changes in cells and influences colony structures.
Complex cells, like protozoa or algae, show remarkable abilities to organise themselves in changing circumstances . Shell-building by amoebae, reveals complex discrimination and manipulative skills that are ordinarily thought to occur only in multicellular organisms.
Even bacteria, which show primitive behavior as isolated cells, can display more sophisticated behavior as a population. These behaviors occur in single species populations, or mixed species populations. Examples are colonies of Myxobacteria, quorum sensing, and biofilms.
It has been suggested that a bacterial colony loosely mimics a biological neural network. The bacteria can take inputs in form of chemical signals, process them and then produce output chemicals to signal other bacteria in the colony.
The mechanisms that enable single celled organisms to coordinate in populations presumably carried over in those lines that evolved multicellularity, and were co-opted as mechanisms to coordinate multicellular organisms.
Examples of microbial intelligence
- The formation of biofilms requires joint decision by the whole colony.
- Under nutritional stress bacterial colonies can organise themselves in such a way so as to maximise nutrient availability.
- Bacteria reorganise themselves under antibiotic stress.
- Bacteria can swap genes (such as genes coding antibiotic resistance) between members of mixed species colonies.
- Individual cells of myxobacteria and cellular slime moulds coordinate to produce complex structures or move as multicellular entities.
- Populations of bacteria use quorum sensing to judge their own densities and change their behaviors accordingly. This occurs in the formation of biofilms, infectious disease processes, and the light organs of bobtail squid.
- It's known that for any bacterium to enter a host's cell, the cell must display receptors to which bacteria can adhere and be able to enter the cell. Some strains of E. coli are able to internalize themselves into a host's cell even without the presence of specific receptors as they bring their own receptor to which they then attach and enter the cell.
- Under rough circumstances, some bacteria transform into endospores to resist heat and dehydration.
- A huge array of microorganisms have the ability to overcome being recognized by the immune system as they change their surface antigens so that any defense mechanisms directed against previously present antigens are now useless with the newly expressed ones.
- Swarm intelligence
- Collective intelligence
- Synthetic biology
- Genetic engineering
- Eshel Ben-Jacob (1998). Bacterial wisdom, Godel's theorem and creative genomic webs. http://star.tau.ac.il/~eshel/list.html.
- Brian J. Ford (2004). Are cells ingenious?. http://www.brianjford.com/04-12-ingens.pdf.
- Eshel Ben-Jacob, I. Becker, Y. Shapira (2004). Bacterial Linguistic Communication and Social Intelligence. http://star.tau.ac.il/~eshel/bacterial_linguistic.html.
- Brian J. Ford (2006). Revealing the ingenuity of the living cell. http://www.brianjford.com/06-07-ingenious-biologist.pdf.
- Anthea Lipsett (2006). Not so clever, are you?. http://www.brianjford.com/06-09.HTM.
- Brian J. Ford (2010). Secret Intelligence of the Living Cell. http://brianjford.com/a-10-NSc-single_cell.pdf.
- BT ponders bacterial intelligence
- Eshel Ben-Jacob's Homepage
- Realizing Social Intelligence of Bacteria
- Intelligent Bacteria?
- Microbial Intelligence Blog
- Making a conscious decision making computer out of bacteria to overcome limitations of Turing theorem
Swarming Swarm algorithms Biological swarming
- Agent-based model in biology
- Bait ball
- Collective animal behavior
- Feeding frenzy
- Herd behavior
- Mixed-species foraging flock
- Mobbing behavior
- Pack hunter
- Patterns of self-organization in ants
- Sardine run
- Shoaling and schooling
- Sort sol
- Swarming behaviour
- Swarming (honey bee)
- Swarming motility
Animal migration Swarm robotics Related topics
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Microbial loop — The microbial loop describes a trophic pathway in the marine microbial food web where dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is returned to higher trophic levels via the incorporation into bacterial biomass, and coupled with the classic food chain formed … Wikipedia
Microbial ecology — is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the… … Wikipedia
Microbial metabolism — is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and reproduce. Microbes use many different types of metabolic strategies and species can often be differentiated from each other based on metabolic… … Wikipedia
Microbial mat — A microbial mat is a multi layered sheet of micro organisms, mainly bacteria and archaea. Microbial mats grow at interfaces between different types of material, mostly on submerged or moist surfaces but a few survive in deserts. They colonize… … Wikipedia
Microbial cooperation — Microorganisms engage in a wide variety of social interactions, including cooperation. A cooperative behavior is one that benefits an individual (the recipient) other than the one performing the behavior (the actor). This article outlines the… … Wikipedia
Microbial food web — The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates). In aquatic environments, microbes… … Wikipedia
Collective intelligence — Types of collective intelligence Collective intelligence is a shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making in bacteria, animals, humans and computer… … Wikipedia
Collaborative intelligence — is a term used in several disciplines, and has several different meanings. In a business setting, it can describe the result of accessing a network of people. It is also used to denote non anonymous heterogeneity in multi agent problem solving… … Wikipedia
National Center for Medical Intelligence — The National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI) at Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA formerly the Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC) is an agency within the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) of the United States Department of Defense… … Wikipedia
Mutualism (biology) — Hummingbird Hawkmoth drinking from Dianthus. Pollination is a classic example of mutualism. Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species biologically interact in a relationship in which each individual derives a fitness benefit (i.e.,… … Wikipedia