Scissors


Scissors

Scissors are hand operated cutting instruments consisting of a pair of metal blades connected in such a way that the blades meet and cut materials placed between them when the handles are brought together. They are used for cutting various thin materials, for example paper, cardboard, metal foil, thin plastic, cloth, rope and wire. Scissors can also be used to cut hair and food.

Scissors and shears exist in a wide variety of forms depending on their intended uses. Children's scissors, used only on paper, have dull blades to ensure safety. Scissors used to cut hair or fabric must be much sharper. The largest shears used to cut metal or to trim shrubs must have very strong blades.

Specialized scissors include sewing scissors, which often have one sharp point and one blunt point for intricate cutting of fabric, and nail scissors, which have curved blades for cutting fingernails and toenails.

Special kinds of shears include pinking shears, which have notched blades that cut cloth to give it a wavy edge, and thinning shears, which have teeth that thin hair rather than trim it.

Terminology

The noun "scissors" is treated as a plural noun, and therefore takes a plural verb ("these scissors are"). Alternatively, people refer to this tool as "a pair of scissors", in which case it (a pair) is singular and therefore takes a singular verb ("this pair of scissors is"). (In theory each of the two blades of the tool is a "scissor" in its own right, although in practice such usage is seldom heard.)

The word shears is used to describe larger instruments of similar kind. As a general rule:
*scissors have blades less than 6 in (15 cm) long and usually have handles with finger holes of the same size.
*shears have blades longer than 6 in (15 cm) and often have one small handle with a hole that fits the thumb and one large handle with a hole that will fit two or more fingers.

History

It is most likely that scissors were invented in 1500 BC in ancient Egypt. [ [http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blscissors.htm Who Invented Scissors ] ] T

The earliest known scissors appeared in the Middle East 3,000 or 4,000 years ago. These were of the 'spring scissor' type comprising two bronze blades connected at the handles by a thin, curved strip of bronze. This strip served to bring the blades together when squeezed and to pull them apart when released.
Cross-bladed scissors were invented by the Romans around AD 100. Pivoted scissors of bronze or iron, in which the blades were connected at a point between the tips and the handles, were used in ancient Rome, China, Japan, and Korea. Spring scissors continued to be used in Europe until the sixteenth century and the idea is still used in almost all modern scissors,

Early manufacture

During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, spring scissors were made by heating a bar of iron or steel, then flattening and shaping its ends into blades on an anvil. The center of the bar was heated, bent to form the spring, then cooled and reheated to make it flexible.

Pivoted scissors were not manufactured in large numbers until 1761, when Robert Hinchliffe produced the first pair of modern-day scissors made of hardened and polished cast steel. He lived in Cheney Square, London and was reputed to be the first person who put out a signboard proclaiming himself "fine scissor manufacturer". [http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~exy1/fh_material/18C_sheffield/ch4.txt]

During the nineteenth century, scissors were hand-forged with elaborately decorated handles. They were made by hammering steel on indented surfaces known as bosses to form the blades. The rings in the handles, known as bows, were made by punching a hole in the steel and enlarging it with the pointed end of an anvil.

In a part of Sweden (now in Finland) an ironworks was started 1649 in the hamlet "Fiskars" between Helsinki and Turku. In 1830 a new owner started the first cutlery works in Finland, making, among other items, scissors with the trade mark Fiskars. Fiskars Corporation introduced new methods in the manufacturing of scissors in 1967. [http://www.fiskars.fi/pdf/Fiskars_history_eng.pdf]

Description and operation

A pair of scissors consists of two pivoted blades. Most types of scissors are not particularly sharp; it is primarily the shearing between the two blades which cuts. Children's scissors are even less sharp, and the blades are often protected with plastic.Mechanically, scissors are a first-class, double-lever with the pivot acting as the fulcrum. For cutting thick or heavy material, the mechanical advantage of a lever can be exploited by placing the material to be cut as close to the fulcrum as possible. For example, if the applied force (i.e., the hand) is twice as far away from the fulcrum as the cutting location (e.g., piece of paper), the force at the cutting location is twice that of the applied force at the handles. Scissors cut material by applying a local shear stress at the cutting location which exceeds the material's shear strength.

Specialized scissors, like bolt cutters exploit leverage by having a long handle but placing the material to be cut close to the fulcrum.

Kitchen scissors

Kitchen scissors, also known as "kitchen shears", are similar to common scissors. The main difference is the location of the fulcrum. Kitchen scissors have the fulcrum located farther from the handles to provide more leverage and thus more cutting power. High quality kitchen scissors can easily cut through the breastbone of a chicken.Fact|date=February 2008

'Handed' scissors

Most scissors are best suited to use with the right hand, but "left-handed" scissors are designed for use by the left. Left-handed scissors have handles which are comfortable to hold in the left hand. Because scissors have overlapping blades, they are not symmetric. This asymmetry is true regardless of the orientation and the shape of the handles: the blade that is on top always forms the same diagonal regardless of orientation. Human hands are also asymmetric and when closing the thumb and fingers do not close vertically, but have a lateral component to the motion. Specifically, the thumb pushes out and fingers pull inwards. For right-handed scissors held in the right hand, the thumb blade is closer to the body so that the natural tendency of the right hand is to force the cutting blades together. Conversely, if right-handed scissors are held in the left hand, the natural tendency of the left hand would be to force the cutting blades laterally apart. Furthermore, with right-handed scissors held by the right-hand, the shearing edge is visible, but when used with the left hand the cutting edge of the scissors is behind the top blade, and one cannot see what is being cut.

Some scissors are marketed as ambidextrous. ) so that the back of the blades become the new cutting edges [http://www.sinistershop.com/c_scissors.htm] . Patents (US patent|3978584) have been awarded for true ambidextrous scissors.

Using scissors designed for the wrong hand is difficult for most people, even for left-handers who have become accustomed to using the more readily available right-handed scissors. They have to unnaturally force the blades together to cut and stretch their necks over the top blade to see what is being cut. This unnatural motion can also cause marks on the hand, sores, and eventually calluses.

hears

Although often used interchangeably with "scissors," the term "shears" is reserved by those in the industry for scissors longer than 15 cm. [ [http://www.ariuseickert.com/ScissorTechnicalArticles/DefinitionOfAScissorAndShear.htm Arius Eickert Differences Between A Scissor And Shear Technical Article ] ] Others assert scissors are symmetric whereas shears distinguish between the thumb hole and the finger hole. [http://www.canadacutlery.com/product/facts_on_scissors.pdf] Like scissors, shears combine slightly offset jaws to cut material through physical shear, and combine this with levers to apply a considerable shear force. Shears are usually intended for cutting much heavier material than scissors.

pecialised scissors

There are several specialised scissors and shears used for different purposes. Some of these are:

*Pinking shears are scissors with a serrated cutting edge for cutting cloth so that the fabric does not fray.
*Tin snips are scissors for cutting through sheet metal like tin plate, or galvanised iron.
*Pruning shears (secateurs) and loppers are gardening scissors for cutting through branches of trees and shrubs.
*Trauma shears, or "tuff cuts", are robust scissors used in emergency medical response and rescue.
* Trimming scissors are used for thinning thick hair to avoid a bushy look
* Grass and hedge shears are used for trimming grass and hedges.
* Jaws of Life (see Hydraulic rescue tools) for cutting heavy sheet metal in a rescue response
* Throatless shears are used for cutting complex shapes in sheet metal
* Wool shears are used for collecting wool from an animal's fleece
* Poultry shears are to cut poultry.
* Hair shears - for cutting hair as a cosmetologist or hairdresser, or for pet grooming.

See also

*Bolt cutters cut through heavy wire and bolts.
*Nippers cut small pieces out of tile.
*Hemostat resembles a pair of scissors but has a locking clamp instead of a blade; it is used in surgery and does not cut at all.
*Pliers used for holding and crimping metal or wire.

Notes

External link

* [http://www.wikisurgery.com/index.php?title=Scissors_04_Introduction Surgical scissors] on WikiSurgery.
* [http://www.medical-supplies-equipment-company.com/lab-equipment-supplies/Product/PPF/Param/1172_0_1_0/Products.asp Dissecting & Surgical Scissors] Dissecting & Surgical Scissors.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • scissors — is treated as a plural noun in its basic meaning (The scissors are in the drawer), but has a singular use in certain sports, where it is usually elliptical for a longer phrase such as scissors movement or scissors pass (The ordinary scissors is… …   Modern English usage

  • Scissors — Scis sors, n. pl. [OE. sisoures, OF. cisoires (cf. F. ciseaux), probably fr. LL. cisorium a cutting instrument, fr. L. caedere to cut. Cf. {Chisel}, {Concise}. The modern spelling is due to a mistaken derivation from L. scissor one who cleaves or …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Scissors — Scissors, TX U.S. Census Designated Place in Texas Population (2000): 2805 Housing Units (2000): 673 Land area (2000): 1.707375 sq. miles (4.422082 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.707375 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Scissors, TX — U.S. Census Designated Place in Texas Population (2000): 2805 Housing Units (2000): 673 Land area (2000): 1.707375 sq. miles (4.422082 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.707375 sq. miles (4.422082 …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • scissors — ► PLURAL NOUN 1) (also a pair of scissors) an instrument used for cutting cloth and paper, consisting of two crossing blades pivoted in the middle and operated by thumb and fingers inserted in rings at each end. 2) (also scissor) (before another… …   English terms dictionary

  • scissors — [siz′ərz] n. [ME sisoures < OFr cisoires < LL cisoria, pl. of cisorium, cutting tool < L caedere, to cut: E sp. altered by assoc. with L scissor, one who cuts < scissus, pp. of scindere, to cut] 1. [also with pl. v.] a cutting… …   English World dictionary

  • scissors — late 14c., sisoures, from O.Fr. cisoires (pl.) shears, from V.L. *cisoria (pl.) cutting instrument, from *cisus (in compounds such as L. excisus, pp. of excidere to cut out ), ultimately from L. caedere to cut (see CIDE (Cf. cide)). Spelling with …   Etymology dictionary

  • scissors — n. 1) to use scissors 2) to sharpen scissors 3) bandage (AE); manicure; nail scissors 4) a pair of scissors * * * [ sɪzəz] manicure nail scissors a pair of scissors to sharpen scissors to use scissors …   Combinatory dictionary

  • scissors —    As with *knives and other sharp objects, tradition dictates that anyone who receives scissors as a present must give the donor a coin, otherwise the gift will cut the love between them. The earliest known references (1507 and 1611) relate to… …   A Dictionary of English folklore

  • scissors — /siz euhrz/, n. 1. (used with a sing. or pl. v.) a cutting instrument for paper, cloth, etc., consisting of two blades, each having a ring shaped handle, that are so pivoted together that their sharp edges work one against the other (often used… …   Universalium


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